[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past few years, therapies targeted at the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathways, such as sunitinib and sorafenib, have been developed to treat clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the majority of patients will eventually show resistance to antiangiogenesis therapies. The purpose of our study was to identify novel pathways that could be potentially used as targets for new therapies. Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) was conducted on eight matched tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples. A novel RUNX1-RUNX1T1 pathway was identified which was upregulated in ccRCC through gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We also confirmed the findings based on previously published gene expression microarray data. Our data shows that upregulated of the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 gene set maybe an important factor contributing to the etiology of ccRCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) is a non-coding gene specifically overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) that has great potential as a clinical biomarker for predicting prostate biopsy outcome. However, genetic determinants of PCA3 expression level remain unknown. To investigate the association between genetic variants and PCA3 mRNA level, a genome-wide association study was conducted in 1371 men of European descent in the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events trial. First-voided urine specimens containing prostate cells were obtained after digital rectal examination. The PROGENSA PCA3 assay was used to determine PCA3 score in the urinary samples. A linear regression model was used to detect the associations between (single nucleotide polymorphisms) SNPs and PCA3 score under an additive genetic model, adjusting for age and population stratification. Two SNPs, rs10993994 in β-microseminoprotein at 10q11.23 and rs10424878 in kallikrein-related peptidase 2 at 19q13.33, were associated with PCA3 score at genome-wide significance level (P = 1.22 x 10(-9) and 1.06 x 10(-8), respectively). Men carrying the rs10993994 "T" allele or rs10424878 "A" allele had higher PCA3 score compared with men carrying rs10993994 "C" allele or rs10424878 "G" allele (β = 1.25 and 1.24, respectively). This is the first comprehensive search for genetic determinants of PCA3 score. The novel loci identified may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of PCA3 expression as a potential marker of PCa.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percentage of free-to-total prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) is an independent predictor of risk for prostate cancer among men with modestly elevated level of total PSA (tPSA) in blood. Physiological and pathological factors have been shown to influence the %fPSA value and diagnostic accuracy.
To evaluate genetic determinants of %fPSA, we conducted a genome-wide association study of serum %fPSA by genotyping 642,584 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3192 men of European ancestry, each with a tPSA level of 2.5 to 10 ng/ml, that were recruited in the REduction by DUtasteride of Prostate Cancer Events study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with P < 10(-5) were further evaluated among the controls of a population-based case-control study in Sweden (2899 prostate cancer cases and 1722 male controls), including 464 controls having tPSA levels of 2.5 to 10 ng/ml.
We identified two loci that were associated with %fPSA at a genome-wide significance level (P <5 x 10(-8)). The first associated SNP was rs3213764 (P = 6.45 x 10(-10)), a nonsynonymous variant (K530R) in the ATF7IP gene at 12p13. This variant was also nominally associated with tPSA (P = .015). The second locus was rs1354774 (P = 1.25 x 10(-12)), near KLK2 at 19q13, which was not associated with tPSA levels, and is separate from the rs17632542 locus at KLK3 that was previously associated with tPSA levels and prostate cancer risk. Neither rs3213764 nor rs1354774 was associated with prostate cancer risk or aggressiveness.
These findings demonstrate that genetic variants at ATF7IP and KLK2 contribute to the variance of %fPSA.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), representing a large proportion of non-coding transcripts across the human genome, are evolutionally conserved and biologically functional. At least one-third of the phenotype-related loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are mapped to non-coding intervals. However, the relationships between phenotype-related loci and lncRNAs are largely unknown. Utilizing the 1000 Genomes data, we compared single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the sequences of lncRNA and protein-coding genes as defined in the Ensembl database. We further annotated the phenotype-related SNPs reported by GWAS at lncRNA intervals. Because prostate cancer (PCa) risk-related loci were enriched in lncRNAs, we then performed meta-analysis of two existing GWAS for discovery and an additional sample set for replication, revealing PCa risk-related loci at lncRNA regions. The SNP density in regions of lncRNA was similar to that in protein-coding regions, but they were less polymorphic than surrounding regions. Among the 1998 phenotype-related SNPs identified by GWAS, 52 loci were located directly in lncRNA intervals with a 1.5-fold enrichment compared with the entire genome. More than a 5-fold enrichment was observed for eight PCa risk-related loci in lncRNA genes. We also identified a new PCa risk-related SNP rs3787016 in an lncRNA region at 19q13 (per allele odds ratio = 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.27) with P value of 7.22 × 10(-7). lncRNAs may be important for interpreting and mining GWAS data. However, the catalog of lncRNAs needs to be better characterized in order to fully evaluate the relationship of phenotype-related loci with lncRNAs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men, accounting for more than 30,000 deaths annually. The purpose of this study was to test whether variation in selected candidate genes in biological pathways of interest for prostate cancer progression could help distinguish patients at higher risk for fatal prostate cancer.
In this hypothesis-driven study, we genotyped 937 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 156 candidate genes in a population-based cohort of 1,309 prostate cancer patients. We identified 22 top-ranking SNPs (P ≤ 0.01, FDR ≤ 0.70) associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). A subsequent validation study was completed in an independent population-based cohort of 2,875 prostate cancer patients.
Five SNPs were validated (P ≤ 0.05) as being significantly associated with PCSM, one each in the LEPR, CRY1, RNASEL, IL4, and ARVCF genes. Compared with patients with 0 to 2 of the at-risk genotypes those with 4 to 5 at-risk genotypes had a 50% (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) higher risk of PCSM and risk increased with the number of at-risk genotypes carried (P(trend) = 0.001), adjusting for clinicopathologic factors known to influence prognosis.
Five genetic markers were validated to be associated with lethal prostate cancer.
This is the first population-based study to show that germline genetic variants provide prognostic information for prostate cancer-specific survival. The clinical utility of this five-SNP panel to stratify patients at higher risk for adverse outcomes should be evaluated.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PPP2R2A, mapped to 8p21.2, codes for the α isoform of the regulatory B55 subfamily of protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). PP2A is one of the four major serine/threonine phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Because of its known functions and location within a chromosomal region where evidence for linkage and somatic loss of heterozygosity was found, we hypothesized that either somatic copy number changes or germline sequence variants in PPP2R2A may increase prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We examined PPP2R2A deletion status in 141 PCa samples using Affymetrix SNP arrays. It was found that PPP2R2A was commonly (67.1%) deleted in tumor samples, including a homozygous deletion in three tumors (2.1%). We performed a mutation screen for PPP2R2A in 96 probands of hereditary prostate cancer families. No high risk mutations were identified. In addition, we re-analyzed 10 SNPs of PPP2R2A in sporadic PCa cases and controls. No significant differences in the allele and genotype frequencies were observed among either PCa cases and controls or PCa aggressive and non-aggressive cases. Taken together, these results suggest that a somatic deletion rather than germline sequence variants of PPP2R2A may play a more important role in PCa susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autopsy studies suggest that most aging men will develop lesions that, if detected clinically, would be diagnosed as prostate cancer (PCa). Most of these cancers are indolent and remain localized; however, a subset of PCa is aggressive and accounts for more than 27,000 deaths in the United States annually. Identification of factors specifically associated with risk for more aggressive PCa is urgently needed to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment of this common disease. To search for such factors, we compared the frequencies of SNPs among PCa patients who were defined as having either more aggressive or less aggressive disease in four populations examined in the Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study performed by the National Cancer Institute. SNPs showing possible associations with disease severity were further evaluated in an additional three independent study populations from the United States and Sweden. In total, we studied 4,829 and 12,205 patients with more and less aggressive disease, respectively. We found that the frequency of the TT genotype of SNP rs4054823 at 17p12 was consistently higher among patients with more aggressive compared with less aggressive disease in each of the seven populations studied, with an overall P value of 2.1 x 10(-8) under a recessive model, exceeding the conservative genome-wide significance level. The difference in frequency was largest between patients with high-grade, non-organ-confined disease compared with those with low-grade, organ-confined disease. This study demonstrates that inherited variants predisposing to aggressive but not indolent PCa exist in the genome, and suggests that the clinical potential of such variants as potential early markers for risk of aggressive PCa should be evaluated.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European descent have identified more than a dozen common genetic variants that are associated with prostate cancer risk.
To determine whether these variants are also associated with prostate cancer risk in the Chinese population, we evaluated 17 prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a population-based case-control study from Shanghai, including 288 prostate cancer cases and 155 population controls.
After adjustment for age, two of the 17 loci were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, while the other 15 loci were suggestively associated with prostate cancer risk in this population. The strongest associations were found for chromosome 8q24 Region 2 (rs1016343: OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.35-3.20, P = 9.4 x 10(-4)) and 8q24 Region 1 (rs10090154: OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.31-3.28, P = 0.002); additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessed in these two 8q24 regions were also significant (OR(Region2) = 1.92-2.05, P = 9.4 x 10(-4) to 0.003, and OR(Region1) = 1.77-1.81, P = 0.01 for all SNPs).
Our study shows that multiple prostate cancer risk loci identified in European populations by GWAS are also associated with prostate cancer risk in Chinese men, a low-risk population with mostly clinically relevant cancers. Larger studies in Chinese and Asian populations are needed to confirm these findings and the role of these risk loci in prostate cancer etiology in Asian men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four genome-wide association studies, all in populations of European descent, have identified 20 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 20 regions that are associated with prostate cancer risk. We evaluated these 20 SNPs in a combined African American (AA) study, with 868 prostate cancer patients and 878 control subjects. For 17 of these 20 SNPs, implicated risk-associated alleles were found to be more common in these AA cases than controls, significantly more than expected under the null hypothesis (P = 0.03). Two of these 17 SNPs, located at 3p12, and region 2 at 8q24, were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (P < 0.05), and only SNP rs16901979 at region 2 of 8q24 remained significant after accounting for 20 tests. A multivariate analysis of additional SNPs across the broader 8q24 region revealed three independent prostate cancer risk-associated SNPs, including rs16901979, rs13254738, and rs10086908. The first two SNPs were approximately 20 kb apart and the last SNP, a novel finding from this study, was approximately 100 kb centromeric to the first two SNPs. These results suggest that a systematic evaluation of regions harboring known prostate cancer risk SNPs implicated in other races is an efficient approach to identify risk alleles for AA. However, studies with larger numbers of AA subjects are needed, and this will likely require a major collaborative effort to combine multiple AA study populations.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TNFRSF10C, is located on 8p21.3, one of the most frequently deleted loci in the genome of prostate cancer (PCa). Hypermethylation of TNFRSF10C promoter CpG island (CGI) had been reported in many tumors including PCa. However, the interplay between somatic deletion and promoter hypermethylation of TNFRSF10C on PCa development has not been investigated.
Methylation status of promoter CGI and deletion status of the TNFRSF10C locus was investigated by bisulfite sequencing and Affymetrix SNP array, respectively, in 59 pairs of PCa tumor and matched normal samples with three PCa cell lines. TNFRSF10C gene expression changes in relation to cancer-associated genetic/epigenetic changes in clinical specimens, and change of TNFRSF10C expression before and after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment in the PC3 PCa cell line was assessed by real-time RT-PCR.
We found that TNFRSF10C promoter CGI was differentially methylated in 46 of 59 primary cancers (78.0%). Hemizygous deletion at TNFRSF10C was found in 44 of the 59 prostate tumors (74.5%). Interestingly, in 94.9% of the tumors (56 out of 59), TNFRSF10C was either hemizygously deleted or its promoter CGI hypermethylated. Deletion and/or methylation of the TNFRSF10C gene were correlated with decreased mRNA expression of the gene in clinical specimens. Demethylation of the TNFRSF10C promoter CGI was accompanied by transcriptional re-activation of TNFRSF10C in the PCa cell line PC3.
We found a notably high frequency of promoter CGI methylation and deletion of TNFRSF10C in PCa tissues. Our results indicated that inactivation of TNFRSF10C by chromosomal deletion and promoter methylation may play an important role in PCa development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To search for genetic variants that are associated with prostate cancer risk in the genome, we combined the data from our genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a population-based case-control study in Sweden with publicly available GWAS data from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study. We limited the cases to those with aggressive disease in an attempt to identify risk variants that are associated with this most clinically relevant form of the disease. Among the most likely candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) identified from the two GWAS, we sequentially confirmed one SNP at 22q13 in two independent study populations: the remaining subjects in Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden and a hospital-based case-control study at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Association of aggressive prostate cancer with the SNP at 22q13 was also observed in the publicly available data of four additional study populations from the second stage of the CGEMS study. In all seven study populations examined, the frequency of allele "C" of rs9623117 at 22q13 was consistently higher in aggressive cases than in controls. The combined allelic test was highly significant, with P = 5.0 x 10(-7). The odds ratio (OR) of allele C for aggressive prostate cancer was estimated to be 1.18 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.11-1.26]. However, the SNP was also associated with nonaggressive prostate cancer, with an estimated OR of 1.11 (95% CI, 1.04-1.19; P = 0.004). The risk-associated variants are located within the genomic region of TNRC6B, a gene involved in miRNA-mediated mRNA degradation. Additional studies are warranted to further confirm the association.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key players in the innate immune system and initiate the inflammatory response to foreign pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. The proposed role of chronic inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis has prompted investigation into the association of common genetic variation in TLRs with the risk of this cancer. We investigated the role of common SNPs in a gene cluster encoding the TLR10, TLR6 and TLR1 proteins in prostate cancer etiology among 1,414 cancer cases and 1,414 matched controls from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Twenty-eight SNPs, which included the majority of the common nonsynonymous SNPs in the 54-kb gene region and haplotype-tagging SNPs that defined 5 specific haplotype blocks, were genotyped and their association with prostate cancer risk determined. Two SNPs in TLR10 [I369L (rs11096955) and N241H (rs11096957)] and 4 SNPs in TLR1 [N248S (rs4833095), S26L (rs5743596), rs5743595 and rs5743551] were associated with a statistically significant reduced risk of prostate cancer of 29-38% (for the homozygous variant genotype). The association of these SNPs was similar when the analysis was limited to cases with advanced prostate cancer. Haplotype analysis and linkage disequilibrium findings revealed that the 6 associated SNPs were not independent and represent a single association with reduced prostate cancer risk (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.90). Our study suggest that a common haplotype in the TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 gene cluster influences prostate cancer risk and clearly supports the need for further investigation of TLR genes in other populations.
Preview · Article · Dec 2008 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer cell lines provide ideal in vitro systems for the identification and analysis of prostate tumor suppressors and oncogenes. A detailed characterization of the architecture of prostate cancer cell line genomes would facilitate the study of precise roles of various genes in prostate tumorigenesis in general. To contribute to such a characterization, we used the GeneChip 500K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) array for analysis of genotypes and relative DNA copy number changes across the genome of 11 cell lines derived from both normal and cancerous prostate tissues. For comparison purposes, we also examined the alterations observed in the cell lines in tumor/normal pairs of clinical samples from 72 patients. Along with genome-wide maps of DNA copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity for these cell lines, we report previously unreported homozygous deletions and recurrent amplifications in prostate cancers in this study. The homozygous deletions affected a number of biologically important genes, including PPP2R2A and BNIP3L identified in this study and CDKN2A/CDKN2B reported previously. Although most amplified genomic regions tended to be large, amplifications at 8q24.21 were of particular interest because the affected regions are relatively small, are found in multiple cell lines, are located near MYC, an oncogene strongly implicated in prostate tumorigenesis, and are known to harbor SNPs that are associated with inherited susceptibility for prostate cancer. The genomic alterations revealed in this study provide an important catalog of positional information relevant to efforts aimed at deciphering the molecular genetic basis of prostate cancer.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We carried out a fine-mapping study in the HNF1B gene at 17q12 in two study populations and identified a second locus associated with prostate cancer risk, approximately 26 kb centromeric to the first known locus (rs4430796); these loci are separated by a recombination hot spot. We confirmed the association with a SNP in the second locus (rs11649743) in five additional populations, with P = 1.7 x 10(-9) for an allelic test of the seven studies combined. The association at each SNP remained significant after adjustment for the other SNP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identifying genomic regions that are commonly deleted or gained in neoplastic cells is an important approach to identify tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Studies in the last two decades have identified a number of common DNA copy number alterations in prostate cancer. However, because of various sample sizes, diverse tumor types and sources, as well as a variety of detection methods with various sensitivities and resolutions, it is difficult to summarize and fully interpret the overall results.
We performed a combined analysis of all published comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) studies of prostate cancer and estimated the frequency of alterations across the genome for all tumors, as well as in advanced and localized tumors separately. A total of 41 studies examining 872 cancers were included in this study.
The frequency of deletions and gains were estimated in all tumors, as well as in advanced and localized tumors. Eight deleted and five gained regions were found in more than 10% of the prostate tumors. An additional six regions were commonly deleted and seven were commonly gained in advanced tumors. While 8p was the most common location of deletion, occurring in about a third of all tumors and about half of advanced tumors, 8q was the most commonly gained region, affecting about a quarter of all tumors and about half of all advanced tumors.
The large number of tumors examined in this combined analysis provides better estimates of the frequency of specific alterations in the prostate cancer cell genome, and offers important clues for prioritizing efforts to identify tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in these altered regions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer linkage studies have suggested the existence of a prostate cancer susceptibility gene on chromosome 17q21-22. We now report the results of an extended linkage analysis including 95 new multiplex prostate cancer families and 9 additional microsatellite markers resulting in a maximum LOD score of 2.99 at approximately 81-82 cM for all 453 pedigrees. Results from these 95 new pedigrees provide additional support for a chromosome 17q21-22 prostate cancer susceptibility gene. Inclusion of the 9 additional markers significantly reduced the size of the candidate region, as defined using a 1-LOD support interval, especially when focusing analyses on subsets of pedigrees with four or more confirmed affecteds or average age of diagnosis less than or equal to 65 years. A novel subset analysis of only those families (n = 147) that had four or more prostate cancer cases and an average age of prostate cancer diagnosis < or = 65 years results in a maximum LOD score of 5.49 at 78 cM with a 1-LOD support interval of 10 cM. This large set of pedigrees with four more prostate cancer cases characterized by early-onset disease will serve as a useful resource for identifying the putative 17q21-22 prostate cancer susceptibility gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies using ROMA and Array-CGH suggest that germline copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) involving >100 kb are common in humans.
In this study, we used the Affymetrix GeneChip 100K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) mapping panel to further examine the type and frequency of germline CNPs in the genome. By utilizing the allele intensity data generated while genotyping approximately 116,000 SNPs among 23 subjects from 4 families, we were able to detect multiple CNPs.
However, in contrast to several previous studies, we found that CNPs >100 kb are rare in the genome but CNPs involving 100s-1,000s of base pairs are more common.
We have demonstrated the utility of this approach, which has an important advantage over other methods because it is able to simultaneously assess both CNPs and SNPs, and therefore has great potential in genetic association studies of common diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although multiple recurrent chromosomal alterations have been identified in prostate cancer cells, the specific genes driving the apparent selection of these changes remain largely unknown. In part, this uncertainty is due to the limited resolution of the techniques used to detect these alterations. In this study, we applied a high-resolution genome-wide method, Affymetrix 100K SNP mapping array, to screen for somatic DNA copy number (CN) alterations among 22 pairs of samples from primary prostate cancers and matched nonmalignant tissues. We detected 355 recurrent deletions and 223 recurrent gains, many of which were novel. As expected, the sizes of novel alterations tend to be smaller. Importantly, among tumors with increasing grade, Gleason sum 6, 7, and 8, we found a significant trend of larger number of alterations in the tumors with higher grade. Overall, gains are significantly more likely to occur within genes (74%) than are deletions (49%). However, when we looked at the most frequent CN alterations, defined as those in > or =4 subjects, we observed that both gains (85%) and deletions (57%) occur preferentially within genes. An example of a novel, recurrent alteration observed in this study was a deletion between the ERG and TMPRSS2 genes on chromosome 21, presumably related to the recently identified fusion transcripts from these two genes. Results from this study provide a basis for a systematic and comprehensive cataloging of CN alterations associated with grades of prostate cancer, and the subsequent identification of specific genes that associated with initiation and progression of the disease. This article contains supplementary material available via the Internet at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Genes Chromosomes and Cancer