[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medication errors affect the pediatric age group in all settings:
outpatient, inpatient, emergency department, and at home. Children may be at special risk due to size and physiologic variability, limited communication ability, and treatment by nonpediatric health care providers. Those with chronic illnesses and on multiple medications may be at higher risk of experiencing adverse drug events. Some strategies that have been employed to reduce harm from pediatric medication errors include e-prescribing and computerized provider order entry with decision support, medication reconciliation, barcode systems, clinical pharmacists in medical settings, medical staff training, package changes to reduce look-alike/sound-alike confusion, standardization of labeling and measurement devices for home administration, and quality improvement interventions to promote nonpunitive reporting of medication errors coupled with changes in systems and cultures. Future research is needed to measure the effectiveness of these preventive strategies.
Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Health Services Insights
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding of the types and frequency of errors among children in the outpatient setting is paramount. The most commonly described errors involve medical treatment, communication failures, patient identification, laboratory, and diagnostic errors. Research suggests that adverse events and near misses are frequent occurrences in ambulatory pediatrics, but relatively little is known about the types of errors, risk factors, or effective interventions in this setting. This article will review current information on the descriptive epidemiology of pediatric outpatient medical errors, established risk factors for these errors, effective interventions to enhance reporting and improve safety, and future research needs in this area.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Pediatric Clinics of North America
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To implement a 6-month quality improvement project in 15 primary care pediatric practices to improve short-term newborn screening (NBS) follow-up.
At the start of the project, each practice completed a survey to evaluate office systems related to NBS and completed a chart audit. Practice teams were provided information about NBS and trained in quality-improvement methods, and then implemented changes to improve care. Monthly chart audits over a 6-month period were completed to assess change.
At baseline, almost half of practices completed assessment of infants for NBS; after 6 months, 80% of practices completed assessment of all infants. Only 2 practices documented all in-range results and shared them with parents at baseline; by completion, 10 of 15 practices documented and shared in-range results for ≥ 70% of infants. Use of the American College of Medical Genetics ACTion sheets, a decision support tool, increased from 1 of 15 practices at baseline to 7 of 15 at completion.
Practices were successful in improving NBS processes, including assessment, documentation, and communication with families. Providers perceived no increase in provider time at first visit, 2- to 4-week visit, or during first contact with the family of an infant with an out-of-range result after implementation of improved processes. Primary care practices increased their use of decision support tools after the project.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited information exists about medical errors in ambulatory pediatrics and on effective strategies for improving their reporting. We aimed to implement nonpunitive error reporting, describe errors, and use a team-based approach to promote patient safety in an academic pediatric practice.
The setting was an academic general pediatric practice in Charlotte, North Carolina, that has ∼26 000 annual visits and primarily serves a diverse, low-income, Medicaid-insured population. We assembled a multidisciplinary patient safety team to detect and analyze ambulatory medical errors by using a reporter-anonymous nonpunitive process. The team used systems analysis and rapid redesign to evaluate each error report and recommend changes to prevent patient harm.
In 30 months, 216 medical errors were reported, compared with 5 reports in the year before the project. Most reports originated from nurses, physicians, and midlevel providers. The most frequently reported errors were misfiled or erroneously entered patient information (n = 68), laboratory tests delayed or not performed (n = 27), errors in medication prescriptions or dispensing (n = 24), vaccine errors (n = 21), patient not given requested appointment or referral (n = 16), and delay in office care (n = 15), which together comprised 76% of the reports. Many recommended changes were implemented.
A voluntary, nonpunitive, multidisciplinary team approach was effective in improving error reporting, analyzing reported errors, and implementing interventions with the aim of reducing patient harm in an outpatient pediatric practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The outpatient environment has been the leading edge of improvement work in pediatrics and it has similarly served as an effective locale for the training of pediatric residents in the science of improvement. This review summarizes what is known about the measurement of quality and patient safety in pediatric ambulatory settings. The current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements for resident training in improvement and their application in these settings are discussed. Some approaches and challenges to meeting these requirements are reviewed. Finally, some future directions that this work may follow are presented; the goal is to strengthen the effectiveness of improvement methods and their linkage to professional education.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Pediatric Clinics of North America
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: We aimed to determine the effectiveness of team-based reporting, systems analysis, and redesign to address medical errors in pediatric ambulatory care. Methods: Voluntary, anonymous, nonpunitive reporting, paired with a team-based system analysis and change implementation, was established in an outpatient pediatric department of an urban teaching hospital. Results: In the first year, 80 errors were reported, compared with only 5 errors reported during the prior year via a traditional incident reporting system. Reports originated from physicians (45 percent), nurses (41 percent), other staff (9 percent), and parents/patients (5 percent). Errors were classified as involving office administration (34 percent), medications and other treatment (24 percent), laboratory and diagnostic testing (19 percent), and communications (18 percent). To date, 65 percent of reports have resulted in completed interventions, and other changes are in progress. Conclusion: In an academic pediatric ambulatory practice, voluntary, nonpunitive reporting with team-based systems analysis and rapid redesign improved error reporting and resulted in changes to promote safety.