P. O. Lagage

Paris Diderot University, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (143)265.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we describe the MIRI Imager module (MIRIM), which provides broad-band imaging in the 5 - 27 microns wavelength range for the James Webb Space Telescope. The imager has a 0"11 pixel scale and a total unobstructed view of 74"x113". The remainder of its nominal 113"x113" field is occupied by the coronagraphs and the low resolution spectrometer. We present the instrument optical and mechanical design. We show that the test data, as measured during the test campaigns undertaken at CEA-Saclay, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, indicate that the instrument complies with its design requirements and goals. We also discuss the operational requirements (multiple dithers and exposures) needed for optimal scientific utilization of the MIRIM.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28.5 microns. MIRI has, within a single 'package', four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R ~ 100) spectroscopy, and medium-resolving power (R ~ 1500 to 3500) integral field spectroscopy. An associated cooler system maintains MIRI at its operating temperature of < 6.7 K. This paper describes the driving principles behind the design of MIRI, the primary design parameters, and their realization in terms of the 'as-built' instrument. It also describes the test program that led to delivery of the tested and calibrated Flight Model to NASA in 2012, and the confirmation after delivery of the key interface requirements.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)) operates from 5 to 28.5 microns and combines over this range: 1.) unprecedented sensitivity levels; 2.) sub-arcsec angular resolution; 3.) freedom from atmospheric interference; 4.) the inherent stability of observing in space; and 5.) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low and medium resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: 1.) imaging exoplanets; 2.) transit and eclipse spectroscopy of exoplanets; 3.) probing the first stages of star and planet formation, including identifying bioactive molecules; 4.) determining star formation rates and mass growth as galaxies are assembled; and 5.) characterizing the youngest massive galaxies. This paper is the introduction to a series of ten covering all aspects of the instrument.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: The imaging channel on the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) is equipped with four coronagraphs that provide high contrast imaging capabilities for studying faint point sources and extended emission that would otherwise be overwhelmed by a bright point-source in its vicinity. Such bright sources might include stars that are orbited by exoplanets and circumstellar material, mass-loss envelopes around post-main-sequence stars, the near-nuclear environments in active galaxies, and the host galaxies of distant quasars. This paper describes the coronagraphic observing modes of MIRI, as well as performance estimates based on measurements of the MIRI flight model during cryo-vacuum testing. A brief outline of coronagraphic operations is also provided. Finally, simulated MIRI coronagraphic observations of a few astronomical targets are presented for illustration.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    ABSTRACT: The Low Resolution Spectrometer of the MIRI, which forms part of the imager module, will provide R~100 long-slit and slitless spectroscopy from 5 to 12 micron. The design is optimised for observations of compact sources, such as exoplanet host stars. We provide here an overview of the design of the LRS, and its performance as measured during extensive test campaigns, examining in particular the delivered image quality, dispersion, and resolving power, as well as spectrophotometric performance, flatfield accuracy and the effects of fringing. We describe the operational concept of the slitless mode, which is optimally suited to transit spectroscopy of exoplanet atmospheres. The LRS mode of the MIRI was found to perform consistently with its requirements and goals.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
  • P.-O. Lagage · A. Boccaletti · P. Baudoz · P. Bouchet
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    ABSTRACT: The MIRI instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled to be launched in 2018, offers the potentiality to address the lack of observations of the beta Pictoris b exoplanet beyond 5 microns. Thanks to the large size of the JWST (diameter of 6.5m), MIRI will provide an unprecedented sensitivity. The angular resolution between the beta-Pictoris star and its planet (about 300-400 mas) is at the limit of what can be achieved at 10 microns with a 6.5 m telescope. Thanks to its four quadrant phase mask coronagraphic mode, MIRI observations at low inner angles (down to lambda/D) will be possible at three wavelengths: 10.65, 11.4 and 15.5 microns (Boccaletti et al. 2005, 2014). Detailed simulations are needed to assess the question of the detectability of the beta-Pictoris b planet with MIRI and of the photometric precision achievable. The first results of such simulations will be presented. Observations of the beta-Pictoris disk with the Low Resolution Spectroscopic (LRS) mode of MIRI, as well as with the MIRI Integral Field Unit Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) will also be discussed.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, is a dedicated space mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanet atmospheres. Using the differential spectroscopy by transit method, it provides simultaneously a complete spectrum in a wide wavelength range between 0.4μm and 16μm of the atmosphere of exoplanets. The payload is subdivided into 6 channels. The mid-infrared channel covers the spectral range between 5μm and 11μm. In order to optimize the instrument response and the science objectives, the bandpass is split in two using an internal dichroic. We present the opto-mechanical concept of the MWIR channel and the detector development that have driven the thermal and mechanical designs of the channel. The estimated end-to-end performance is also presented.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: NEAT is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA with the objectives of detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. NEAT requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 5e-6 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 2e-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The European part of the NEAT consortium is building a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 5e-6 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the NEAT spacecraft. The testbed consists of two main sub-systems. The first one produces pseudo stars: a blackbody source is fed into a large core fiber and lights-up a pinhole mask in the object plane, which is imaged by a mirror on the CCD. The second sub-system is the metrology, it projects young fringes on the CCD. The fringes are created by two single mode fibers facing the CCD and fixed on the mirror. In this paper we present the experiments conducted and the results obtained since July 2013 when we had the first light on both the metrology and pseudo stars. We explain the data reduction procedures we used.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: NEAT is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA with the objectives of detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. NEAT requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 5e-6 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 2e-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The European part of the NEAT consortium is building a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 5e-6 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the NEAT spacecraft. In this paper we present the metrology and the pseudo stellar sources sub-systems, we present a performance model and an error budget of the experiment and we report the present status of the demonstration. Finally we also present our first results: the experiment had its first light in July 2013 and a first set of data was taken in air. The analysis of this first set of data showed that we can already measure the pixel positions with an accuracy of about 1e-4 pixel.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present the design of the MWIR channels of EChO. Two channels cover the 5-11 micron spectral range. The choice of the boundaries of each channel is a trade-off driven by the science goals (spectral features of key molecules) and several parameters such as the common optics design, the dichroic plates design, the optical materials characteristics, the detector cut-off wavelength. We also will emphasize the role of the detectors choice that drives the thermal and mechanical designs and the cooling strategy.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a space mission dedicated to undertaking spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets over the widest wavelength range possible. It is based around a highly stable space platform with a 1.2 m class telescope. The mission is currently being studied by ESA in the context of a medium class mission within the Cosmic Vision programme for launch post 2020. The payload suite is required to provide simultaneous coverage from the visible to the mid-infrared and must be highly stable and effectively operate as a single instrument. In this paper we describe the integrated spectrometer payload design for EChO which will cover the 0.4 to 16 micron wavelength band. The instrumentation is subdivided into 5 channels (Visible/Near Infrared, Short Wave InfraRed, 2 x Mid Wave InfraRed; Long Wave InfraRed) with a common set of optics spectrally dividing the input beam via dichroics. We discuss the significant design issues for the payload and the detailed technical trade-offs that we are undertaking to produce a payload for EChO that can be built within the mission and programme constraints and yet which will meet the exacting scientific performance required to undertake transit spectroscopy.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2012
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    ABSTRACT: The NEAT (Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope) mission is a proposition submitted to ESA for its 2010 call for M-size mission. The main scientific goal is to detect and characterize planetary systems in an exhaustive way down to 1 Earth mass in the habitable zone and further away, around nearby stars for F, G, and K spectral types. This survey would provide the actual planetary masses, the full characterization of the orbits including their inclination, for all the components of the planetary system down to that mass limit. Extremely- high-precision astrometry, in space, can detect the dynamical effect due to even low mass orbiting planets on their central star, reaching those scientific goals. NEAT will continue the work performed by Hipparcos (1mas precision) and Gaia (7{\mu}as aimed) by reaching a precision that is improved by two orders of magnitude (0.05{\mu}as, 1{\sigma} accuracy). The two modules of the payload, the telescope and the focal plane, must be placed 40m away leading to a formation flying option studied as the reference mission. NEAT will operate at L2 for 5 years, the telescope satellite moving around the focal plane one to point different targets and allowing whole sky coverage in less than 20 days. The payload is made of 3 subsystems: primary mirror and its dynamic support, the focal plane with the detectors, and the metrology. The principle is to measure the angles between the target star, usually bright (R \leq 6), and fainter reference stars (R \leq 11) using a metrology system that projects dynamical Young's fringes onto the focal plane. The proposed architecture relies on two satellites of about 700 kg, offering a capability of more than 20,000 reconfigurations. The two satellites are launched in a stacked configuration using a Soyuz ST launch, and are deployed after launch to individually perform cruise to their operational Lissajous orbit.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011
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    ABSTRACT: MIRI is one of four instruments to be built for the James Webb Space Telescope. It provides imaging, coronography and integral field spectroscopy over the 5-28.5um wavelength range. MIRI is the only instrument which is cooled to 7K by a dedicated cooler, much lower than the passively cooled 40K of the rest of JWST, and consists of both an Optical System and a Cooler System. This paper will describe the key features of the overall instrument design and then concentrate on the status of the MIRI Optical System development. The flight model design and manufacture is complete, and final assembly and test of the integrated instrument is now underway. Prior to integration, all of the major subassemblies have undergone individual environmental qualification and performance tests and end-end testing of a flight representative model has been carried out. The paper will provide an overview of results from this testing and describe the current status of the flight model build and the plan for performance verification and ground calibration.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: The Mid Infra Red Instrument (MIRI) is one of the four instruments onboard the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), providing imaging, coronagraphy and spectroscopy over the 5 - 28 mu m band. To verify the optical performance of the instrument, extensive tests were performed at CEA on the flight model (FM) of the Mid-InfraRed IMager (MIRIM) at cryogenic temperatures and in the infrared. This paper reports on the point spread function (PSF) measurements at 5.6 mu m, the shortest operating wavelength for imaging. At 5.6 mu m, the PSF is not Nyquist-sampled, so we use am original technique that combines a microscanning measurement strategy with a deconvolution algorithm to obtain an over-resolved MIRIM PSF. The microscanning consists in a sub-pixel scan of a point source on the focal plane. A data inversion method is used to reconstruct PSF images that are over-resolved by a factor of 7 compared to the native resolution of MIRI. We show that the FWHM of the high-resolution PSFs were 5 - 10 % wider than that obtained with Zemax simulations. The main cause was identified as an out-of-specification tilt of the M4 mirror. After correction, two additional test campaigns were carried out, and we show that the shape of the PSF is conform to expectations. The FWHM of the PSFs are 0.18 - 0.20 arcsec, in agreement with simulations. 56.1 - 59.2% of the total encircled energy (normalized to a 5 arcsec radius) is contained within the first dark Airy ring, over the whole field of view. At longer wavelengths (7.7 - 25.5 mu m), this percentage is 57 - 68 %. MIRIM is thus compliant with the optical quality requirements. This characterization of the MIRIM PSF, as well as the deconvolution method presented here, are of particular importance, not only for the verification of the optical quality and the MIRI calibration, but also for scientific applications.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: This report aims to provide a summary of the status of our Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope (AST) project up to date. It is a very new project for Antarctic astronomy. Necessary prerequisites for a future deployment of a large size telescope infrastructure have been tested in years 2007 and 2008. The knowledge of the transmission, frost formation and temperature gradient were fundamental parameters before starting a feasibility study. The telescope specifications and requirements are currently discussed with the industrial partnership.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · EAS Publications Series
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    ABSTRACT: Sagittarius is the supermassive black hole residing at the center of the Milky Way. It has been the main target of an extensive multiwavelength campaign we carried out in April 2007. Herein, we report the detection of a bright flare from the vicinity of the horizon, observed simultaneously in X-rays (XMM-Newton/EPIC) and near infrared (VLT/NACO) on April 4th for 1–2 h. For the first time, such an event also benefitted from a soft γ-rays (INTEGRAL/ISGRI) and mid infrared (VLT/VISIR) coverage, which enabled us to derive upper limits at both ends of the flare spectral energy distribution (SED). We discuss the physical implications of the contemporaneous light curves as well as the SED, in terms of synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission processes.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Advances in Space Research
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. Expanding HII regions and propagating shocks are common in the environment of young high-mass star-forming complexes. They can compress a pre-existing molecular cloud and trigger the formation of dense cores. We investigate whether these phenomena can explain the formation of high-mass protostars within an infrared dark cloud located at the position of G327.3-0.6 in the Galactic plane, in between two large infrared bubbles and two HII regions. Methods: The region of G327.3-0.6 was imaged at 450 ? m with the CEA P-ArT\'eMiS bolometer array on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment telescope in Chile. APEX/LABOCA and APEX-2A, and Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS archives data were used in this study. Results: Ten massive cores were detected in the P-ArT\'eMiS image, embedded within the infrared dark cloud seen in absorption at both 8 and 24 ?m. Their luminosities and masses indicate that they form high-mass stars. The kinematical study of the region suggests that the infrared bubbles expand toward the infrared dark cloud. Conclusions: Under the influence of expanding bubbles, star formation occurs in the infrared dark areas at the border of HII regions and infrared bubbles. Comment: 4 pages
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope is a proposed 2.5 m optical/infrared telescope to be located at DomeC on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the field of exoplanet science are proposed: a search for free-floating low-mass planets and dwarfs, a program of follow-up observations of gravitational microlensing events, and a study of infrared light-curves for previously discovered exoplanets. Three projects are also proposed in the field of planetary and space science: optical and near-infrared studies aimed at characterising planetary atmospheres, a study of coronal mass ejections from the Sun, and a monitoring program searching for small-scale Low Earth Orbit satellite debris items. Comment: 27 pages, 16 figures (degraded quality), accepted for publication in PASA
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia
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    ABSTRACT: PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5 m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ~30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice s good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILO and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e., studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e., studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System). Comment: 19 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in PASA
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports measurements of Sgr A* made with NACO in L' band (3.80 μm), Ks band (2.12 μm), and H band (1.66 μm), and with VISIR in N band (11.88 μm) at the ESO VLT, as well as with XMM-Newton at X-ray (2-10 keV) wavelengths. On 2007 April 4, a very bright flare was observed from Sgr A* simultaneously at L' band and X-ray wavelengths. No emission was detected using VISIR. The resulting spectral energy distribution has a blue slope (β>0 for νL ν ∝ νβ, consistent with νL ν ∝ ν0.4) between 12 μm and 3.8 μm. For the first time, our high-quality data allow a detailed comparison of infrared (IR) and X-ray light curves with a resolution of a few minutes. The IR and X-ray flares are simultaneous to within 3 minutes. However, the IR flare lasts significantly longer than the X-ray flare (both before and after the X-ray peak), and prominent substructures in the 3.8 μm light curve are clearly not seen in the X-ray data. From the shortest timescale variations in the L'-band light curve, we find that the flaring region must be no more than 1.2RS in size. The high X-ray to IR flux ratio, blue νL ν slope MIR to L' band, and the soft νL ν spectral index of the X-ray flare together place strong constraints on possible flare emission mechanisms. We find that it is quantitatively difficult to explain this bright X-ray flare with inverse Compton processes. A synchrotron emission scenario from an electron distribution with a cooling break is a more viable scenario.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

1k Citations
265.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2015
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998-2014
    • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
      • Service d'Astrophysique
      Fontenay, Île-de-France, France
    • Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1995-2009
    • Cea Leti
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2006-2008
    • University of Cologne
      • • I. Institute of Physics
      • • II. Institute of Physics
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005
    • Université Paris-Saclay
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, California, United States
    • Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1997
    • Institut d'astrophysique de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France