[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GTPases of immunity-associated proteins (GIMAPs) are regulators of lymphocyte survival and homeostasis. We previously determined the structural basis of GTP-dependent GIMAP2 scaffold formation on lipid droplets. To understand how its GTP hydrolysis is activated, we screened for other GIMAPs on lipid droplets and identified GIMAP7. In contrast to GIMAP2, GIMAP7 displayed dimerization-stimulated GTP hydrolysis. The crystal structure of GTP-bound GIMAP7 showed a homodimer that assembled via the G domains, with the helical extensions protruding in opposite directions. We identified a catalytic arginine that is supplied to the opposing monomer to stimulate GTP hydrolysis. GIMAP7 also stimulated GTP hydrolysis by GIMAP2 via an analogous mechanism. Finally, we found GIMAP2 and GIMAP7 expression differentially regulated in several human T cell lymphoma lines. Our findings suggest that GTPase activity in the GIMAP family is controlled by homo- and heterodimerization. This may have implications for the differential roles of some GIMAPs in lymphocyte survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stomatin proteins oligomerize at membranes and have been implicated in ion channel regulation and membrane trafficking. To obtain mechanistic insights into their function, we determined three crystal structures of the conserved stomatin domain of mouse stomatin that assembles into a banana-shaped dimer. We show that dimerization is crucial for the repression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) activity. A hydrophobic pocket at the inside of the concave surface is open in the presence of an internal peptide ligand and closes in the absence of this ligand, and we demonstrate a function of this pocket in the inhibition of ASIC3 activity. In one crystal form, stomatin assembles via two conserved surfaces into a cylindrical oligomer, and these oligomerization surfaces are also essential for the inhibition of ASIC3-mediated currents. The assembly mode of stomatin uncovered in this study might serve as a model to understand oligomerization processes of related membrane-remodelling proteins, such as flotillin and prohibitin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In yeast, the membrane-bound HMG-CoA reductase degradation (HRD) ubiquitin-ligase complex is a key player of the ER-associated protein degradation pathway that targets misfolded proteins for proteolysis. Yos9, a component of the luminal submodule of the ligase, scans proteins for specific oligosaccharide modifications, which constitute a critical determinant of the degradation signal. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Yos9 domain that was previously suggested to confer binding to Hrd3, another component of the HRD complex. We observe an αβ-roll domain architecture and a dimeric assembly which are confirmed by analytical ultracentrifugation of both the crystallized domain and full-length Yos9. Our binding studies indicate that, instead of this domain, the N-terminal part of Yos9 including the mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology domain mediates the association with Hrd3 in vitro. Our results support the model of a dimeric state of the HRD complex and provide first-time evidence of self-association on its luminal side.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to endocytosis-mediated cellular uptake, hydrophilic cell-penetrating peptides are able to traverse biological membranes in a non-endocytic mode termed transduction, resulting in immediate bioavailability. Here we analysed structural requirements for the non-endocytic uptake mode of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides, by a combination of live-cell microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations and analytical ultracentrifugation. We demonstrate that the transduction efficiency of arginine-rich peptides increases with higher peptide structural rigidity. Consequently, cyclic arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides showed enhanced cellular uptake kinetics relative to their linear and more flexible counterpart. We propose that guanidinium groups are forced into maximally distant positions by cyclization. This orientation increases membrane contacts leading to enhanced cell penetration.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structures from PTD4 derived from molecular dynamics simulations covering a period of 5 ns. The backbone and arginines of the peptides are red for emphasis, all other atoms are grey.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structures from cyclic TAT derived from molecular dynamics simulations covering a period of 5 ns. The backbone and arginines of the peptides are red for emphasis, all other atoms are grey.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structures from TAT derived from molecular dynamics simulations covering a period of 5 ns. The backbone and arginines of the peptides are red for emphasis, all other atoms are grey.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structures from R10 derived from molecular dynamics simulations covering a period of 5 ns. The backbone and arginines of the peptides are red for emphasis, all other atoms are grey.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myomesin plays an important structural and functional role in the M-band of striated muscles. The C-terminal domain 13 of myomesin dimerises and forms antiparallel strands which cross-link neighboring Myosin filaments and titin in the M-line of the sarcomeres. These interactions stabilise the contractile apparatus during striated muscle contraction. Since myomesin is an important component of the M-band we screened the myomesin gene for genetic variants in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We identified the missense mutation V1490I in domain 12 of myomesin in a family with inherited HCM. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments, circular dichroism spectra, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of myomesin fragments were carried out to investigate the effects of the mutation V1490I on structure and function of myomesin domains 11-13 and 12-13. Both the wild type and mutated myomesin domains My11-13 revealed similar secondary structures and formed stable dimers. Mutated myomesin domains My11-13 and My12-13 dimers revealed a reduced thermal stability and a significantly decreased dimerisation affinity, showing disturbed functional properties of V1490I mutated myomesin. However, monomeric myomesin domains My11-12, i.e. without dimerisation domain 13 showed no difference in thermal stability between wild type and V1490I mutated myomesin. In conclusion, the V1490I mutation associated with HCM lead to myomesin proteins with abnormal functional properties which affect dimerisation properties of myomesin domain 13. These effects may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCM.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GTPases of immunity-associated proteins (GIMAPs) are a distinctive family of GTPases, which control apoptosis in lymphocytes and play a central role in lymphocyte maturation and lymphocyte-associated diseases. To explore their function and mechanism, we determined crystal structures of a representative member, GIMAP2, in different nucleotide-loading and oligomerization states. Nucleotide-free and GDP-bound GIMAP2 were monomeric and revealed a guanine nucleotide-binding domain of the TRAFAC (translation factor associated) class with a unique amphipathic helix α7 packing against switch II. In the absence of α7 and the presence of GTP, GIMAP2 oligomerized via two distinct interfaces in the crystal. GTP-induced stabilization of switch I mediates dimerization across the nucleotide-binding site, which also involves the GIMAP specificity motif and the nucleotide base. Structural rearrangements in switch II appear to induce the release of α7 allowing oligomerization to proceed via a second interface. The unique architecture of the linear oligomer was confirmed by mutagenesis. Furthermore, we showed a function for the GIMAP2 oligomer at the surface of lipid droplets. Although earlier studies indicated that GIMAPs are related to the septins, the current structure also revealed a strikingly similar nucleotide coordination and dimerization mode as in the dynamin GTPase. Based on this, we reexamined the relationships of the septin- and dynamin-like GTPases and demonstrate that these are likely to have emerged from a common membrane-associated dimerizing ancestor. This ancestral property appears to be critical for the role of GIMAPs as nucleotide-regulated scaffolds on intracellular membranes.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ahnak1, a giant 700 kDa protein, has been implicated in Ca2+ signalling in various cells. Previous work suggested that the interaction between ahnak1 and Cavβ2 subunit plays a role in L-type Ca2+ current (I
CaL) regulation. Here, we performed structure–function studies with the most C-terminal domain of ahnak1 (188 amino acids) containing a PxxP consensus motif (designated as 188-PSTP) using ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from rats, wild-type (WT) mice and ahnak1-deficient mice. In vitro binding studies revealed that 188-PSTP conferred high-affinity binding to Cavβ2 (K
d ∼ 60 nM). Replacement of proline residues by alanines (188-ASTA) decreased Cavβ2 affinity about 20-fold. Both 188-PSTP and 188-ASTA were functional in ahnak1-expressing rat and mouse cardiomyocytes during whole-cell patch clamp. Upon intracellular application, they increased the net Ca2+ influx by enhancing I
CaL density and/or increasing I
CaL inactivation time course without altering voltage dependency. Specifically, 188-ASTA, which failed to affect I
CaL density, markedly slowed I
CaL inactivation resulting in a 50–70% increase in transported Ca2+ during a 0 mV depolarising pulse. Both ahnak1 fragments also slowed current inactivation with Ba2+ as charge carrier. By contrast, neither 188-PSTP nor 188-ASTA affected any I
CaL characteristics in ahnak1-deficient mouse cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate that the presence of endogenous ahnak1 is required for tuning the voltage-dependent component of I
CaL inactivation by ahnak1 fragments. We suggest that ahnak1 modulates the accessibility of molecular determinants in Cavβ2 and/or scaffolds selectively different β-subunit isoforms in the heart.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology