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Publications (14)44.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the incidence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Saudi Arabian children. This multicenter, prospective, clinical surveillance study included children under 5years of age, residents of one of the seven study health areas, who were brought to a study hospital with suspicion of IPD. Bacterial isolates from sterile site samples, collected less than 24h after hospital visit/admission, were identified, serotyped, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Between June 2007 and January 2009, 631 episodes of suspected IPD were recorded, and 623 were included in the analysis. One child (0.2%) had previously received one dose of a pneumococcal vaccine. Forty-seven episodes were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and three for Haemophilus influenzae. The incidence of confirmed IPD cases was estimated to be 2.5-21.6 per 100,000 children (<5years). Among the 46 S. pneumoniae isolates serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the most common serotypes were 5 and 23F (20% each), 6B (17%), and 1 and 14 (11% each). Sixty-three percent of isolates were multidrug-resistant. Vaccination of Saudi Arabian children with expanded-coverage conjugate pneumococcal vaccines containing serotypes 1 and 5 could have a substantial impact to prevent IPD in this population.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Acute otitis media (AOM) not only affects childhood quality of life (QoL), but can also affect parental QoL. We adapted a previously published questionnaire on the effect of childhood recurrent ear, nose and throat infections on parental QoL for use with AOM and used it in an observational, multicentre, prospective study of children with AOM. Methods: The AOM-specific parental QoL questionnaire grouped 15 items into emotional, daily disturbance, total and overall parental QoL impact scores. The questionnaire was assessed using item-convergent and item-discriminant validity criteria and internal consistency reliability; and then used with parents of children aged <6 years diagnosed with AOM at 73 practices in Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Bivariate analyses explored the differences in mean parental QoL impact scores by various characteristics. Results: The questionnaire demonstrated good to excellent internal consistency reliability for the various components (Cronbach's α 0.82-0.97). There were 1419 AOM episodes among 5882 healthy children over 1 year, of which 1063 episodes (74.9 %) among 852 children had a questionnaire. Parents reported interrupted sleep (68.4 %), worry (51.0 %), altered daily schedule (44.6 %) and less leisure time (41.5 %) with a score ≥3 (1 = least to 5 = most impact). Factors that adversely affected parental QoL included: increased parental perception of AOM severity, younger child age and multiple AOM episodes. Conclusions: The AOM-specific parental QoL questionnaire demonstrated good performance across five European countries. Parental QoL was affected by childhood AOM proportionally to severity, number of episodes and younger child age.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical Drug Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010–2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3–59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥2 PCV7 doses or ≥1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9.7%), 6B (9.7%), and 14 (9.7%) pre-PCV7 introduction, and 19F (27.6%), 14 (8.0%), and 35B (8.0%) post-PCV7 introduction. Following PCV7 introduction, a change in the distribution of AOM episodes caused by H. influenzae and pneumococcal serotypes included in PCV7 was observed in Costa Rican children. Pneumococcal vaccines impact should be further evaluated following broader vaccination coverage.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background Information regarding acute otitis media (AOM) aetiology is important for developing effective vaccines. Here, bacterial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AOM were determined in young Saudi children. Methods Children aged 3–60 months with a new episode of AOM, who had not received antibiotics or had received antibiotics for 48–72 h but remained symptomatic, were enrolled in this prospective, observational, epidemiological study in Riyadh. Middle ear fluid (MEF) samples were collected by tympanocentesis or from spontaneous otorrhea, and tested for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Moraxella catarrhalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the identified pathogens was assessed using E-tests. Results Between June 2009 and May 2011, 66 children were enrolled. S. pneumoniae was detected in 6 episodes and non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) in 8 episodes. Moreover, Staphylococcus aureus, which is an uncommon cause of AOM, was detected in 17 episodes. Pneumococcal serotypes were 7F (n = 2), 23F (n = 2), 19F (n = 1) and 15F (n = 1). Susceptibility to cefotaxime was observed in all pneumococcal and H. influenzae isolates, to cefuroxime in 4/6 pneumococcal and 8/8 H. influenzae isolates, and to penicillin in 5/6 pneumococcal isolates. Conclusions S. pneumoniae and NTHi were major bacterial contributors for AOM in Saudi children.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
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    ABSTRACT: Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) are considered major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) worldwide, but data from Asia on primary causes of AOM are limited. This tympanocentesis-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study assessed bacterial etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AOM in Thailand. Methods Children 3 to 59 months presenting with AOM (< 72 hours of onset) who had not received prescribed antibiotics, or subjects who received prescribed antibiotics but remained symptomatic after 48–72 hours (treatment failures), were eligible. Study visits were conducted from April 2008 to August 2009. Bacteria were identified from middle ear fluid collected by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling (< 20% of cases). S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae serotypes were determined and antimicrobial resistance was also assessed. Results Of the 123 enrolled children, 112 were included in analysis and 48% of the 118 samples were positive for S. pneumoniae (23% (27/118)), H. influenzae (18% (21/118)), Moraxella catarrhalis (6% (7/118)) or Streptococcus pyogenes (3% (4/118)). The most common pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (26%) and 14 (22%). The majority of H. influenzae isolates were encapsulated (18/21), with 13 type b (Hib) representing 62% of all H. influenzae isolate or 11% of all samples (13/118), and there were only 3 non-typeable isolates. Despite high antibiotic resistance, amoxicillin/clavulanate susceptibility was high. No pneumococcal vaccine use was reported. Conclusions S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, both frequently antibiotic resistant, were leading causes of bacterial AOM and there was an unexpectedly high burden of Hib in this population unvaccinated by any Hib conjugate vaccine. Conjugate vaccines effective against pneumococcus and H. influenzae could potentially reduce the burden of AOM in this population.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify the bacterial etiology of empyema thoracis or parapneumonic pleural effusions in Thai children, with a focus on pneumococcus. This hospital-based, descriptive study included children aged < or = 16 years, diagnosed with empyema thoracis or parapneumonic pleural effusion, from whom a pleural fluid (PF) sample was taken between January 2008 and November 2009. PF and blood samples were cultured and PF samples were also tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess whether evidence of an infection might be identified among culture-negative samples. Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae-positive samples was performed by molecular techniques and Quellung reaction. In this study, 29 children with empyema thoracis and 42 children with parapneumonic pleural effusion were enrolled. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were cultured in 13/71 samples at local or central laboratories; the most common bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (8 children) and S. pneumoniae (2 children). Molecular techniques detected one or more targeted respiratory pathogens in 18/71 PF samples. S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were identified by PCR in 13 and 6 children, respectively; PCR for S. aureus was not performed. The pneumococcal serotypes identified were 1, 3, 5, 6A/B, 9A/V, 14, 15A, 19F and 23A. This study shows that among Thai children with empyema thoracis and parapneumonic pleural effusions, S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were the most common pathogens identified by culture and PCR, respectively. These findings confirmed that molecular techniques are more sensitive for identification of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae and enhance detection of important bacterial causes of empyema.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To prospectively identify the bacterial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of problematic (recurrent and treatment failure) acute otitis media in Spanish children several years after the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Methods: Tympanocentesis or careful sampling of spontaneous otorrhoea was performed on children aged 3 to <36 months with recurrent acute otitis media, acute otitis media treatment failure or unresolved acute otitis media. Results: 105 acute otitis media episodes (77 sampled by tympanocentesis, 28 otorrhoea samples) were evaluated: 46 recurrent, 35 treatment failures, 24 unresolved acute otitis media. 74 episodes (70.4%) had at least one bacterium identified on culture: Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in 21 episodes, Haemophilus influenzae (all non-typeable) in 44, Streptococcus pyogenes in 2, Moraxella catarrhalis in 2. No statistically significant difference in bacterial aetiology by episode type was detected. Non-typeable H. influenzae was the most commonly isolated pathogen in all acute otitis media types and in all age sub-groups. Forty percent of S. pneumoniae isolates were multi-drug resistant. Pneumococcal serotype 19A was the most frequently identified serotype (7/21 episodes). Multi-drug resistance was found in 56% of 19A isolates. Of non-typeable H. influenzae isolates, 15% were ampicillin resistant and 13% were amoxicillin/clavulanate resistant. S. pneumoniae and non-typeable H. influenzae DNA were each detected in 57% of samples culture negative for these pathogens, including 12 co-infections. Conclusion: Combining culture and polymerase chain reaction results, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae may be implicated in 70% and 43% of clinically problematic bacterial acute otitis media episodes, respectively. The impact of new vaccines to prevent both S. pneumoniae and non-typeable H. influenzae acute otitis media may be substantial in this population and is worth investigating.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed blood and pleural fluid samples from 89 Taiwanese children with empyema thoracis and parapneumonic pleural effusion. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the major pathogen, identified in 12 children by bacterial culture and 53 children by molecular techniques, and serotype 19A was the dominant serotype. Also noteworthy was the detection of pneumococcal serotype 1, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in these children.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Acute Otitis Media (AOM) is an important and common disease of childhood. Bacteria isolated from cases of clinically problematic AOM in German children were identified and characterized. Methods: In a prospective non-interventional study in German children between 3 months and less than 60 months of age with Ear, Nose and Throat Specialist -confirmed AOM, middle ear fluid was obtained by tympanocentesis (when clinically indicated) or by careful sampling of otorrhea through/at an existing perforation. Results: In 100 children with severe AOM, Haemophilus influenzae was identified in 21% (18/21, 85.7% were non-typeable [NTHi]), Streptococcus pneumoniae in 10%, S. pyogenes in 13% and Moraxella catarrhalis in 1%. H. influenzae was the most frequently identified pathogen in children from 12 months of age. H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were equally prevalent in children aged 3-11 months, but S. pyogenes was most frequently isolated in this age group. NTHi AOM disease appeared prevalent in all ages. Conclusions: NTHi, S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes are implicated as important causes of complicated AOM in children in Germany. NTHi disease appears prevalent in all ages. The impact of vaccination to prevent NTHi and S. pneumoniae AOM may be substantial in this population and is worth investigating.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination among young children in Belgium. Prospective case-control study. Random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals, February 2008 to June 2010. 215 children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 276 age and hospital matched controls. All children were of an eligible age to have received rotavirus vaccination (that is, born after 1 October 2006 and aged ≥ 14 weeks). Vaccination status of children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and matched controls. 99 children (48%) admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis and 244 (91%) controls had received at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine (P<0.001). The monovalent rotavirus vaccine accounted for 92% (n=594) of all rotavirus vaccine doses. With hospital admission as the outcome, the unadjusted effectiveness of two doses of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine was 90% (95% confidence interval 81% to 95%) overall, 91% (75% to 97%) in children aged 3-11 months, and 90% (76% to 96%) in those aged ≥ 12 months. The G2P[4] genotype accounted for 52% of cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with eligible matched controls. Vaccine effectiveness was 85% (64% to 94%) against G2P[4] and 95% (78% to 99%) against G1P[8]. In 25% of cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with eligible matched controls, there was reported co-infection with adenovirus, astrovirus and/or norovirus. Vaccine effectiveness against co-infected cases was 86% (52% to 96%). Effectiveness of at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine (intention to vaccinate analysis) was 91% (82% to 95%). Rotavirus vaccination is effective for the prevention of admission to hospital for rotavirus gastroenteritis among young children in Belgium, despite the high prevalence of G2P[4] and viral co-infection.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · BMJ (online)
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    ABSTRACT: Rotavirus (RV) is the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. A Quality of Life study was conducted in primary care in three European countries as part of a larger epidemiological study (SPRIK) to investigate the impact of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) on affected children and their parents. A self-administered questionnaire was linguistically validated in Spanish, Italian and Polish. The questionnaire was included in an observational multicentre prospective study of 302 children aged <5 years presenting to a general practitioner or paediatrician for RVGE at centres in Spain, Italy or Poland. RV infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing (n = 264). The questionnaire was validated and used to assess the emotional impact of paediatric RVGE on the parents. Questionnaire responses showed that acute RVGE in a child adversely affects the parents' daily life as well as the child. Parents of children with RVGE experience worry, distress and impact on their daily activities. RVGE of greater clinical severity (assessed by the Vesikari scale) was associated with higher parental worries due to symptoms and greater changes in the child's behaviour, and a trend to higher impact on parents' daily activities and higher parental distress, together with a higher score on the symptom severity scale of the questionnaire. Parents of a child with acute RVGE presenting to primary care experience worry, distress and disruptions to daily life as a result of the child's illness. Prevention of this disease through prophylactic vaccination will improve the daily lives of parents and children.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · BMC Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae have been consistently reported to be the two major bacterial pathogens responsible for acute otitis media (AOM), mainly from studies in the US and Europe. However, data on bacterial pathogens causing AOM in Latin America are limited. Understanding the relative importance of these pathogens in a specific setting, the serotype distribution, and their antibiotic susceptibility levels is important to provide local vaccine and treatment recommendations. We therefore conducted a prospective, multi-center, tympanocentesis-based epidemiological study of Mexican children three months to less than five years of age. Fifty percent of episodes were in children who had received at least one dose of PCV7. Overall, 64% of samples were culture positive for bacterial pathogens. H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were the leading causes of bacterial AOM, detected in 34% and 29% of AOM episodes, respectively. The most commonly isolated S. pneumoniae serotypes were 19A, 19F and 23F. All H. influenzae isolates were identified as non-typeable. Seventy-four percent of S. pneumoniae were susceptible to penicillin, while 97% were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate. All H. influenzae samples were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefotaxime, 95% to cefuroxime and 75% to ampicillin. Both S. pneumoniae and non-typable H. influenzae represent important targets for vaccination strategies to reduce AOM in Mexican children.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: This observational, prospective study was undertaken to estimate the burden of rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis (GE) leading to general practitioner (GP)/family paediatrician (FP) visits among children aged <5 years in Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the UK. Children aged <5 years presenting with acute GE provided stool samples for rapid RV testing. RV+ samples were confirmed and typed by RT-PCR. Demographic and clinical data were collected for all RVGE episodes. Transmission patterns among other household children aged <5 years were also assessed. From November 2005 to May 2007, excluding data from the UK, 497/3,813 (13.0%) children aged <5 years presenting with acute GE to GP/FP and tested were RV+ by PCR. Most RVGE cases (69.1%) occurred in children aged <2 years, occurred between December and May (93.1%) and were moderate or severe by Vesikari score (92.9%). RV strain distribution varied between countries: G9P[8] was the most common type in Poland (54/76) and Spain (172/196), G1P[8] was predominant in the Czech Republic (56/64) and Italy (46/107), and G4P[8] and G1P[8] both prevailed in Germany (17/54 and 13/54, respectively). A total of 24/122 (19.7%) children aged <5 years resident in the same household as a PCR+ study participant also developed RVGE. Conclusion. This multinational epidemiological study in Europe shows that RV is easily transmitted among household children, with RVGE burden highest among children aged <2 years accessing primary healthcare for acute GE.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · European Journal of Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Between December 2006-May 2007, 371 children aged <3 years attending 15 day care centers (DCCs) in Paris, France were actively followed for acute gastroenteritis [GE; diarrhea (≥3 loose stools/24 hours with or without vomiting) for <14 days] and outbreaks of acute GE (≥3 cases in a DCC with onset within 11 days). Demographic, clinical and cost-related information was collected for all acute GE episodes. All children with acute GE and all participating attendees at affected DCC s during an outbreak (irrespective of symptoms) provided stool samples for rotavirus (RV) testing (RotaStrip™). RV-positive samples were typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall incidence of RVGE among DCC attendees <3 years was 46.7 cases/100,000 person-days (95% CI: 26.7, 75.8) and was highest among children aged 5-11 months [139.2 cases/100,000 person-days (95% CI: 60.1, 274.2)]. 16/69 (23.2%) GE episodes were RV-positive by PCR, with 50% of RV-positive episodes occurring in children aged <1 year. G1P[8] was the most common RV type (12/16). Over half of the RVGE episodes that could be evaluated scored severe on the Vesikari scale and most RVGE episodes resulted in parents/guardians accessing health care services. We found 10 children with RVGE to be the likely origin of outbreaks in 3 DCCs, in which 5/10 (50.0%), 6/21 (28.6%) and 7/23 (30.4%) children tested RV-positive. One in 25 DCC attendees exposed to RVGE developed RVGE and 1 in 9 contracted asymptomatic RV infection. RV-positive episodes had higher mean total costs than RV-negative episodes (€484.00 versus €182.80, respectively). Results highlight the ease with which RV can spread in a day care setting and the resulting burden on DCC attendees and their families. The introduction of new RV vaccines into national immunization programs should help prevent similar outbreaks and protect DCC attendees.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Human vaccines