A.K. Haruna

Ahmadu Bello University, Заря, Kaduna, Nigeria

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Publications (38)24.27 Total impact

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    AJ Yusuf · MI Abdullahi · AK Haruna · AY Idris · AM Musa
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    ABSTRACT: Neocarya macrophylla belongs to the Chrysobalanaceae family and is extensively used in folk medicine as an antibacterial, antivenin, antiasthmatic, anticancer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. This study was aimed at isolation and characterization of compounds from the stem bark of Neocarya macrophylla. Pulverized plant material was exhaustively extracted with methanol using maceration method and concentrated invacuo with the aid of rotary evaporator at 40oC to afford a reddish brown crude methanol extract (ME). The methanol extract was successively partitioned into hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions. Stigmasterol was isolated from the hexane fraction and a catechin glycoside, Bis-(5,7-diacetyl-catechin-4’-α- rhamnopyranoside) was isolated from the ethylacetate soluble fraction using a combination of silica gel column, gel filtration (sephadex LH-20) and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of chemical tests, spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with reference spectral data.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    A J Yusuf · M I Abdullahi · A K Haruna · A M Musa · Z Y Y Ibrahim · A Uba
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    ABSTRACT: The methanol stem bark extract of Neocarya macrophylla was screened for its analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and formalin-induced pain in rats. The results of the study showed that the extract (60mg/kg, i.p.) decreased writhing response with 63.9% inhibition. The methanol extract also exhibited significant analgesic effect (P<0.05) in the formalin test which is in the same order of magnitude as that observed after administration of pentazocine (10mg/kg, i.p.) the standard drug. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) of the methanol extract of N. macrophylla was found to be 283mg/kg in mice suggesting the plant is fairly toxic. The results of the study have shown that the methanol extract of N. macrophylla possesses analgesic activity which rationalizes the traditional use of the plant in the management of pain.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
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    ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial effect of the crude methanol leaf extract of Ochna kibbiensis obtained through maceration technique was evaluated against pathogenic microorganisms which include Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci, Listeria monocytogenes, Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter fetus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas flourescens, Candida tropicalis and Candida stellatoidea. Agar Disc diffusion and Nutrient Broth dilution techniques were employed. Susceptibility test results showed that the extract (400µg) inhibited the growth of all the test organisms (bacteria and fungi) with a mean zone of inhibition range of 18-27mm, with the exception of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori and Pseudomonas flourescens. The standard antibacterial drug, Sparfloxacin (5ug/ml) had inhibitory activity against all the organisms except H. pylori, P. flourescens, C. tropicalis and C. stellatoidea while Fluconazole, the standard anti-fungal drug showed activity only on the two fungi species tested C. tropicalis and C. stellatoidea. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC) range for the extract was 5-20mg/ml and 10-40mg/ml, respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids/terpenes, saponins, glycosides and alkaloids in the extract. The results of this study suggest that the leaves extract of the plant O. kibbiensis contains bioactive constituent(s) with good antibacterial and antifungal activity and, lends credence to its folkloric use in wound healing and other microbial infections.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: An assessment of phytochemical composition and antimicrobial studies of the methanol stem bark extract of Neocarya macrophylla was carried out. Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard procedures and the antimicrobial property of the extract was evaluated against clinical isolates including Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococus feacalis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Candida albicans and Candida krusei using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. The result of the preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and triterpenes. Susceptibility test (at 2mg) showed inhibition range of 22-34mm against S. pyogenes, B. subtilis, B. cereus, E. coli, C. albicans. No activity was observed against S. feacalis, C. krusei and P. fluorescence. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) range was 2.5-5.0mg/ml and the Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) range was 5-20mg/ml against the sensitive organisms. The findings of this research indicate that the crude methanol stem bark extract of N. macrophylla contains bioactive components that have antifungal and broad spectrum antibacterial properties.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Phytochemical screening of the acetone extract of the leave of Callitris glauca indicate the presence of flavonoids, glycoside, saponin free reducing sugar however alkaloid are absence in this specie. The characteristic shades of full methylated biflavonoids in U.V light has been found to provide a means for quick and satisfactory identification of biflavonoid, hence three biflavonoids, amentoflavones, cupressuflavones and hinokiflavones were identified. The glycoside after hydrolysis afforded quercetin as the genin and two sugars were identified as rhamnose and glucose.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The experiment involves quality analysis of six (6) samples of Antimalarial drug (Artemisinin-based combination) using ultra violet spectrophotometer in the range of (200-400nm) in which the samples were dissolved in methanolic acid and their various absorbance and wavelength determined and compared with that of the standard, wavelength of maximum absorbance was in the range of 240-243nm was used. Percentage content for each sample was determined so as to note if it was within the acceptable range of (95-105%), for those that passed the test or if it was below or above the rage for samples that are substandard or highly concentrated. The amount of Artemisinin base in each sample was determined (actual content) and compared with that of the stated (20mg). The stated drug content in the samples where used alongside the actual drug content to calculate the percentage deviation of each sample from the market standard. It was observed that only one sample Lokmal(97.1%) meet the BPC/Martindale requirement for actual drug content range of (95-105%) while the other five samples, Amatem (72.5%), Artemetrin (70.8%), Lonart (72.1%), Coartem (72.1%), Artin(39.6%), failed the test with values below the acceptable range. The value of Artin was as low as 39.6% and has the lowest actual drug content sample among the six drugs.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011
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    ABSTRACT: The ethyl acetate extract of Phyllanthus discoides affords β-sitosterol, euphol and kaempferol. There structures were characterized by m.p., m.m.ps., TLC, degradation and by preparing their acetyl derivatives. Quantitative evaluation of the crude drug (powdered stem bark) was also carried out.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The leaves of the plant Cycas circinalis (Cycadaceae) are usually prescribed with other part of the plant traditionally as a purgative the pharmacological activities of the leaves as a purgative was evaluated on isolated rabbit and guinea pig ileum against two spasmogen, Acetylcholine (Ach), and Histamine (Hist). The aqueous solution of fractions 'AC', 'EA,' 'CC' abolished completely Acetylcholine and Histamine induced contraction (dose dependant), the effect of the extract-mimicked antagonists, (atropine, Atr, and adrenaline, Adr,). Since atropine and other cholinergic antagonist blocks the colic and spastic action brought about by Ach on intestinal muscle, they are therefore beneficial in colic spasm and increase in parastalsis. Fractions 'AC', 'EA' and 'CC' of Cycas circinalis leaves also antagonize Ach induced contraction on isolated rabbit and guinea pig ileum so they have anticholinergic activities. Since anticholinergy cannot be as purgative hence the pharmacological action shows the leave could then be a synergistic part (synergism). This been the first report on pharmacological action on Cycas circinalis leaves.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Acute toxicity studies were carried out using rats weighing between 100-160g. Five groups of six rats each were used. They were administered (intraperitoreally) with varying doses (500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 6000 mg/kg) of all the extract (ethanol extract 'A', acetone extract 'B', Chloroform 'C', and Water, 'D'). There was no mortality 24 hours after administration of extract 'E' water. However, in extract C there was mortality at 2000 and 6000 mg/kg. The clinical signs appeared to be dose-dependent Tables 1 to 10 show the calculation of the LD 50 of the extract A, B, C and D and the dose administered to mortality rate. The result of an acute toxicity on administration of the extract inter peritoneally for 24 hours showed that the LD 50 calculated for the extract were at close range (3.750 g kg -1- 6.0g kg -1). However the chloroform extract was found to posses a higher LD 50 value. Although the extracts are a combination of many different compounds, therefore it is possible to get much lesser LD 50 with isolated pure compounds. The percentage mortality equally shows that the water extract was less toxic on comparison with the other three extracts.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences
  • MI Sule · UU Pateh · AK Haruna · AA Ambi · HS Hassan · IN Akpulu
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    ABSTRACT: Terminalia catappa Linn (Combretaceae), a tree commonly found in the tropics is used in Hausa ethnomedicine in the treatment of liver diseases, diabetes, asthma, diarrhoea and typhoid fever. In the latter case however, only the dried fallen leaves are used. Comparative preliminary phytochemical screening of the fresh and dried fallen leaves extractsrevealed the presence of saponins, steroids and triterpenes, fatty acids, tannins and glycosides in both types of the leaves. Alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the dried fallen leaves. The antibacterial assay of both the fresh and dried fallen leaves extracts indicated higher activity against Salmonella typhii (clinical isolates) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) by extracts of dried fallen leaves
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010
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    ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial activity of the acetone and methanol extracts of the leaves of Ochna schweinfurthiana F Hoffm (Ochnaceae) obtained through maceration was evaluated using disc diffusion and Nutrient broth dilution techniques. The microorganisms tested were: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 021001, Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236, Escherichia coli NCTC 10418, Salmonella typhi ATCC19430, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 6750, Candida albicans ATCC 10231; local hospital isolates: Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Neisseria gonorrhoea and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Susceptibility test results showed that both extracts (600 �g/disc) inhibited growth with a mean zone of inhibition range of 15 - 21 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, S. typhi, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa; no activity was however observed against methicillin resistant S. aureus, N. gonorrhea, C. ulcerans, B. subtilis, E. coli and the only fungus, C. albicans. Sparfloxacin (100 �g/disc) a standard antibiotic inhibited the growth of all the organisms tested with the exception of C. albicans. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins and steroids/terpenes. The results suggest that the plant contains bioactive constituent(s) with modest antimicrobial activity and validates the ethno-medical use in wound dressing and other forms of bacterial infections.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
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    A M Musa · M I Sule · A K Haruna · M Ilyas · I Iliya · A H Yaro · M G Magaji
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of the methanol extract of Indigofera pulchra Willd. (Papillionaceae) was investigated against castor oil induced diarrheoa. Its effects on perfused isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum were also evaluated. The extract produced a dose-dependent protection against the castor oil-induced diarrheoa in mice with the highest protection (100%), obtained at 200 mgkg-1 comparable to that of loperamide (5 mgkg-1), a standard antidiarrhoeal drug. The extract (0.4 - 6.4 mgml-1) produced a concentration relaxation of the rabbit jejunum. However, no observable effect was noticed when the guinea pig ileum was treated. The extract blocked the contractile effect of acetylcholine (2 × 10-8 gml-1) and histamine (4 × 10-7 gml-1) on both rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) value for the extract was found to be 2154.0 mgkg-1. The results obtained revealed that the extract possesses pharmacologically active compounds with gastrointestinal relaxant and antidiarrhoeal activities and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorder.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2008
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    ABSTRACT: Zizyphus spina-christi is used in ethnomedical practice for the treatment of fever. Bio-assay guided investigation of the plant's root bark was initiated and ZS-2A, a fraction from the chloroform extract of the material, eluted with hexane-ethylacetate (50:50) using flash column chromatography, was evaluated for in vivo antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice. Four-day suppressive, curative effect against established infection and prophylactic models of antiplasmodial studies were used. The fraction (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a potent activity against the parasite in the suppressive and curative tests. The result suggests that ZS-2A may be a promising agent for malaria treatment. © 2007 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences
  • A. Musa · A.K. Haruna · M. Ilyas · A. Ahmadu · S. Gibbons · M.M. Rahman
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    ABSTRACT: A mixture of two new dihydrostilbenes, 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy- 4′-O-(2ξ,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-dihydrostilbene (1) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4′-O-(2ξ,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-dihydrostilbene (2), was isolated from Indigofera pulchra as an inseparable mixture. Several isolation strategies, including multiple preparative TLC, SPE and finally HPLC were undertaken in an attempt to separate these metabolites, but to no avail. Structure elucidation on the mixture was conducted and we were able to establish the structures of these compounds unambiguously by MS and a series of 1D and 2D-NMR analyses. The mixture of these dihydrostilbenes was analyzed by NMR spectroscopy and 1 and 2 were in a ratio of 52:48, respectively, and this was evaluated against a panel of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant variants of this organism, including a strain over-expressing the NorA efflux pump; weak activity was observed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008
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    ABSTRACT: The basis for the use of Zizyphus spina-christi in folkloric practice as a remedy for diarrhoea was investigated in rats. The root bark of the plant material was sequentially extracted and the main antidiarrhoeal activity was traced to a fraction (numbered ZS-4E), eluted with chloroform-methanol (60:40), from the methanol extract. The fraction was tested for antidiarrhoeal activity against castor oil induced-diarrhoea and fluid accumulation, and charcoal meal test in rats. Results show that the fraction (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited some level of efficacy against the models used which however was not dose-dependent. Phytochemical tests of the methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, saponins, balsams and carbohydrates. The total tannin content was established to be 18.1 mg/g. © 2007 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences
  • Y.M. Musa · A.K. Haruna · M. Ilyas · A.H. Yaro · A.A. Ahmadu · H. Usman

    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
  • S.A. Ali · A.K. Haruna · M. Ilyas · E.E. Chinwe
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    ABSTRACT: The purgative properties of acetone extract (Purified) of the leaves of Cycas circinalis (cycadaceae) was investigated. It was observed that the extract of the leaves produced dose dependent relation of the smooth intestinal muscle (Ileum) of the Isolated rabbit Ileum at a Conc. of 40ng/ml to 160ng/ml. The extract at moderated doses abolished acetylcholine (Ach) induced contractions on isolated rabbit and guinea pig Ileum at a Conc. Of 20ng/ ml to 80ng/ml. The effect of the extract is similar to that of antagonist (Atropine at dose of 20ng/ml to 80ng/ml) since the extract relaxes the isolated rabbit and guinea pig Ileum it cannot be substantiated that it is the extract that caused the purgative action as claim for the local use.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007
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    Y M Musa · A K Haruna · M Ilyas · A H Yaro · A A Ahmadu · H Usman
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    ABSTRACT: Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethylacetate partition portion of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins as major chemical constituents. Alkaloids saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids were not dictated in the extract. The ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p) exhibited significant activity (p<0.05) against acetic acid-induced writhing in a dose dependent manner. In the anti-inflammatory activity the ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.) caused a slight effect against the raw egg albumin-induced oedema. The effect was however observed not to be dose dependent. All these effects were compared with standard drug piroxicam (20 mg/kg i.p.).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
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    Bulus Adzu · Abdul Kaita Haruna
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    ABSTRACT: Zizyphus spina-christi (Rhamnaceae) grows wild in tropical Africa and Asia and can be domesticated. It has folkloric usage in pain related ailments throughout these regions. In view of the claimed therapeutic potentials, investigation of the plant’s root bark was initiated in our laboratory. The plant material was first sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol, and in this report, a fraction (numbered) ZS-4D from the methanol extract eluted with 70:30% (chloroform : methanol) using flash column chromatography was apparently traced to be responsible for its main analgesic, and in addition, anti-inflammatory activities. The fraction (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was tested on chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin), mechanical (analgesymeter) and thermal (tail-flick) analgesic tests with the aim of elucidating both central and peripherally mediated action in rats and mice. Its anti-inflammatory action against egg albumin-induced hind paw oedema was also tested in rats. Results show that the fraction has some levels of dose related effect on all the models except the tail-flick test in which the activity was not statistically significant.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • A Ahmadu · A.K. Haruna · M Garba · J.O. Ehinmidu · S.D. Sarker
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    ABSTRACT: The n-butanol soluble part and four chromatographic fractions of the aqueous ethanolic extract of the leaves of Daniellia oliveri were investigated for antimicrobial properties. All fractions showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. A chromatographic fraction showed significant activity against the fungus Tricophyton rubrum.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Fitoterapia