Publications (253)700.26 Total impact

Article: Microfabrication of large area highstress silicon nitride membranes for optomechanical devices
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ABSTRACT: In view of the integration of membrane resonators with more complex MEMS structures, we developed a general fabrication procedure for circular shape SiN$_x$ membranes using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). Large area and highstress SiN$_x$ membranes were fabricated and used as optomechanical resonators in a Michelson interferometer and in a FabryP\'erot cavity. The measurements show that the fabrication process preserves both the optical quality and the mechanical quality factor of the membrane. 

Article: A Proposed Search for the Detection of Gravitational Waves from Eccentric Binary Black Holes
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ABSTRACT: Most of compact binary systems are expected to circularize before the frequency of emitted gravitational waves (GWs) enters the sensitivity band of the ground based interferometric detectors. However, several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of binary systems, which retain eccentricity throughout their lifetimes. Since no matchedfiltering algorithm has been developed to extract continuous GW signals from compact binaries on orbits with low to moderate values of eccentricity, and available algorithms to detect binaries on quasicircular orbits are suboptimal to recover these events, in this paper we propose a search method for detection of gravitational waves produced from the coalescences of eccentric binary black holes (eBBH). We study the search sensitivity and the false alarm rates on a segment of data from the second joint science run of LIGO and Virgo detectors, and discuss the implications of the eccentric binary search for the advanced GW detectors.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present a method for detection and reconstruction of the gravitational wave (GW) transients with the networks of advanced detectors. Originally designed to search for the transients with the initial GW detectors, it uses significantly improved algorithms, which enable both the lowlatency searches with rapid localization of GW events for the electromagnetic followup and high confidence detection of a broad range of the transient GW sources. In the paper we present the analytic framework of the method. Following a short description of the core analysis algorithms, we introduce a novel approach to the reconstruction of the GW polarization from a pattern of detector responses to a GW signal. This polarization pattern is a unique signature of an arbitrary GW signal that can be measured independent from the other source parameters. The polarization measurements enable rapid reconstruction of the GW waveforms, sky localization and helps identification of the source origin.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present the results of a search for longduration gravitational wave transients in two sets of data collected by the LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston detectors between November 5, 2005 and September 30, 2007, and July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010, with a total observational time of 283.0 days and 132.9 days, respectively. The search targets gravitational wave transients of duration 10  500 seconds in a frequency band of 40  1000 Hz, with minimal assumptions about the signal waveform, polarization, source direction, or time of occurrence. All candidate triggers were consistent with the expected background; as a result we set 90% confidence upper limits on the rate of longduration gravitational wave transients for different types of gravitational wave signals. We also report upper limits on the source rate density per year per Mpc^3 for specific signal models. These are the first results from an allsky search for unmodeled longduration transient gravitational waves.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the results of the first low frequency allsky search of continuous gravitational wave signals conducted on Virgo VSR2 and VSR4 data. The search covered the full sky, a frequency range between 20 Hz and 128 Hz with a range of spindown between $1.0 \times 10^{10}$ Hz/s and $+1.5 \times 10^{11}$ Hz/s, and was based on a hierarchical approach. The starting point was a set of short Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT), of length 8192 seconds, built from the calibrated strain data. Aggressive data cleaning, both in the time and frequency domains, has been done in order to remove, as much as possible, the effect of disturbances of instrumental origin. On each dataset a number of candidates has been selected, using the FrequencyHough transform in an incoherent step. Only coincident candidates among VSR2 and VSR4 have been examined in order to strongly reduce the false alarm probability, and the most significant candidates have been selected. The criteria we have used for candidate selection and for the coincidence step greatly reduce the harmful effect of large instrumental artifacts. Selected candidates have been subject to a followup by constructing a new set of longer FFTs followed by a further incoherent analysis. No evidence for continuous gravitational wave signals was found, therefore we have set a populationbased joint VSR2VSR4 90$\%$ confidence level upper limit on the dimensionless gravitational wave strain in the frequency range between 20 Hz and 128 Hz. This is the first allsky search for continuous gravitational waves conducted at frequencies below 50 Hz. We set upper limits in the range between about $10^{24}$ and $2\times 10^{23}$ at most frequencies. Our upper limits on signal strain show an improvement of up to a factor of $\sim$2 with respect to the results of previous allsky searches at frequencies below $80~\mathrm{Hz}$.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We report results of a wideband search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars within the Orion spur towards both the inner and outer regions of our Galaxy. As gravitational waves interact very weakly with matter, the search is unimpeded by dust and concentrations of stars. One search disk (A) is $6.87^\circ$ in diameter and centered on $20^\textrm{h}10^\textrm{m}54.71^\textrm{s}+33^\circ33'25.29"$, and the other (B) is $7.45^\circ$ in diameter and centered on $8^\textrm{h}35^\textrm{m}20.61^\textrm{s}46^\circ49'25.151"$. We explored the frequency range of 501500 Hz and frequency derivative from $0$ to $5\times 10^{9}$ Hz/s. A multistage, loosely coherent search program allowed probing more deeply than before in these two regions, while increasing coherence length with every stage. Rigorous followup parameters have winnowed initial coincidence set to only 70 candidates, to be examined manually. None of those 70 candidates proved to be consistent with an isolated gravitational wave emitter, and 95% confidence level upper limits were placed on continuouswave strain amplitudes. Near $169$ Hz we achieve our lowest 95% CL upper limit on worstcase linearly polarized strain amplitude $h_0$ of $6.3\times 10^{25}$, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worstcase upper limit of $3.4\times 10^{24}$ for all polarizations and sky locations.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 on gravitational wave (GW) search results, data analysis and parameter estimation included three lively sessions of lectures by 13 presenters, and 34 posters. The talks and posters covered a huge range of material, including results and analysis techniques for groundbased GW detectors, targeting anticipated signals from different astrophysical sources: compact binary inspiral, merger and ringdown; GW bursts from intermediate mass binary black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, corecollapse supernovae, and other unmodeled sources; continuous waves from spinning neutron stars; and a stochastic GW background. There was considerable emphasis on Bayesian techniques for estimating the parameters of coalescing compact binary systems from the gravitational waveforms extracted from the data from the advanced detector network. This included methods to distinguish deviations of the signals from what is expected in the context of General Relativity.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We report the experimental observation of twomode squeezing in the oscillation quadratures of a thermal microoscillator. This effect is obtained by parametric modulation of the optical spring in a cavity optomechanical system. In addition to stationary variance measurements, we describe the dynamic behavior in the regime of pulsed parametric excitation, showing enhanced squeezing effect surpassing the stationary 3dB limit. While the present experiment is in the classical regime, our technique can be exploited to produce entangled, macroscopic quantum optomechanical modes.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The study of the optomechanical coupling between the radiation pressure of a laser beam and a mechanical oscillator is an emerging field in quantum optics that is taking advantage of all the recent developments in microfabrication. The manipulation of the quantum state of light is within the reach of systems based on a FabryPerot cavity with a MicroOptoMechanicalSystem (MOMS) resonators used as endmirror. To approach the quantum regime, these micro devices must satisfy two basic requirements: low optical and mechanical losses. We have recently proposed a class of very low loss MOMS devices working in the 100 kHz frequency region, based on twoside MEMS processing bulkmicromachining. In this work we describe our latest process development, based on the used of pure aluminum as a masking layer for the optical coating during fabrication, that significantly improves the quality of the devices and the yield of the process, opening the way for their use in integrated systems for quantum optics. The devices show very high optical quality (finesse up to 105 can be achieved in optical cavity) and a mechanical quality factor over 106 at cryogenic temperatures. 
Dataset: PhysRevA.86.051801 2012 ESerra

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ABSTRACT: We present an oscillating micromirror with mechanical quality factors Q up to 1.2×10^6 at cryogenic temperature and optical losses lower than 20 ppm. The device is specifically designed to ease the detection of ponderomotive squeezing (or, more generally, to produce a cavity quantum optomechanical system) at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The design allows one to keep under control both the structural loss in the optical coating and the mechanical energy leakage through the support. The comparison between devices with different shapes shows that the residual mechanical loss at 4.2 K is equally contributed by the intrinsic loss of the silicon substrate and of the coating, while at higher temperatures the dominant loss mechanism is thermoelasticity in the substrate. As the modal response of the device is tailored for its use in optical cavities, these features make the device very promising for quantumoptics experiments. 
Article: The Advanced Virgo detector
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ABSTRACT: The Advanced Virgo interferometer is the upgraded version of the Virgo detector having the goal to extend by a factor 10 the observation horizon in the universe and consequently increase the detection rate by three orders of magnitude. Its installation is in progress and is expected to be completed in late 2015. In this proceeding we will present the scheme and the main challenging technical features of the detector and we will give an outline of the installation status and the foreseen time schedule which will bring Advanced Virgo to its full operation. 
Conference Paper: Low loss optomechanical cavities based on silicon oscillator
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ABSTRACT: In an optomechanical cavity the optical and mechanical degree of freedom are strongly coupled by the radiation pressure of the light. This field of research has been gathering a lot of momentum during the last couple of years, driven by the technological advances in microfabrication and the first observation of quantum phenomena. These results open new perspectives in a wide range of applications, including high sensitivity measurements of position, acceleration, force, mass, and for fundamental research. We are working on low frequency ponderomotive light squeezing as a tool for improving the sensitivity of audio frequency measuring devices such as magnetic resonance force microscopes and gravitationalwave detectors. It is well known that experiments aiming to produce and manipulate nonclassical (squeezed) light by effect of optomechanical interaction need a mechanical oscillator with low optical and mechanical losses. These technological requirements permit to maximize the force per incoming photon exerted by the cavity field on the mechanical element and to improve the element’s response to the radiation pressure force and, at the same time, to decrease the influence of the thermal bath. In this contribution we describe a class of mechanical devices for which we measured a mechanical quality factor up to 1.2 × 106 and with which it was possible to build a FabryPerot cavity with optical finesse up to 9 × 104. From our estimations, these characteristics meet the requirements for the generation of radiation squeezing and quantum correlations in the ∼ 100kHz region. Moreover our devices are characterized by high reproducibility to allow inclusion in integrated systems. We show the results of the characterization realized with a Michelson interferometer down to 4.2K and measurements in optical cavities performed at cryogenic temperature with input optical powers up to a few mW. We also report on the dynamical stability and the thermal response of the system.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We address the problem of noise regression in the output of gravitationalwave (GW) interferometers, using data from the physical environmental monitors (PEM). The objective of the regression analysis is to predict environmental noise in the gravitationalwave channel from the PEM measurements. One of the most promising regression method is based on the construction of WienerKolmogorov filters. Using this method, the seismic noise cancellation from the LIGO GW channel has already been performed. In the presented approach the WienerKolmogorov method has been extended, incorporating banks of Wiener filters in the timefrequency domain, multichannel analysis and regulation schemes, which greatly enhance the versatility of the regression analysis. Also we presents the first results on regression of the bicoherent noise in the LIGO data.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We address the problem of the stability of a cavity optomechanical system based on an oscillator having at the same time low optical and mechanical losses. As we are interested in extending the use of optical squeezing as a tool for improving quantum limited displacement sensing at low frequency, we have developed a family of optomechanical devices designed to work at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The devices actually meet the initial design goals, but new requirements have emerged from the analysis of their behavior in optical cavities, due to the interaction between the cavity locking system and the low order normal modes of the devices.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We describe directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth LIGO science data run. The targets were nine young supernova remnants not associated with pulsars; eight of the remnants are associated with nonpulsing suspected neutron stars. One target's parameters are uncertain enough to warrant two searches, for a total of ten. Each search covered a broad band of frequencies and first and second frequency derivatives for a fixed sky direction. The searches coherently integrated data from the two LIGO interferometers over time spans from 5.325.3 days using the matchedfiltering Fstatistic. We found no credible gravitationalwave signals. We set 95% confidence upper limits as strong (low) as $4\times10^{25}$ on intrinsic strain, $2\times10^{7}$ on fiducial ellipticity, and $4\times10^{5}$ on rmode amplitude. These beat the indirect limits from energy conservation and are within the range of theoretical predictions for neutronstar ellipticities and rmode amplitudes.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present results of a search for continuouslyemitted gravitational radiation, directed at the brightest lowmass Xray binary, Scorpius X1. Our semicoherent analysis covers 10 days of LIGO S5 data ranging from 50550 Hz, and performs an incoherent sum of coherent $\mathcal{F}$statistic power distributed amongst frequencymodulated orbital sidebands. All candidates not removed at the veto stage were found to be consistent with noise at a 1% false alarm rate. We present Bayesian 95% confidence upper limits on gravitationalwave strain amplitude using two different prior distributions: a standard one, with no a priori assumptions about the orientation of Scorpius X1; and an anglerestricted one, using a prior derived from electromagnetic observations. Median strain upper limits of 1.3e24 and 8e25 are reported at 150 Hz for the standard and anglerestricted searches respectively. This proof of principle analysis was limited to a short observation time by unknown effects of accretion on the intrinsic spin frequency of the neutron star, but improves upon previous upper limits by factors of ~1.4 for the standard, and 2.3 for the anglerestricted search at the sensitive region of the detector.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A minimal observable length is a common feature of theories that aim to merge quantum physics and gravity. Quantum mechanically, this concept is associated to a nonzero minimal uncertainty in position measurements, which is encoded in deformed commutation relations. In spite of increasing theoretical interest, the subject suffers from the complete lack of dedicated experiments and bounds to the deformation parameters are roughly extrapolated from indirect measurements. As recently proposed, lowenergy mechanical oscillators could allow to reveal the effect of a modified commutator. Here we analyze the free evolution of high quality factor micro and nanooscillators, spanning a wide range of masses around the Planck mass $m_{\mathrm{P}}$ (${\approx 22\,\mu\mathrm{g}}$), and compare it with a model of deformed dynamics. Previous limits to the parameters quantifying the commutator deformation are substantially lowered.
Publication Stats
3k  Citations  
700.26  Total Impact Points  
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Institutions

19702015

Università degli Studi di Trento
 Department of Physics
Trient, TrentinoAlto Adige, Italy


19942013

INFN  Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
Frascati, Latium, Italy


2012

Trent University
Питерборо, Ontario, Canada


2010

University of Naples Federico II
 Department of Physical Sciences
Napoli, Campania, Italy 
University of NiceSophia Antipolis
Nice, ProvenceAlpesCôte d'Azur, France


2008

University of Padova
Padua, Veneto, Italy


2000

Nottingham Trent University
Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
