[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase (EPOX)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), the product of 5-LO, all play a pivotal role in the vascular inflammatory process. We have previously shown that EETs can alleviate oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced endothelial inflammation in primary rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (RPAECs). Here, we investigated whether ox-LDL can promote LTB4 production through the 5-LO pathway. We further explored how exogenous EETs influence ox-LDL-induced LTB4 production and activity. We found that treatment with ox-LDL increased the production of LTB4 and further led to the expression and release of both monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). All of the above ox-LDL-induced changes were attenuated by the presence of 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET, as these molecules inhibited the 5-LO pathway. Furthermore, the LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1 receptor) antagonist U75302 attenuated ox-LDL-induced ICAM-1 and MCP-1/CCL2 expression and production, whereas LY255283, a LTB4 receptor 2 (BLT2 receptor) antagonist, produced no such effects. Moreover, in RPAECs, we demonstrated that the increased expression of 5-LO and BLT1 following ox-LDL treatment resulted from the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Our results indicated that EETs suppress ox-LDL-induced LTB4 production and subsequent inflammatory responses by downregulating the 5-LO/BLT1 receptor pathway, in which p38 MAPK phosphorylation activates NF-κB. These results suggest that the metabolism of arachidonic acid via the 5-LO and EPOX pathways may present a mutual constraint on the physiological regulation of vascular endothelial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the major pathophysiological process in lung fibrosis observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for developing EMT, yet the mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Rac1 in cigarette smoke (CS) induced EMT.
EMT was induced in mice and pulmonary epithelial cells by exposure of CS and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) respectively.
Treatment of pulmonary epithelial cells with CSE elevated Rac1 expression associated with increased TGF-β1 release. Blocking TGF-β pathway restrained CSE-induced changes in EMT-related markers. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of Rac1 decreased the CSE exposure induced TGF-β1 release and ameliorated CSE-induced EMT. In CS-exposed mice, pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 reduced TGF-β1 release and prevented aberrations in expression of EMT markers, suggesting that Rac1 is a critical signaling molecule for induction of CS-stimulated EMT. Furthermore, Rac1 inhibition or knockdown abrogated CSE-induced Smad2 and Akt (PKB, protein kinase B) activation in pulmonary epithelial cells. Inhibition of Smad2, PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) or Akt suppressed CSE-induced changes in epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression.
Conclusions and General Significance
Altogether, these data suggest that CS initiates EMT through Rac1/Smad2 and Rac1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our data provide new insights into the fundamental basis of EMT and suggest a possible new course of therapy for COPD and lung cancer.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is associated with atherosclerotic events through the modulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and activation of inflammatory signaling. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) mitigate inflammation through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this study, we explored the effects and mechanisms of exogenous EETs on the ox-LDL-induced inflammation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs), which were cultured from rat pulmonary arteries. We determined that pre-treatment with 11,12-EET or 14,15-EET attenuated the ox-LDL-induced expression and release of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the ox-LDL-induced expression of CYP2J4 was upregulated by 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET (1μM). Furthermore, the endothelial receptor of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LOX-1) was downregulated in PAECs treated with EETs. The inflammatory responses evoked by ox-LDL (100μg/mL) were blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB203580), and NF-κB (PDTC). In addition, we confirmed that 11,12-EET suppresses phosphorylation of p38, degradation of IκBα, and activation of NF-κB (p65), whereas 14,15-EET can significantly suppress the phosphorylation of p38 and Erk1/2. Our results indicate that EETs exert beneficial effects on ox-LDL-induced inflammation primarily through the inhibition of LOX-1 receptor upregulation, MAPK phosphorylation, and NF-κB activation and through the upregulation of CYP2J4 expression. This study helps focus the current understanding of the contribution of EETs to the regulation of the inflammation of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of targeting the EET pathway in pulmonary vascular disease will be highlighted.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · European journal of pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycopyrronium bromide (GB) is a muscarinic receptor antagonist that has been used as a long-acting bronchodilator in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of inhaled GB in a cigarette smoke-induced acute lung inflammation mouse model. We found that aerosol pre-treatment with GB suppresses the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed mice. GB at doses of 300 and 600μg/ml significantly inhibited the CS-induced increases in the mRNA and protein expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in lung tissues and the BALF. Moreover, GB at a dose of 600μg/ml significantly inhibited the CS-induced changes in glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities in the BALF, decreased the CS-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9, and increased the CS-induced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, as determined through the immunohistochemical staining of lung tissue. Our results demonstrate the beneficial effects of inhaled GB on the inflammatory reaction in COPD.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · International immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Ginseng is a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for thousands of years. In the present study, effects and mechanisms of AD-1 were evaluated for its development as a novel anti-lung cancer drug.
The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell cycle, apoptosis and ROS. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze signaling pathways. Lung cancer xenograft models were established by subcutaneous implantation of A549 or H292 cells into nude mice.
AD-1 concentration-dependently reduces lung cancer cell viability without affecting normal human lung epithelial cell viability. In A549 and H292 lung cancer cells, AD-1 induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and ROS production. The apoptosis can be attenuated by a ROS scavenger - N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In addition, AD-1 up-regulates the expression of p38 and ERK phosphorylation. Addition of a p38 inhibitor SB203580, suppresses the AD-1-induced decrease in cell viability. Furthermore, genetic silencing of p38 attenuates the expression of p38 and decreases the AD-1-induced apoptosis. Treatment with NAC reduces AD-1-induced p38 phosphorylation, which indicates that ROS generation is involved in the AD-1-induced p38 activation. In mice, oral administration of AD-1 (10-40mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors without affecting body weight and decreases the expression of VEGF, MMP-9 and CD34 in tumor tissue. TUNEL staining confirms that the tumors from AD-1 treated mice exhibit a markedly higher apoptotic index.
Conclusions and general significance:
These data support development of AD-1 as a potential agent for lung cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease involving oxidative stress as well as a wide variety of cells activated from smoking cigarettes. There have been disappointingly few therapeutic advances in drug therapy for COPD. Plant polyphenols have been the topic of much research regarding their antioxidant activities and antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In the present study, we ask whether apple polyphenol provides protection against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced acute lung injury.
ICR mice were exposed to CS for 4 d with increasing exposure time for up to 6 h per day to elicit epithelial cells injury. One hour before smoke exposure, mice were treated with apple polyphenol (APP) by gavage; all examinations were performed 18 h after the last CS exposure.
APP at 30, 100, or 300 mg not only significantly dose-dependently reduced the CS-induced accumulation of inflammatory cells and gene/protein expression of proinflammatory factors both in the lung and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but also significantly reversed oxidative stress in the lungs. Additionally, treatment with APP also significantly regulated the CS-induced imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression in the lungs. To investigate further the possible signaling pathway of APP effects, we examined protein expression of p-P38 MAPK by immunohistochemistry that found treatment with APP significantly decreased the CS-induced increases of p-P38 expression in the lungs.
Taken together, APP may be a potential dietary nutrient supplement agent to improve quality of life of COPD patients by inhibiting CS-exposed acute lung injury via P38 MAPK signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke (CS), the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, contains a variety of oxidative components that were implicated in the regulation of Src homology domain 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2) activity. However, the contribution of Shp2 enzyme to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathogenesis remains unclear. We investigated the role of Shp2 enzyme in blockading CS-induced pulmonary inflammation. Shp2 levels were assessed in vivo and in vitro. Mice (C57BL/6) or pulmonary epithelial cells (NCI-H292) were exposed to CS or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce acute injury and inflammation. Lungs of smoking mice showed increased levels of Shp2, compared with those of controls. Treatment of lung epithelial cells with CSE showed elevated levels of Shp2 associated with the increased release of IL-8. Selective inhibition or knockdown of Shp2 resulted in decreased IL-8 release in response to CSE treatment in pulmonary epithelial cells. In comparison with CS-exposed wild-type mice, selective inhibition or conditional knockout of Shp2 in lung epithelia reduced IL-8 release and pulmonary inflammation in CS-exposed mice. In vitro biochemical data correlate CSE-mediated IL-8 release with Shp2-regulated epidermal growth factor receptor/Grb-2-associated binders/MAPK signaling. Our data suggest an important role for Shp2 in the pathological alteration associated with CS-mediated inflammation. Shp2 may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention for inflammation in CS-induced pulmonary diseases.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dose-response of the pleiotropic effects of statins on airway inflammation has not yet been established and may differ from that of their cholesterol-lowering effects. High oral doses of statins may have adverse effects, and it may be possible to overcome the side effects and low clinical efficacy by administering statins via inhalation. In this study, we hypothesize that simvastatin is a potential anti-inflammatory drug with biological and pharmacokinetic properties suitable for delivery by the inhaled route. Mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosol OVA. Simvastatin was locally delivered by inhalation (i.h.) and intratracheal injection (i.t.) or systematically delivered by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) and gavage (i.g.) during the OVA challenge. In a mouse model of asthma, i.h. simvastatin significantly and dose-dependently attenuated airway inflammation, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in a RhoA-dependent pathway. Upon comparing the pharmacodynamics, i.h. simvastatin had a more potent effect than that of i.g. and i.p. simvastatin, and the i.h. or i.t. delivery routes led to a higher drug concentration in local lung tissue and a lower drug concentration in the plasma than that obtained by the i.g. These results suggest that simvastatin is a potential anti-inflammatory drug for airway inflammatory diseases with properties suitable for delivery by inhalation, which will probably reduce the side effects and increase clinical efficacy.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · International immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects and the possible mechanism of Cryptoporus polysaccharides (CP) extracted from fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats and mice.
Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheally instillation of LPS into lung in either rats or mice, assessing leukocyte numbers and myeloperoxidase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as evaluating cytokines mRNA and protein expressions, and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR(2)) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB mRNA levels in the lung tissues of mice. Vascular permeability and edema of lung in mice, and arterial blood gas in rats were also performed.
In ALI, CP-treated mice and rats exhibited significantly reduced leukocyte invasion, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability, edema of lung, as well as tumor necrosis factor-α and Interleukin-1β mRNA and protein expressions in the lung tissues compared with vehicle-treated mice. TLR(2) and NF-κB mRNA levels of the lung tissues were decreased in CP-treated mice in response to LPS. And decline in arterial blood gas was recovered in CP-treated rats.
Our results supported a protective role of CP in ALI and suggested that the reduction of the activation of TLR(2) and NF-κB signal pathway in lung injury may be relavant to the pretreatment of CP.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of ethnopharmacology