T. Hackman

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland

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Publications (60)135.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We study a quarter of a century of standard Johnson differential V photometry of the RS CVn binary BM CVn. Our main aims are to determine the activity cycles, the rate of surface differential rotation and the rotation period of the active longitudes of BM CVn. The Continuous Period Search (CPS) is applied to the photometry. The changes of the mean and amplitude of the light curves are used to search for activity cycles. The rotation period changes give an estimate of the rate of surface differential rotation. The Kuiper method is applied to the epochs of the primary and secondary minima to search for active longitudes. The photometry reveals the presence of a stable mean light curve (MLC) connected to the orbital period P_orb = 20d.6252 of this binary. We remove this MLC from the original V magnitudes which gives us the corrected V' magnitudes. These two samples of V and V' data are analysed separately with CPS. The fraction of unreliable CPS models decreases when the MLC is removed. The same significant activity cycle of approximately 12.5 years is detected in both V and V' samples. The estimate for the surface differential rotation coefficient, k >= 0.10, is the same for both samples, but the number of unrealistic period estimates decreases after removing the MLC. The same active longitude period of P_al = 20d.511 +- 0d.005 is detected in the V and V' magnitudes. This long-term regularity in the epochs of primary and secondary minima of the light curves is not caused by the MLC. On the contrary, the MLC hampers the detection of active longitudes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We apply the Continuous Period Search (CPS) time series analysis method on Johnson B and V band photometry of 21 young and active solar-type, collected over 16 to 27 years and characterize the behaviour of their activity. Using the CPS method, differential rotation could be estimated from the observed variations of the photometric rotation period. Active longitudes were retrieved by applying a non-parametric period search on the light curve minimum epochs, and activity cycles by applying a secondary period search on the modelled light curve mean and amplitude values. We supplemented the time series results by calculating new $\log{R'_{\rm HK}}$ emission indices for the stars from high resolution spectroscopy. The measurements of the photometric rotation period variations point to a trend of increasing differential rotation coefficients towards longer rotation periods but do not reveal any dependence from the effective temperature of the stars. The secondary period searches revealed activity cycles in 18 of the stars and temporary or persistent active longitudes in 11 of them. The activity cycles fall into specific activity branches when $P_{\rm rot}/P_{\rm cyc}$ is examined against ${\rm Ro}^{-1}$ and $\log{R'_{\rm HK}}$. We find a new split into subbranches, indicating multiple simultaneously present cycle modes. Active longitudes appear to be present only on the more active stars. There is a sharp break separating the less active stars with no active longitudes from the more active ones with active longitudes. In seven stars with the estimated active longitude periods are significantly shorter than the mean photometric rotation periods. This systematic trend can be interpreted either as a sign of the active longitudes being sustained from a deeper level in the stellar interior or as azimuthal dynamo waves exhibiting prograde propagation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: By studying young magnetically active late-type stars, i.e. analogues to the young Sun, one can draw conclusions on the evolution of the solar dynamo. We determine the topology of the surface magnetic field and study the relation between the magnetic field and cool photospheric spots in three young late-type stars. High-resolution spectropolarimetry of the targets were obtained with the HARPSpol instrument mounted at the ESO 3.6 m telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of the Stokes IV measurements were boosted by combining the signal from a large number of spectroscopic absorption lines through the least squares deconvolution technique. Surface brightness and magnetic field maps were calculated using the Zeeman-Doppler imaging technique. All the three targets show clear signs of both magnetic fields and cool spots. Only one of the targets, namely V1358 Ori, shows evidence of the dominance of non-axisymmetric modes. In two of the targets, the poloidal field is significantly stronger than the toroidal one, indicative of an $\alpha^2$-type of a dynamo, in which convective turbulence effects dominate over the weak differential rotation. In two of the cases there is a slight anti-correlation between the cool spots and the strength of the radial magnetic field. However, even in these cases the correlation is much weaker than in the case of sunspots. The weak correlation between the measured radial magnetic field and cool spots may indicate a more complex magnetic field structure in the spots or spot groups involving mixed magnetic polarities. Comparison with a previously published magnetic field map shows that on one of the stars, HD 29615, the underlying magnetic field has changed its polarity between 2009 and 2013.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We study the connection between the chromospheric and photospheric behaviour of the active late-type star FK Comae. We use spot temperature modelling, light curve inversion based on narrow- and wide-band photometric measurements, Halpha observations from 1997-2010, and Doppler maps from 2004-2010 to compare the behaviour of chromospheric and photospheric features. Investigating low-resolution Halpha spectra we find that the changes in the chromosphere seem to happen mainly on a time scale longer than a few hours, but shorter variations were also observed. According to the Halpha measurements prominences are often found in the chromosphere that reach to more than a stellar radius and are stable for weeks, and which seem to be often, but not every time connected with dark photospheric spots. The rotational modulation of the Halpha emission seems to typically be anticorrelated with the light curve, but we did not find convincing evidence of a clear connection in the long-term trends of the Halpha emission and the brightness of the star. In addition, FK Com seems to be in an unusually quiet state in 2009-2010 with very little chromospheric activity and low spot contrast, that might indicate the long-term decrease of activity.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We study the spot distribution on the surface of LQ~Hya during the observing seasons October 1998 -- November 2002. We look for persistent active longitudes, trends in the level of spot activity and compare to photometric data, specifically to the derived time epochs of the lightcurve minima. We apply the Doppler Imaging technique on photospheric spectral lines using an inversion code to retrieve images of the surface temperature. We present new temperature maps using multiple spectral lines for a total of 7 seasons. We calculate spot coverage fractions from each map, and as a result we find a general trend that is interpreted to be an indication of a spot cycle. There is a minimum during the observing season of March 1999. After this the activity increases until November 2000, followed by a general decrease in activity again. We find no evidence for active longitudes persisting over multiple observing seasons. The spot activity appears to be concentrated to two latitude regions. The high latitude spots are particularly strong when the spot coverage is at a maximum. Using the currently accepted rotation period, we find spot structures to show a trend in the phase-time plot, indicative of a need for a longer period. We conclude that the long-term activity of LQ~Hya is more chaotic than that of some magnetically active binary stars analyzed with similar methods, but still with clear indications of an activity cycle.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The detection of exoplanets using any method is prone to confusion due to the intrinsic variability of the host star. We investigate the effect of cool starspots on the detectability of the exoplanets around solar-like stars using the radial velocity method. For investigating this activity-caused ‘jitter’ we calculate synthetic spectra using radiative transfer, known stellar atomic and molecular lines, different surface spot configurations and an added planetary signal. Here, the methods are described in detail, tested and compared to previously published studies. The methods are also applied to investigate the activity jitter in old and young solar-like stars, and over a solar-like activity cycles. We find that the mean full jitter amplitude obtained from the spot surfaces mimicking the solar activity varies during the cycle approximately between 1 and 9 m s−1. With a realistic observing frequency a Neptune-mass planet on a 1-yr orbit can be reliably recovered. On the other hand, the recovery of an Earth-mass planet on a similar orbit is not feasible with high significance. The methods developed in this study have a great potential for doing statistical studies of planet detectability, and also for investigating the effect of stellar activity on recovered planetary parameters.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The (Zeeman-)Doppler imaging studies of solar-type stars very often reveal large high-latitude spots. This also includes F stars that possess relatively shallow convection zones, indicating that the dynamo operating in these stars differs from the solar dynamo. We aim to determine whether mean-field dynamo models of late-F type dwarf stars can reproduce the surface features recovered in Doppler maps. In particular, we wish to test whether the models can reproduce the high-latitude spots observed on some F dwarfs. The photometric inversions and the surface temperature maps of AF Lep were obtained using the Occamian-approach inversion technique. Low signal-to-noise spectroscopic data were improved by applying the least-squares deconvolution method. The locations of strong magnetic flux in the stellar tachocline as well as the surface fields obtained from mean-field dynamo solutions were compared with the observed surface temperature maps. The photometric record of AF Lep reveals both long- and short-term variability. However, the current data set is too short for cycle-length estimates. From the photometry, we have determined the rotation period of the star to be 0.9660+-0.0023 days. The surface temperature maps show a dominant, but evolving, high-latitude (around +65 degrees) spot. Detailed study of the photometry reveals that sometimes the spot coverage varies only marginally over a long time, and at other times it varies rapidly. Of a suite of dynamo models, the model with a radiative interior rotating as fast as the convection zone at the equator delivered the highest compatibility with the obtained Doppler images.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We study LQ Hya photometry for 1982-2014 with the carrier fit (CF) -method and compare our results to earlier photometric analysis and recent Doppler imaging maps. We first utilize different types of statistical methods to estimate various candidates for the carrier period for the CF method. Secondly, a global fit to the whole data set and local fits to shorter segments are computed with the period that is found to be the optimal one. The harmonic least-squares analysis of all the available data reveals a short period close to 1.6 days as a limiting value for a set of significant frequencies. We interpret this as the rotation period of the spots near the equatorial region. In addition, the distribution of the significant periods is found to be bimodal, hinting of a longer-term modulating period, which we set out to study with a two-harmonic CF model. Weak modulation signal is, indeed retrieved, with a period of roughly 6.9 years. The phase dispersion analysis gives a clear symmetric minimum for coherence times lower than and around 100 days. We interpret this as the mean rotation period of the spots (1.60514 days), and this value is chosen to be used as the carrier period for the CF analysis. With the CF method we seek for any systematic trends in the spot distribution in the global time frame, and locally look for abrupt phase changes earlier reported in rapidly rotating objects. During 2005-2008 the global CF reveals a coherent structure rotating with a period of 1.6037 days, while during most other times the spot distribution appears rather random in phase. The evolution of the spot distribution of the object is found to be very chaotic, with no clear signs of an azimuthal dynamo wave that would persist over longer time scales, although the short-lived coherent structures observed occasionally do not rotate with the same speed as the mean spot distribution.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: () is a Li-rich, rapidly rotating single K giant. We set out to study the spot configuration and activity level by calculating surface temperature maps of the star. Methods: We apply the Doppler imaging method on high-resolution optical spectroscopy obtained during 2004-2006. Results: In July-August 2004, no clear spot structures were visible, but the spot coverage increased in July 2005, and cool spots emerged, especially at intermediate latitudes. Later on in September 2006, the spot coverage increased and cool spots were visible on both sides of the equator. However, the map of 2006 suffers from bad phase coverage, meaning it is not possible to draw definite conclusions on the spot locations during that season. Conclusions: Compared with earlier Doppler maps of DI Psc and temperature maps obtained for other late-type stars with similar rotation rates, DI Psc seems to be in a low activity state especially during the observing season of July-August 2004. During the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons, the spot activity seen in the spectral line profiles and inferred from Doppler images increases, and the temperature contrast in our last map is more comparable to what was reported in an earlier study. Therefore, it can be concluded that the spot activity level of the star is variable over time. However, the present and previous Doppler images form too short a time series to draw conclusions about a possible activity cycle in DI Psc.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    P. Kajatkari · T. Hackman · L. Jetsu · J. Lehtinen · G. W. Henry
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We model the photometry of RS CVn star sigma Geminorum to obtain new information on the changes of the surface starspot distribution, that is, activity cycles, differential rotation, and active longitudes. Methods. We used the previously published continuous period search (CPS) method to analyse V-band differential photometry obtained between the years 1987 and 2010 with the T3 0.4 m Automated Telescope at the Fairborn Observatory. The CPS method divides data into short subsets and then models the light-curves with Fourier-models of variable orders and provides estimates of the mean magnitude, amplitude, period, and light-curve minima. These light-curve parameters are then analysed for signs of activity cycles, differential rotation and active longitudes. Results. We confirm the presence of two previously found stable active longitudes, synchronised with the orbital period P-orb = 19(d).60, and found eight events where the active longitudes are disrupted. The epochs of the primary light-curve minima rotate with a shorter period P-min,P-1 = 19(d).47 than the orbital motion. If the variations in the photometric rotation period were to be caused by differential rotation, this would give a differential rotation coefficient of alpha >= 0.103. Conclusions. The presence of two slightly different periods of active regions may indicate a superposition of two dynamo modes, one stationary in the orbital frame and the other one propagating in the azimuthal direction. Our estimate of the differential rotation is much higher than previous results. However, simulations show that this may be caused by insufficient sampling in our data.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    P. Kajatkari · T. Hackman · L. Jetsu · J. Lehtinen · G. W. Henry
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    ABSTRACT: We model the photometry of RS CVn star $\sigma$ Geminorum to obtain new information on the changes of the surface starspot distribution, i.e., activity cycles, differential rotation and active longitudes. We use the previously published Continuous Periods Search-method (CPS) to analyse V-band differential photometry obtained between the years 1987 and 2010 with the T3 0.4 m Automated Telescope at the Fairborn Observatory. The CPS-method divides data into short subsets and then models the light curves with Fourier-models of variable orders and provides estimates of the mean magnitude, amplitude, period and light curve minima. These light curve parameters are then analysed for signs of activity cycles, differential rotation and active longitudes. We confirm the presence of two previously found stable active longitudes, synchronised with the orbital period $P_{\rm{orb}}=19.60$d and find eight events where the active longitudes are disrupted. The epochs of the primary light curve minima rotate with a shorter period $P_{\rm{min,1}}=19.47$d than the orbital motion. If the variations in the photometric rotation period were to be caused by differential rotation, this would give a differential rotation coefficient of $\alpha \ge 0.103$. The presence of two slightly different periods of active regions may indicate a superposition of two dynamo modes, one stationary in the orbital frame and the other one propagating in the azimuthal direction. Our estimate of the differential rotation is much higher than previous results. However, simulations show that this can be caused by insufficient sampling in our data.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to study the light curve periodicity of the solar analogue V352 CMa and in particular show that the presence or absence of periodicity in low amplitude light curves can be modelled with the Continuous Period Search (CPS) method. We applied the CPS method to 14 years of V-band photometry of V352 CMa and obtained estimates for the mean, amplitude, period and minima of the light curves in the selected datasets. We also applied the Power Spectrum Method (PSM) to these datasets and compared the performance of this frequently applied method to that of CPS. We detected signs of a $11.7 \pm 0.5$ year cycle in in the mean brightness. The long-term average photometric rotation period was $7.24 \pm 0.22$ days. The lower limit for the differential rotation coefficient would be $|k| > 0.12$, if the law of solar surface differential rotation were valid for V352 CMa and the period changes traced this phenomenon. Signs of stable active longitudes rotating with a period of $7.157 \pm 0.002$ days were detected from the epochs of the light minima with the Kuiper method. CPS performed better than the traditional PSM, because the latter always used a sinusoidal model for the data even when this was clearly not the correct model.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: According to earlier Doppler images of the magnetically active primary giant component of the RS CVn binary II Peg, the surface of the star was dominated by one single active longitude that was clearly drifting in the rotational frame of the binary system during 1994-2002; later imaging for 2004-2010, however, showed decreased and chaotic spot activity, with no signs of the drift pattern. Here we set out to investigate from a more extensive photometric dataset whether such a drift is a persistent phenomenon, in which case it could be due to either an azimuthal dynamo wave or an indication of the binary system orbital synchronization still being incomplete. We analyse the datasets using the Carrier Fit method (hereafter CF), especially suitable for analyzing time series in which a fast clocking frequency (such as the rotation of the star) is modulated with a slower process (such as the stellar activity cycle). We combine all collected photometric data into one single data set, and analyze it with the CF method. As a result, we confirm the earlier results of the spot activity having been dominated by one primary spotted region almost through the entire data set, and the existence of a persistent, nearly linear drift. Disruptions of the linear trend and complicated phase behavior are also seen, but the period analysis reveals a rather stable periodicity with P(spot)=6.71054d plus/minus 0.00005d. After the linear trend is removed from the data, we identify several abrupt phase jumps, three of which are analyzed in more detail with the CF method. These phase jumps closely resemble what is called flip-flop event, but the new spot configurations do not, in most cases, persist for longer than a few months.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Differential Johnson V- and B-photometry of the star FK Comae (HD 117555) from automated photometric telescopes are presented. HD 117567 was used as the comparison star. Missing observations are denoted as "99.0000". (2 data files).
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Time series of high-resolution spectra of the late B-type star HD 11753 exhibiting HgMn chemical peculiarity are used to study the surface distribution of different chemical elements and their temporal evolution. Methods: High-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra were obtained using the CORALIE spectrograph at La Silla in 2000, 2009, and 2010. Surface maps of YII, SrII, TiII, and CrII were calculated using the Doppler imaging technique. The results were also compared to equivalent width measurements. The evolution of chemical spots both on short and long time scales were investigated. Results: We determine the binary orbit of HD 11753 and fine-tune the rotation period of the primary. The earlier discovered fast evolution of the chemical spots is confirmed by an analysis using both the chemical spot maps and equivalent width measurements. In addition, a long-term decrease in the overall YII and SrII abundances is discovered. A detailed analysis of the chemical spot configurations reveals some possible evidence that a very weak differential rotation is operating in HD 11753.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Radial velocities of HgMn star HD 11753 are presented. The measurements obtained from high resolution observations for the 153 CORALIE spectra, five FEROS spectra, and 13 HARPS spectra are presented together with two mid-resolution spectra obtained with the REOSC. The radial velocities were measured by cross-correlations using a synthetic spectrum for Teff=11000K and logg=4.0 as template. For each measurement Heliocentric Julian Date (HJD-2400000), orbital phase, radial velocity measurement, error of the measurement, residual observed-minus-calculated and the instrument information are given. (1 data file).
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013
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    O. Kochukhov · M. J. Mantere · T. Hackman · I. Ilyin
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamo processes in cool active stars generate complex magnetic fields responsible for prominent surface stellar activity and variability at different time scales. For a small number of cool stars magnetic field topologies were reconstructed from the time series of spectropolarimetric observations using the Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) method. In this study we follow a long-term evolution of the magnetic field topology of the RS CVn binary star II Peg. We collected high-resolution circular polarisation observations of II Peg using the SOFIN spectropolarimeter at the Nordic Optical Telescope. These data cover 12 epochs spread over 7 years. A multi-line diagnostic technique in combination with a new ZDI code is applied to interpret these observations. Magnetic inversions using these data reveals evolving magnetic fields with typical local strengths of 0.5-1.0 kG and complex topologies. Despite using a self-consistent magnetic and temperature mapping technique, we do not find a clear correlation between magnetic and temperature features in the ZDI maps. Neither do we confirm the presence of persistent azimuthal field rings found in other RS CVn stars. Reconstruction of the magnetic field topology of II Peg reveals significant evolution of both the surface magnetic field structure and the extended magnetospheric field geometry. From 2004 to 2010 the total field energy drastically declined and the field became less axisymmetric. This also coincided with the transition from predominantly poloidal to mainly toroidal field topology. A qualitative comparison of the ZDI maps of II Peg with the prediction of dynamo theory suggests that the magnetic field in this star is produced mainly by the turbulent alpha^2 dynamo rather than the solar alphaOmega dynamo. Our results do not show a clear active longitude system, nor is there an evidence of the presence of an azimuthal dynamo wave.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: FK Comae is a rapidly rotating magnetically active star, the light curve of which is modulated by cool spots on its surface. It was the first star where the flip-flop phenomenon was discovered. Therefore, it is of interest to perform a more thorough study of the evolution of the spot activity in FK Com. In this study, we analyse 15 years of photometric observations with two different time series analysis methods, with a special emphasis on detecting flip-flop type events from the data. We apply the continuous period search and carrier fit methods on long-term standard Johnson-Cousins V-observations from the years 1995-2010. The observations were carried out with two automated photometric telescopes, Phoenix-10 and Amadeus T7 located in Arizona. We identify complex phase behaviour in 6 of the 15 analysed data segments. We identify five flip-flop events and two cases of phase jumps, where the phase shift is \Delta \phi < 0.4. In addition we see two mergers of spot regions and two cases where the apparent phase shifts are caused by spot regions drifting with respect to each other. Furthermore we detect variations in the rotation period corresponding to a differential rotation coefficient of |k| > 0.031. The flip-flop cannot be interpreted as a single phenomenon, where the main activity jumps from one active longitude to another. In some of our cases the phase shifts can be explained by differential rotation: Two spot regions move with different angular velocity and even pass each other. Comparison between the methods show that the carrier fit utility is better in retrieving slow evolution especially from a low amplitude light curve, while the continuous period search is more sensitive in case of rapid changes.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the future night-time spectrograph for the GREGOR solar telescope and present its science core projects. The spectrograph provides a 3-pixel resolution of up to R=87 000 in 45 échelle orders covering the wavelength range 390-900 nm with three grating settings. An iodine cell can be used for high-precision radial velocity work in the 500-630 nm range. The operation of the spectrograph and the telescope will be fully automated without the presence of humans during night-time and will be based on the successful STELLA control system. Future upgrades include a second optical camera for even higher spectral resolution, a Stokes-V polarimeter and a link to the laser-frequency comb at the Vacuum Tower Telescope. The night-time core projects are a study of the angular-momentum evolution of ``The Sun in Time'' and a continuation of our long-term Doppler imaging of active stars.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Astronomische Nachrichten
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    J. Lehtinen · L. Jetsu · T. Hackman · P. Kajatkari · G. W. Henry
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the spot activity of the young chromospherically active main sequence star LQ Hya. Our aims are to identify possible active longitudes, estimate the differential rotation and study long and short term changes in the activity. Our analysis is based on 24 years of Johnson V-band photometry. We use the previously published Continuous Period Search (CPS) method to model the evolution of the light curve of LQ Hya. The CPS fits a Fourier series model to short overlapping subsets of data. This enables us to monitor the spot configuration of the star with a higher time resolution. We find seasonal variability in the mean level and amplitude of the light curve of LQ Hya. The variability of the light curve amplitude seems not to be cyclic, but the long-term variations in the mean magnitude could be explained by an approximately 13 year cycle. Because of the limited length of the observed time series, it is not yet possible to determine whether this structure really is periodic and represents an activity cycle. We estimate the differential rotation of the star to be small, and the star is potentially very close to a rigid rotator. We search for active longitudes and find that on time scales up to six months there are typically one or two relatively stable active areas on the star with limited phase migration. On time scales longer than one year, no stable active longitudes have been present except for the period between 2003 and 2009 and possibly also some time before 1995. We find any signs of flip-flops with a regular period. The mean time scale of change of the light curve during the observation period is determined to be of the same order of magnitude as the predicted convective turnover time for the star.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

Publication Stats

322 Citations
135.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2015
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Physics
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2012
    • University of Turku
      • Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2008
    • City of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland