[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 1990s brought a burst of information regarding the structure, expression pattern, and role in leukocyte migration and adhesion of chemokines and their receptors. At that time, the FDA approved the first therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. A few years later, it was reported that the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 were involved on direct-ing metastases to liver, lung, bone marrow, or lymph nodes, and the over-expression of CCR4, CCR6, and CCR9 by certain tumors. The possibility of inhibiting the interaction of chemokine receptors present on the surface of tumor cells with their ligands emerged as a new therapeutic approach. Therefore, many research groups and companies began to develop small molecule antagonists and specific antibodies, aiming to neutralize sig-naling from these receptors. Despite great expectations, so far, only one anti-chemokine receptor antibody has been approved for its clinical use, mogamulizumab, an anti-CCR4 antibody, granted in Japan to treat refractory adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma. Here, we review the main achievements obtained with anti-chemokine receptor antibodies for cancer immunotherapy, including discovery and clinical studies, proposed mechanisms of action, and therapeutic applications.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Frontiers in Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) envelope (E) protein is a transmembrane protein. Several subcellular locations and topological conformations of E protein have been proposed. To identify the correct ones, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the amino or the carboxy terminus of E protein, respectively, were generated. E protein was mainly found in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) of cells transfected with a plasmid encoding E protein or infected with SARS-CoV. No evidence of E protein presence in the plasma membrane was found by using immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and cell surface protein labeling. In addition, measurement of plasma membrane voltage gated ion channel activity by whole-cell patch clamp suggested that E protein was not present in the plasma membrane. A topological conformation in which SARS-CoV E protein amino terminus is oriented towards the lumen of intracellular membranes and carboxy terminus faces cell cytoplasm is proposed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The death inducer obliterator (Dido) locus encodes three protein isoforms, of which Dido3 is the largest and most broadly expressed. Dido3 is a nuclear protein that forms part of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and is necessary for correct chromosome segregation in somatic and germ cells. Here we report that specific ablation of Dido3 function in mice causes lethal developmental defects at the onset of gastrulation. Although these defects are associated with centrosome amplification, spindle malformation and a DNA damage response, we provide evidence that embryonic lethality of the Dido3 mutation cannot be explained by its impact on chromosome segregation alone. We show that loss of Dido3 expression compromises differentiation of embryonic stem cells in vitro and of epiblast cells in vivo, resulting in early embryonic death at around day 8.5 of gestation. Close analysis of Dido3 mutant embryoid bodies indicates that ablation of Dido3, rather than producing a generalized differentiation blockade, delays the onset of lineage commitment at the primitive endoderm specification stage. The dual role of Dido3 in chromosome segregation and stem cell differentiation supports the implication of SAC components in stem cell fate decisions.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Cell death and differentiation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past, one of the major problems in gluten analysis has been the unavailability of an efficient, universal, extraction procedure of gliadins - the alcohol-soluble proteins of gluten - from both heat processed and unprocessed products. This study was designed to develop a universal, extraction procedure capable of extracting the totality of gliadins from both unprocessed and heat processed foods for coeliac patients.
A simple quantitative extraction solution containing 250 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and 2 M guanidine hydrochloride ('cocktail'), was developed to extract gliadins from heated foods.
The diluted reducing and disaggregating agents reaching the micro plate at low concentration do not affect the ELISA system based on the R5 monoclonal antibody. The recovery of gliadins extracted by the cocktail from spiked samples was nearly complete, with an average mean value of 95.5%, which is clearly superior to 44.4% obtained with conventional 60% aqueous ethanol. The cocktail always yielded either slightly similar or higher values than 60% aqueous ethanol depending on the type of foods: 1.1-fold in unheated foods, 1.4-fold in wheat starches and 3.0-fold in heated foods. False positives or negatives were never observed using the cocktail solution.
We present a general complete gliadin extraction procedure based on reducing and disaggregating agents for both heated and unheated foods as a crucial tool for gliadin analysis. The new extraction solution is used for corresponding proteins from rye (secalins) and barley (hordeins). The cocktail was employed as the extraction method in the international ring trial evaluation of sandwich R5-ELISA as proposed by the Codex Alimentarius and organized by the Working Group on Prolamin Analysis and Toxicity.
Preview · Article · Jun 2005 · European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is currently much call for a reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol for determining gluten in foods to serve as a basis for further Codex Alimentarius regulations. Given its ability to recognize the potential coeliac-toxic epitope QQPFP, which occurs repeatedly in alpha-, gamma- and omega-gliadins, hordeins and secalins, the monoclonal antibody R5 raised against a secalin extract may prove to be an essential tool for gluten analysis. This study was designed to develop a highly sensitive and specific sandwich ELISA to quantify low levels of wheat, barley and rye prolamins in foods for coeliacs.
Simple sandwich ELISA based on the use of a single monoclonal antibody (R5) as both the coating and detection was developed. A quantitative cocktail gluten-extraction procedure for heat-processed foods was also tested.
R5-ELISA was able to identify gliadins, hordeins and secalins with assay sensitivities of 0.78, 0.39 and 0.39 ng/ml, respectively. The assay's detection limit was 1.5 ng gliadins/ml (1.56 ppm gliadins, 3.2 ppm gluten). The system proved insensitive to the non-coeliac-toxic cereals maize, rice and oats, and was non-cultivar-dependent. It was also able to detect gliadins and hordeins in unprocessed and heat-processed wheat- and barley-based products, and to estimate the gluten content of hydrolysed foods.
We present a new generation of a robust sandwich R5-ELISA with good reproducibility (8.7%) and repeatability (7.7%). Its gluten-detection limit of 3.2 ppm is lower than the existing threshold of 20-200 ppm. The ELISA, which is equally sensitive to barley, wheat and rye prolamins, is compatible with the quantitative cocktail extraction procedure for heat-processed foods. Along with the cocktail procedure, the Working Group on Prolamin Analysis and Toxicity is currently evaluating an R5-ELISA system as proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.
No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fluorescent sensitive SYPRO Red dye was successfully employed to stain proteins in two-dimensional gels for protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting. Proteins which are not chemically modified during the SYPRO Red staining process are well digested enzymatically in the gel and hence the resulting peptides can be efficiently eluted and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A SYPRO Red two-dimensional gel of a complex protein extract from Candida albicans was analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. The validity of SYPRO Red staining was demonstrated by identifying, via peptide mass fingerprinting, 10 different C. albicans proteins from a total of 31 selected protein spots. The peptide mass signal intensity, the number of matched peptides and the percentage of coverage of protein sequences from SYPRO Red-stained proteins were similar to or greater than those obtained in parallel with the modified silver protein gel staining. This work demonstrates that fluorescent SYPRO Red staining is compatible with the identification of proteins separated on polyacrylamide gel and that it can be used as an alternative to silver staining. As far as we know, this is the first report in which C. albicans proteins separated using 2-D gels have been identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The improved technique described here should be very useful for carrying out proteomic studies.
No preview · Article · Jun 2000 · Journal of Mass Spectrometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have characterized the human natural antibody repertoire that contains antibodies recognizing the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120. A panel of monovalent antigen-binding fragments (Fab) selected from IgM and IgG isotype libraries generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of a healthy, HIV-1 noninfected individual was analysed, reflecting that only IgM, but not IgG, Fab were able to recognize HIV-1 gp120. The IgM Fab antibodies were not restricted to any particular heavy chain variable region (VH) germ line gene. However, the recognition of gp120 is associated to polyreactive antibodies and all display low-affinity interaction. This correlates with the absence of any maturation process as somatic mutation or isotype switch as the nucleotide sequence analysis of the variable regions reveals they are expressed near to germline configuration. In addition, none of the antibodies showed any neutralizing activity on HIV-1-infected lymphocytes, reflecting that the natural anti-gp120 repertoire is not sufficient to neutralize HIV infection.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1999 · Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) facilitates the induction of primary immune responses by activating and recruiting antigen-presenting cells (APC), which efficiently present antigen determinants to Th cells. We have derived a functional GM-CSF/gp120 chimeric protein that, following immunization in soluble, adjuvant-independent form in normal mice, triggers highly specific, high affinity anti-gp120 antibodies. In contrast, nude mice respond with mutated, polyreactive, low affinity antibodies that mature further and increase in affinity in T cell-reconstituted nude mice. Anti-gp120 antibody production in nude mice is mediated principally by GM-CSF/gp120-triggered IL-4 production, since neutralizing anti-IL-4 abrogates the in vivo response. The anti-gp120 antibody response in normal, nude and T cell-reconstituted nude mice is encoded at a remarkably high frequency by the VH81X and VH7183 genes, a family used notably during fetal life and, when expressed at the adult stage, associated with autoimmune disease. We conclude that HIV gp120 binds and selects a subpopulation of developing B cells expressing a set of VH genes associated with immunodeficiency and autoimmunity.
No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Molecular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize the variable heavy chain (VH)3 antibody response to HIV-1 gp120, we analyzed a panel of IgM and IgG1 Fab fragments from phage display isotype libraries from a long-term, non-progressor HIV-1-infected individual. The IgM Fab antibodies isolated had low affinity for gp120, were not restricted to a particular VH3 germ-line gene, and consisted mainly of unmutated VH genes. In contrast, IgG Fab fragments were gp120 specific, with high affinity and extensive somatic mutation; all were clonally related and were derived from a single VH3 germ-line gene (DP50). One IgG Fab (S8) has DP50 VH region nucleotide substitutions identical to those of IgM Fab M025 and uses similar DH and JH segments, suggesting that S8 arose from M025 by isotype switching. In addition, somatic mutation in the IgG heavy chain third complementarity-determining region results in a 100-fold affinity increase for gp120, which correlates with a similar increase in neutralization capacity. These results imply that in vivo IgM to IgG isotype switch and affinity maturation may be important for protection and long-term survival in certain HIV-1-infected individuals.
Full-text · Article · Sep 1999 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The androgen-independent human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line DU-145 proliferates in serum-free medium and produces insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I, IGF-II, and the IGF type-1 receptor (IGF-1R). They also secrete three IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP), IGFBP-2, -3, and -4. Of these, immunoblot analysis revealed selective proteolysis of IGFBP-3, yielding fragments of 31 and 19 kDa. By using an anti-IGF-I-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), we detect surface receptor-bound IGF-I on serum-starved DU-145 cells, which activates IGF-1R and triggers a mitogenic signal. Incubation of DU-145 cells with blocking anti-IGF-I, anti-IGF-II, or anti-IGF-I plus anti-IGF-II mAb does not, however, inhibit serum-free growth of DU-145. Conversely, anti-IGF-1R mAb and IGFBP-3 inhibit DNA synthesis. IGFBP-3 also modifies the DU-145 cell cycle, decreases p34(cdc2) levels, and IGF-1R autophosphorylation. The antiproliferative IGFBP-3 activity is not IGF-independent, since des-(1-3)IGF-I, which does not bind to IGFBP-3, reverses its inhibitory effect. DU-145 also secretes the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which can be detected in both a soluble and a membrane-bound form. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, but not serpins, abrogate DNA synthesis in DU-145 associated with the blocking of IGFBP-3 proteolysis. Overexpression of an antisense cDNA for MMP-9 inhibits 80% of DU-145 cell proliferation that can be reversed by IGF-I in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of MMP-9 expression is also associated with a decrease in IGFBP-3 proteolysis and with reduced signaling through the IGF-1R. Our data indicate an IGF autocrine loop operating in DU-145 cells, specifically modulated by IGFBP-3, whose activity may in turn be regulated by IGFBP-3 proteases such as MMP-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccinia virus (VV) infection induces protective T- and B-cell responses, making recombinants based on VV good candidates for the development of effective vaccines to other viruses. VV recombinants expressing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein (Env) have been generated in several laboratories and shown to induce anti-HIV cellular and humoral immune responses in vaccinated humans and in chimpanzees. To increase the immunogenicity of the Env antigen, a VV recombinant was generated that expresses a chimeric antigen consisting of the Env protein fused to an immunostimulatory cytokine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The chimeric protein retained GM-CSF biological activity when expressed by this recombinant virus (VV-GM-gp120) in cells infected in vitro. Infection of BALB/c mice with VV-GM-gp120 triggered a higher HIV-specific cellular immune response, as measured by interferon-gamma production, than that induced by a VV recombinant expressing the native Env protein. Moreover, although anti-gp120 antibody titres were similar in sera from mice inoculated with either of the VV recombinants, immunization with the recombinant expressing the fusion protein elicited antibodies against a broader spectrum of Env epitopes. These results indicate that HIV Env antigen fusion to GM-CSF provides a means to improve the anti-HIV immune response.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1999 · Journal of General Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CCR5 chemokine receptor plays a crucial role in the initiation of in vivo HIV infection, acting as a critical coreceptor molecule for primary strains. Individuals with mutations in the CCR5 gene that reduce its level of expression are resistant to HIV-1 infection. Since these mutations are not associated with any known clinical condition, CCR5 may be an ideal target for anti-HIV therapy. We have designed an artificial hammerhead ribozyme, denoted RzR5-76, targeted to exon 2 of the human CCR5 mRNA. When RzR5-76 activity is induced in HEK 293 cells transfected with a CCR5 expression plasmid, the surface levels of this chemokine receptor are reduced up to 60%. The results indicate that this inhibitory effect is mainly due to the catalytic activity of the ribozyme and not to its antisense properties. These preliminary data suggest that intracellular ribozymes could be used in vivo to block HIV-1 entry into human cells.
Preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunization of mice with HIV-1-gp120 results in predominant activation of the Th2 lymphocyte subset, leading to enhanced IL-4 production. Administration of human growth hormone at the time of gp120 immunization provokes a change in the cytokine production pattern, with lower IL-4 and higher gamma-IFN and IL-2 synthesis levels, indicating a preferential switch in stimulation from Th2 to Th1 cells. A growth hormone would thus be of great use for pharmacological intervention in those cases in which an infectious microorganism evades immune defenses by provoking a Th2 response. In addition, the ability of growth hormone to induce a Th1-type response upon vaccination with an HIV-antigen should be examined in the development of new therapeutic strategies or in the design of novel vaccines against HIV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proinflammatory cytokine overproduction, as well as synthesis of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), are known to play a major role in HIV-1-triggered disease. AIDS patients show increased serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma levels, which synergize with HIV-1-produced nitric oxide (NO) to augment viral replication. Linomide has strong immunomodulatory effects in animals and humans, yielding promising clinical benefits in several pathological disorders including septic shock and autoimmune disease, processes largely mediated by overproduction of these cytokines. In peripheral T cells, linomide also prevents apoptosis triggered by a variety of stimuli, including superantigens, dexamethasone and vaccinia virus.
Linomide inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and IFN-gamma, as well as iNOS synthesis. The SCID-hu-PBL mouse model was used to analyse the effect of linomide on HIV-1 infection. T-cell frequency was characterized in reconstituted animals, and the frequency of infected mice and viral load of infected animals were studied.
Linomide promotes an increase in human CD4+ T-cell counts in the peritoneal cavity of HIV-1-infected, linomide-treated mice. Linomide also prevents human TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma production, as well as iNOS expression and affects the viral load, promoting potent suppression of HIV-1 infectivity as detected in peritoneal cavity and spleen.
The combination of linomide's properties, namely, blockage of proinflammatory cytokine and NO production, as well as prevention of apoptosis, is of paramount interest, making linomide a potential candidate for combating HIV-1 infection or preventing some of its associated pathological manifestations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemokines are a homologous serum protein family characterized by their ability to induce activation of integrin adhesion molecules and leukocyte migration. Chemokines interact with their receptors, which are composed of a single-chain, seven-helix, membrane-spanning protein coupled to G proteins. Two CC chemokine receptors, CCR3 and CCR5, as well as the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, have been shown necessary for infection by several HIV-1 virus isolates. We studied the effect of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and of a panel of MCP-1 receptor (CCR2)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) on the suppression of HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We have compelling evidence that MCP-1 has potent HIV-1 suppressive activity when HIV-1-infected peripheral blood lymphocytes are used as target cells. Furthermore, mAb specific for the MCP-1R CCR2 which recognize the third extracellular CCR2 domain inhibit all MCP-1 activity and also block MCP-1 suppressive activity. Finally, a set of mAb specific for the CCR2 amino-terminal domain, one of which mimics MCP-1 activity, has a potent suppressive effect on HIV-1 replication in M- and T-tropic HIV-1 viral isolates. We conjecture a role for CCR2 as a coreceptor for HIV-1 infection and map the HIV-1 binding site to the amino-terminal part of this receptor. This concurs with results showing that the CCR5 amino terminus is relevant in HIV-1 infection, although chimeric fusion of various extracellular domains shows that other domains are also implicated. We discuss the importance of CCR2 structure relative to its coreceptor role and the role of anti-CCR2 receptor antibodies in the prevention of HIV-1 infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary To enhance the efficiency of DNA vaccines to HIV-1, we immunized BALB/c mice sequentially with a gp120 DNA vector and a recombinant vaccinia virus (VV). We have also evaluated the effect of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF) expression by a DNA vector on both cellular and humoral immune responses when coadministered with the gp120-encoding DNA at priming. Our results show a significant enhancement of both arms of the immune system when the DNA prime/VV boost regime is used, as compared with the immunization protocol based on priming and boosting with vector DNA. A 100-fold increase in the number of antigen-specific IFN- -secreting CD8+ T cells was observed in splenocyte cultures from mice immunized with the combined vector DNA/VV protocol. The humoral immune response is also improved in animals receiving the vector DNA/VV combined vaccine, as shown by the increase in both env-specific antibody titers and HIV-1 neutralizing activity in sera. IgG1 was the predominant isotype detected in sera from the immunized animals. This, together with the IL-4 and IFN- production in splenocyte cultures from these animals, indicated that both Th1 and Th2 responses are induced by the combined immunization approach. Coadministration of a GM-CSF-expressing DNA vector in the priming step resulted in enhanced T cell proliferation rates, irrespective of whether the booster was given with vector DNA or recombinant VV. In addition, a slight increase in the humoral immune response was also observed in animals primed with gp120 and GM-CSF-expressing plasmid and boosted with recombinant VV. These findings describe a combinatorial priming/booster immunization approach that may be effective in the control of HIV-1 infection and of other pathogens.