L. R. Bedin

The Astronomical Observatory of Brera, Merate, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (213)651.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The old and metal rich open cluster NGC 6253 was observed with the FLAMES multi-object spectrograph during an extensive radial velocity campaign monitoring 317 stars with a median of 15 epochs per object. All the targeted stars are located along the upper main sequence of the cluster between 14.8 $<$ V $<$ 16.5. Fifty nine stars are confirmed cluster members both by radial velocities and proper motions and do not show evidence of variability. We detected 45 variable stars among which 25 belong to NGC 6253. We were able to derive an orbital solution for 4 cluster members (and for 2 field stars) yielding minimum masses in between $\sim$90 M$\rm_J$ and $\sim$460 M$\rm_J$ and periods between 3 and 220 days. Simulations demonstrated that this survey was sensitive to objects down to 30 M$\rm_J$ at 10 days orbital periods with a detection efficiency equal to 50%. On the basis of these results we concluded that the observed frequency of binaries down to the hydrogen burning limit and up to 20 days orbital period is around (1.5$\pm$1.3)% in NGC 6253. The overall observed frequency of binaries around the sample of cluster stars is (13$\pm$3)%. The median radial velocity precision achieved by the GIRAFFE spectrograph in this magnitude range was around $\sim$240m$\rm\,s^{-1}$ ($\sim$180 m$\rm\,s^{-1}$ for UVES). Based on a limited follow-up analysis of 7 stars in our sample with the HARPS spectrograph we determined that a precision of 35 m $\rm s^{-1}$ can be reached in this magnitude range, offering the possibility to further extend the variability analysis into the substellar domain. Prospects are even more favourable once considering the upcoming ESPRESSO spectrograph at VLT.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We report our study of features at the observed red end of the white dwarf cooling sequences for three Galactic globular clusters: NGC 6397, 47 Tucanae and M 4. We use deep colour–magnitude diagrams constructed from archival Hubble Space Telescope (Advanced Camera for Surveys) to systematically investigate the blue turn at faint magnitudes and the age determinations for each cluster. We find that the age difference between NGC 6397 and 47 Tuc is 1.98$^{+0.44}_{-0.26}$ Gyr, consistent with the picture that metal-rich halo clusters were formed later than metal-poor halo clusters. We self-consistently include the effect of metallicity on the progenitor age and the initial-to-final mass relation. In contrast with previous investigations that invoked a single white dwarf mass for each cluster, the data show a spread of white dwarf masses that better reproduce the shape and location of the blue turn. This effect alone, however, does not completely reproduce the observational data – the blue turn retains some mystery. In this context, we discuss several other potential problems in the models. These include possible partial mixing of H and He in the atmosphere of white dwarf stars, the lack of a good physical description of the collision-induced absorption process and uncertainties in the opacities at low temperatures. The latter are already known to be significant in the description of the cool main sequence. Additionally, we find that the present-day local mass function of NGC 6397 is consistent with a top-heavy type, while 47 Tuc presents a bottom-heavy profile.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    M. Libralato · L. R. Bedin · D. Nardiello · G. Piotto
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    ABSTRACT: Kepler and K2 data analysis reported in the literature is mostly based on aperture photometry. Because of Kepler's large, undersampled pixels and the presence of nearby sources, aperture photometry is not always the ideal way to obtain high-precision photometry, and, because of this, the data set has not been fully exploited so far. We present a new method that builds on our experience with undersampled HST images. The method involves a point-spread function (PSF) neighbour-subtraction and was specifically developed to exploit the huge potential offered by the K2 ‘super-stamps’ covering the core of dense star clusters. Our test-bed targets were the NGC 2158 and M 35 regions observed during the K2 Campaign 0. We present our PSF modelling and demonstrate that, by using a high-angular-resolution input star list from the Asiago Schmidt telescope as the basis for PSF neighbour subtraction, we are able to reach magnitudes as faint as KP ≃ 24 with a photometric precision of 10 per cent over 6.5 h, even in the densest regions. At the bright end, our photometric precision reaches ∼30 parts per million. Our method leads to a considerable level of improvement at the faint magnitudes (KP ≳ 15.5) with respect to the classical aperture photometry. This improvement is more significant in crowded regions. We also extracted raw light curves of ∼60 000 stars and detrended them for systematic effects induced by spacecraft motion and other artefacts that harms K2 photometric precision. We present a list of 2133 variables.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we continue the release of high-level data products from the multiyear photometric survey collected at the 67/92 cm Schmidt Telescope in Asiago. The primary goal of the survey is to discover and to characterise variable objects and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. This second paper releases a photometric catalogue, in five photometric bands, of the Solar-age, Solar-metallicity open cluster M 67 (NGC 2682). Proper motions are derived comparing the positions observed in 2013 at the Asiago's Schmidt Telescope with those extracted from WFI@2.2m MPG/ESO images in 2000. We also analyse the variable sources within M 67. We detected 68 variables, 43 of which are new detection. Variable periods and proper-motion memberships of a large majority of sources in our catalogue are improved with respect to previous releases. The entire catalogue will be available in electronic format. Besides the general interest on an improved catalogue, this work will be particularly useful because of: (1) the imminent release of Kepler/K2 Campaign-5 data of this cluster, for which our catalogue will provide an excellent, high spatial resolution input list, and (2) characterisation of the M 67 stars which are targets of intense HARPS and HARPS-N radial-velocity surveys for planet search.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We analyse color-magnitude diagrams of eight Globular Clusters (GCs) in the outer Galactic Halo. Images were taken with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Survey and the Ultraviolet and Visual Channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 on board of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have determined the fraction of binary stars along the main sequence and combined results with those of a recent paper where some of us have performed a similar analysis on 59 Galactic GCs. In total, binaries have been now studied homogeneously in 67 GCs. We studied the radial and luminosity distributions of the binary systems, the distribution of their mass-ratios and investigated univariate relations with several parameters of the host GCs. We confirm the anti-correlation between the binary fraction and the luminosity of the host cluster, and find that low-luminosity clusters can host a large population in excess of ~40% in the cluster core. However, our results do not support a significant correlation with the cluster age as suggested in the literature. In most GCs, binaries are more centrally concentrated than single stars. If the fraction of binaries is normalised to the core binary fraction the radial density profiles follow a common trend. It has a maximum in the center and declines by a factor of two at a distance of about two core radii from the cluster center. After dropping to its minimum at a radial distance of $\sim$5 core radii it stays approximately constant at larger radii. We also find that the mass-ratio and the distribution of binaries as a function of the mass of the primary star is almost flat.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We build on the evidence provided by our Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters (GC) to submit to a crucial test four scenarios currently entertained for the formation of multiple stellar generations in GCs. The observational constraints on multiple generations to be fulfilled are manifold, including GC specificity, ubiquity, variety, predominance, discreteness, supernova avoidance, p-capture processing, helium enrichment and mass budget. We argue that scenarios appealing to supermassive stars, fast rotating massive stars and massive interactive binaries violate in an irreparable fashion two or more among such constraints. Also the scenario appealing to asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars as producers of the material for next generation stars encounters severe difficulties, specifically concerning the mass budget problem and the detailed chemical composition of second-generation stars. We qualitatively explore ways possibly allowing one to save the AGB scenario, specifically appealing to a possible revision of the cross-section of a critical reaction rate destroying sodium, or alternatively by a more extensive exploration of the vast parameter space controlling the evolutionary behaviour of AGB stellar models. Still, we cannot ensure success for these efforts and totally new scenarios may have to be invented to understand how GCs formed in the early Universe.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed study of the internal kinematics of the Galactic Globular Cluster M 4 (NGC 6121), by deriving the radial velocities from 7250 spectra for 2771 stars distributed from the upper part of the Red Giant Branch down to the Main Sequence. We describe new approaches to determine the wavelength solution from day-time calibrations and to determine the radial velocity drifts that can occur between calibration and science observations when observing with the GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. Two techniques to determine the radial velocity are compared, after a qualitative description of their advantages with respect to other commonly used algorithm, and a new approach to remove the sky contribution from the spectra obtained with fibre-fed spectrograph and further improve the radial velocity precision is presented. The average radial velocity of the cluster is $\langle v \rangle = 71.08 \pm 0.08$ km s$^{-1}$ with an average dispersion of $\mu_{v_c} = 3.97$ km s$^{-1}$. Using the same dataset and the same statistical approach of previous analyses, 20 additional binary candidates are found, for a total of 87 candidates. A new determination of the internal radial velocity dispersion as a function of cluster distance is presented, resulting in a dispersion of $4.5$ km s$^{-1}$ within 2$^{\prime}$ from the center of cluster and steadily decreasing outward. We statistically confirm the small amplitude of the cluster rotation, as suggested in the past by several authors. This new analysis represents a significant improvement with respect to previous results in literature and provides a fundamental observational input for the modeling of the cluster dynamics.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. For more than 1.5 years we monitored spectroscopically the star KELT-6 (BD+312447), known to host the transiting hot Saturn KELT-6b, because a previously observed long-term trend in radial velocity time series suggested the existence of an outer companion. Methods. We collected a total of 93 new spectra with the HARPS-N and TRES spectrographs. A spectroscopic transit of KELT-6b was observed with HARPS-N, and simultaneous photometry was obtained with the IAC-80 telescope. Results. We proved the existence of an outer planet with a mininum mass M$_{\rm p}$sini=3.71$\pm$0.21 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and a moderately eccentric orbit ($e=0.21_{-0.036}^{+0.039}$) of period P$\sim$3.5 years. We improved the orbital solution of KELT-6b and obtained the first measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, showing that the planet has a likely circular, prograde, and slightly misaligned orbit, with a projected spin-orbit angle $\lambda$=$-$36$\pm$11 degrees. We improved the KELT-6b transit ephemeris from photometry, and we provided new measurements of the stellar parameters. KELT-6 appears as an interesting case to study the formation and evolution of multi-planet systems.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous observational studies have revealed the ubiquitous presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters and cast many hard challenges for the study of the formation and dynamical history of these stellar systems. In this Letter we present the results of a study of the kinematic properties of multiple populations in NGC 2808 based on high-precision Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion measurements. In a recent study, Milone et al. have identified five distinct populations (A, B, C, D, and E) in NGC 2808. Populations D and E coincide with the helium-enhanced populations in the middle and the blue main sequences (mMS and bMS) previously discovered by Piotto et al.; populations A, B, and C correspond to the redder main sequence (rMS) that in the Piotto et al. was associated with the primordial stellar population. Our analysis shows that, in the outermost regions probed (between about 1.5 and 2 times the cluster half-light radius), the velocity distribution of populations D and E is radially anisotropic (the deviation from an isotropic distribution is significant at the ~3.5-sigma level). Stars of populations D and E have a smaller tangential velocity dispersion than those of populations A, B, and C, while no significant differences are found in the radial-velocity dispersion. We present the results of a numerical simulation showing that the observed differences between the kinematics of these stellar populations are consistent with the expected kinematic fingerprint of the diffusion towards the cluster outer regions of stellar populations initially more centrally concentrated.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of positions and relative proper motions in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We detail the construction of a single-epoch astrometric reference frame, based on specially-designed observations obtained with the two main imaging instruments ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Internal comparisons indicate a sub milli-arc-second (mas) precision in the positions and the presence of semi-periodic systematics with a mean amplitude of ~0.8 mas. We combined these observations with numerous archival images taken with WFPC2 and spanning 17 years. The precision of the resulting proper motions for well-measured stars around the massive cluster R 136 can be as good as ~20 microarcsec/yr, although the true accuracy of proper motions is generally lower due to the residual systematic errors. The observed proper-motion dispersion for our highest-quality measurements is ~0.1 mas/yr. Our catalog of positions and proper motions contains 86,590 stars down to V~25 and over a total area of ~70 square arcmin. We examined the proper motions of 105 relatively bright stars and identified a total of 6 candidate runaway stars. We are able to tentatively confirm the runaway status of star VFTS 285, consistent with the findings from line-of-sight velocities, and to show that this star has likely been ejected from R 136. This study demonstrates that with HST it is now possible to reliably measure proper motions of individual stars in the nearest dwarf galaxies such as the LMC.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of deep HST/WFC3 near-IR (NIR) imaging data of the globular cluster M4. The best-photometry NIR colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) clearly shows the main sequence extending towards the expected end of the Hydrogen burning limit and going beyond this point towards fainter sources. The white dwarf sequence can be identified. As such, this is the deepect NIR CMD of a globular cluster to date. Archival HST optical data were used for proper-motion cleaning of the CMD and for distinguishing the WDs from BD candidates. Detection limits in the NIR are around F110W approx. 26.5 mag and F160W approx. 27 mag, and in the optical around F775W approx. 28 mag. Comparing our observed CMDs with theoretical models, we conclude that we have reached beyond the H-burning limit in our NIR CMD and are probably just above or around this limit in our optical-NIR CMDs. Thus, faint NIR sources that have no optical counterpart are potential Brown Dwarf candidates. We visually inspected the positions of NIR sources fainter than H-burning limit in F110W and without optical counterparts in the optical images. We found one such source which is therefore a very good BD candidate. For a further four faint NIR sources upper optical magnitude limits of a possible optical counterpart are estimated, resulting in three additional good BD candidates and one WD candidate.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we present first results from multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the Galactic globular cluster GC NGC2808 as an extension of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs (GO-13297 and previous proprietary and HST archive data). Our analysis allowed us to disclose a multiple-stellar-population phenomenon in NGC2808 even more complex than previously thought. We have separated at least five different populations along the main sequence and the red giant branch (RGB), that we name A, B, C, D and E (though an even finer subdivision may be suggested by the data). We identified the RGB bump in four out of the five RGBs. To explore the origin of this complex CMD, we have combined our multi-wavelength HST photometry with synthetic spectra, generated by assuming different chemical compositions. The comparison of observed colors with synthetic spectra suggests that the five stellar populations have different contents of light elements and helium. Specifically, if we assume that NGC2808 is homogeneous in [Fe/H] (as suggested by spectroscopy for Populations B, C, D, E, but lacking for Population A) and that population A has a primordial helium abundance, we find that populations B, C, D, E are enhanced in helium by Delta Y~0.03, 0.03, 0.08, 0.13, respectively. We obtain similar results by comparing the magnitude of the RGB bumps with models. Planned spectroscopic observations will test whether also Population A has the same metallicity, or whether its photometric differences with Population B can be ascribed to small [Fe/H] and [O/H] differences rather than to helium.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we combine Wide Field Camera3/UVIS F275W, F336W, and F438W data from the ‘UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters: Shedding Light on Their Populations and Formation’ (GO 13297) Hubble Space Telescope Treasury programme with F606W, F625W, F658N, and F814W Advanced Camera for Surveys archive data for a multiwavelength study of the globular cluster NGC 6352. In the colour–magnitude and two-colour diagrams obtained with appropriate combination of the photometry in the different bands, we separate two distinct stellar populations and trace them from the main sequence to the subgiant, red giant, horizontal and asymptotic giant branches. We infer that the two populations differ in He by ΔY = 0.029 ± 0.006. With a new method, we also estimate the age difference between the two sequences. Assuming no difference in [Fe/H] and [α/Fe], and the uncertainties on ΔY, we found a difference in age between the two populations of 10 ± 120 Myr. If we assume [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] differences of 0.02 dex (well within the uncertainties of spectroscopic measurements), the total uncertainty in the relative age rises to ∼300 Myr.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that the extended main-sequence turn off (eMSTO) is a common feature of intermediate-age star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). The most simple explanation is that these stellar systems harbor multiple generations of stars with an age difference of a few hundred Myrs. However, while an eMSTO has been detected in a large number of clusters with ages between ~1-2 Gyrs, several studies of young clusters in both MCs and in nearby galaxies do not find any evidence for a prolonged star-formation history, i.e. for multiple stellar generations. These results have suggested alternative interpretation of the eMSTOs observed in intermediate-age star clusters. The eMSTO could be due to stellar rotation mimicking an age spread or to interacting binaries. In these scenarios, intermediate-age MC clusters would be simple stellar populations, in close analogy with younger clusters. Here we provide the first evidence for an eMSTO in a young stellar cluster. We exploit multi-band Hubble Space Telescope photometry to study the ~300-Myr old star cluster NGC1856 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and detected a broadened MSTO that is consistent with a prolonged star-formation which had a duration of about 150 Myrs. Below the turn-off, the MS of NGC1856 is split into a red and blue component, hosting 33+/-5% and 67+/-5% of the total number of MS stars, respectively. We discuss these findings in the context of multiple-stellar-generation, stellar-rotation, and interacting-binary hypotheses.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We have imaged with HST's WFC3/UVIS the central 2.7$\times$2.7 arcmin$^2$ region of the giant elliptical galaxy M 87, using the ultraviolet filter F275W. In combination with archival ACS/WFC data taken through the F606W and F814W filters, covering the same field, we have constructed integrated-light UV-optical colors and magnitudes for 1460 objects, most of which are believed to be globular clusters belonging to M 87. The purpose was to ascertain whether the multiple-populations syndrome, ubiquitous among Galactic globular clusters (GCs), exists also among the M 87 family of clusters. To achieve this goal, we sought those GCs with exceptionally blue UV-to-optical colors, because helium-enriched sub-populations produce a horizontal-branch morphology that is well populated at high effective temperature. For comparison, integrated, synthetic UV$-$optical and purely optical colors and magnitudes have been constructed for 45 Galactic GCs, starting from individual-star photometry obtained with the same instruments and the same filters. We identify a small group of M 87 clusters exhibiting a radial UV$-$optical color gradient, representing our best candidate GCs hosting multiple populations with extreme helium content. We also find that the central spatial distribution of the bluer GCs is flattened in a direction parallel to the jet, while the distribution of redder GCs is more spherical. We release to the astronomical community our photometric catalog in F275W, F606W and F814W bands and the high-quality image stacks in the same bands.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new reduction pipeline for the VIRCAM@VISTA detector and describe the method developed to obtain high-precision astrometry with the VISTA Variables in the V\'ia L\'actea (VVV) data set. We derive an accurate geometric-distortion correction using as calibration field the globular cluster NGC 5139, and showed that we are able to reach a relative astrometric precision of about 8 mas per coordinate per exposure for well-measured stars over a field of view of more than 1 square degree. This geometric-distortion correction is made available to the community. As a test bed, we chose a field centered around the globular cluster NGC 6656 from the VVV archive and computed proper motions for the stars within. With 45 epochs spread over four years, we show that we are able to achieve a precision of 1.4 mas/yr and to isolate each population observed in the field (cluster, Bulge and Disk) using proper motions. We used proper-motion-selected field stars to measure the motion difference between Galactic disk and bulge stars. Our proper-motion measurements are consistent with UCAC4 and PPMXL, though our errors are much smaller. Models have still difficulties in reproducing the observations in this highly-reddened Galactic regions.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) Low-mass stars have been recognised as promising targets in the search for rocky, small planets with the potential of supporting life. Doppler search programmes using high-resolution spectrographs like HARPS or HARPS-N are providing huge quantities of optical spectra of M dwarfs. We aim to calibrate empirical relationships to determine stellar parameters for early M dwarfs (spectral types M0-M4.5) using the same spectra that are used for the radial velocity determinations. Our methodology consists in the use of ratios of pseudo equivalent widths of spectral features as a temperature diagnostic. Stars with effective temperatures obtained from interferometric estimates of their radii are used as calibrators. Empirical calibrations for the spectral type are also provided. Combinations of features and ratios of features are used to derive calibrations for the stellar metallicity. Our methods are then applied to a large sample of M dwarfs that are being observed in the framework of the HARPS search for extrasolar planets.The derived temperatures and metallicities are used together with photometric estimates of mass, radius, and surface gravity to calibrate empirical relationships for these parameters. A total of 112 temperature sensitive ratios have been calibrated over the range 3100-3950 K, providing Teff values with typical uncertainties of the order of 70 K. Eighty-two ratios of pseudo equivalent widths of features were calibrated to derive spectral types. Regarding stellar metallicity, 696 combinations of pseudo equivalent widths of individual features and temperature-sensitive ratios have been calibrated, over the metallicity range from -0.54 to +0.24 dex, with estimated uncertainties in the range of 0.07-0.10 dex. We provide our own empirical calibrations for stellar mass, radius, and surface gravity.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We determine the true and the projected obliquity of HAT-P-36 and WASP-11/HAT-P-10 systems, respectively, which are both composed of a relatively cool star and a hot-Jupiter planet. Thanks to the high-resolution spectrograph HARPS-N, we observed the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for both the systems by acquiring precise radial-velocity measurements during planetary transit events. We also present photometric observations comprising six light curves covering five transit events, obtained using three medium-class telescopes and the telescope-defocussing technique. One transit of WASP-11/HAT-P-10 was followed contemporaneously from two observatories. The three transit light curves of HAT-P-36b show anomalies attributable to starspot complexes on the surface of the parent star, in agreement with the analysis of its spectra that indicate a moderate activity. By analysing the complete HATNet data set of HAT-P-36, we estimated the stellar rotation period by detecting a periodic photometric modulation in the light curve caused by star spots, obtaining Prot=15.3 days, which implies that the inclination of the stellar rotational axis with respect to the line of sight is 65 degree. We used the new spectroscopic and photometric data to revise the main physical parameters and measure the sky-projected misalignment angle of the two systems. We found \lambda=-14 degree for HAT-P-36 and \lambda=7 degree for WASP-11/HAT-P-10, indicating in both cases a good spin-orbit alignment. In the case of HAT-P-36, we also measured its real obliquity, which resulted to be 25 degrees.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multiyear survey aimed at collecting (1) high-precision (∼5 milli-mag), (2) fast-cadence (∼3 min), and (3) relatively long duration (∼10 d) multiband photometric series. The goal of the survey is to discover and characterize efficiently variable objects and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. More in detail, our project will (1) constitute a preparatory survey for the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher for the Northern hemisphere (HARPS-N) mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), which will be used for spectroscopic follow-up of any target of interest that this survey discovers or characterizes, (2) measure rotational periods and estimate the activity level of targets we are already monitoring with HARPS and HARPS-N for exoplanet transit search, and (3) long-term characterization of selected targets of interest in open clusters within the planned K2 fields. In this first paper, we give an overview of the project, and report on the variability of objects within the first of our selected fields, which contains two open clusters: M35 and NGC 2158. We detect 519 variable objects, 273 of which are new discoveries, while the periods of most of the previously known variables are considerably improved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We revisit the TrES-4 system parameters based on high-precision HARPS-N radial-velocity measurements and new photometric light curves. A combined spectroscopic and photometric analysis allows us to determine a spectroscopic orbit with an amplitude $K=51\pm3$ m s$^{-1}$. The derived mass of TrES-4b is found to be $M_{\rm p} = 0.49\pm0.04 \rm M_{Jup}$, significantly lower than previously reported. Combined with the large radius ($R_{\rm p} = 1.84_{-0.09}^{+0.08} \rm R_{Jup}$) inferred from our analysis, TrES-4b becomes the second-lowest density transiting hot Jupiter known. We discuss several scenarios to explain the puzzling discrepancy in the mass of TrES-4b in the context of the exotic class of highly inflated transiting giant planets.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

Publication Stats

6k Citations
651.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2015
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
    • National Institute of Astrophysics
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2000-2014
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy "Galileo Galilei"
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2011-2013
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2008-2013
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2006-2008
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2005
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States