[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
We investigated the hypothesis that the favorable effects of gastrointestinal (GI) intervention on hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular (CV) disturbances are mediated by antagonizing overdrive of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).
Methods and Results
Hypertensive patients with metabolic disturbances underwent laparoscopic Roux‐en‐Y gastric bypass surgery, and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) underwent RYGB or sham surgery. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), endothelium‐dependent flow‐mediated dilation, and anthropometric as well as laboratory parameters were measured at baseline and during follow‐up. Changes of BP and HR in response to cold stress, renal sympathetic nervous activity (RSNA), vasoconstriction induced by electrical field stimulation, microinjection of nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and CV function and structure were examined in SHRs with or without surgery. Compared with baseline, BP and HR were significantly reduced in both hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and rats. Impaired endothelial‐dependent vasodilatation and metabolic disturbances in hypertensive patients were also ameliorated after surgery. CV disturbances were reversed by surgery in SHRs. Under acute cold exposure, the variations in BP and HR were smaller in surgically treated SHRs, compared to sham SHRs. RSNA and vasoconstriction induced by perivascular nerve stimulation as well as NTS‐mediated changes of BP were decreased in surgically treated SHRs, compared to sham SHR. Weight loss did not affect BP and RSNA in sham SHRs.
GI intervention ameliorates HTN in both hypertensive patients and rats by inhibiting overdrive of the SNS. Therefore, targeting gastrointestine could be a novel strategy to treat HTN with metabolic disturbances.
Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of the American Heart Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High salt (HS) intake contributes to the development of hypertension. Epithelial sodium channels play crucial roles in regulating renal sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. The renal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel can be activated by its agonist capsaicin. However, it is unknown whether dietary factors can act on urinary sodium excretion and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function. Here, we report that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increased urinary sodium excretion through reducing sodium reabsorption in wild-type (WT) mice on a HS diet but not in TRPV1(-/-) mice. The effect of capsaicin on urinary sodium excretion was involved in inhibiting αENaC and its related with-no-lysine kinase 1/serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 pathway in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Dietary capsaicin further reduced the increased αENaC activity in WT mice attributed to the HS diet. In contrast, this capsaicin effect was absent in TRPV1(-/-) mice. Immunoprecipitation study indicated αENaC specifically coexpressed and functionally interact with TRPV1 in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Additionally, ENaC activity and expression were suppressed by capsaicin-mediated TRPV1 activation in cultured M1-cortical collecting duct cells. Long-term dietary capsaicin prevented the development of high blood pressure in WT mice on a HS diet. It concludes that TRPV1 activation in the cortical collecting ducts by capsaicin increases urinary sodium excretion and avoids HS diet-induced hypertension through antagonizing αENaC-mediated urinary sodium reabsorption. Dietary capsaicin may represent a promising lifestyle intervention in populations exposed to a high dietary salt intake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental cold is a nonmodifiable hypertension risk factor. Transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is a cold-sensing cation channel that can be activated by menthol, a compound with a naturally cold sensation in mint. Little is known about the effect of TRPM8 activation on vascular function and blood pressure. Here, we report that TRPM8 is abundantly expressed in the vasculature. TRPM8 activation by menthol attenuated vasoconstriction via RhoA/Rho kinase pathway inhibition in wild-type mice, but the effect was absent in TRPM8(-/-) mice. Chronic dietary menthol blunted mesenteric arterial constriction and lowered blood pressure in genetic hypertensive rats via inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase expression and activity in the vivo study. TRPM8 effect was associated with inhibition of intracellular calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, RhoA/Rho kinase activity, and sustained arterial contraction in the vitro study. Importantly, 8-week chronic menthol capsule treatment moderately lowered systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive individuals compared with the placebo group. Furthermore, chronic menthol capsule administration also improved flow-mediated dilatation in prehypertensive individuals, but not in the placebo group. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that TRPM8 activation by menthol benefits vascular function and blood pressure by inhibiting calcium signaling-mediated RhoA/Rho kinase activation in the vasculature. These findings add to the evidence that long-term dietary menthol treatment had favorable effects on hypertension treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Diabetic cardiovascular complications are characterised by oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a regulator of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and can antagonise oxidative stress, but approaches that enhance the activity of UCP2 to inhibit ROS are scarce. Our previous studies show that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin can prevent cardiometabolic disorders. In this study, we conducted experiments in vitro and in vivo to investigate the effect of capsaicin treatment on endothelial UCP2 and oxidative stress. We hypothesised that TRPV1 activation by capsaicin attenuates hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction through a UCP2-mediated antioxidant effect.
TRPV1-/-, UCP2 -/- and db/db mice, as well as matched wild type (WT) control mice, were included in this study. Some mice were subjected to dietary capsaicin for 14 weeks. Arteries isolated from mice and endothelial cells were cultured. Endothelial function was examined, and immunohistological and molecular analyses were performed.
Under high-glucose conditions, TRPV1 expression and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation were found to be decreased in the cultured endothelial cells, and the effects of high-glucose on these molecules were reversed by the administration of capsaicin. Furthermore, high-glucose exposure increased ROS production and reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels both in endothelial cells and in arteries that were evaluated respectively by dihydroethidium (DHE) and DAF-2 DA fluorescence. Capsaicin administration decreased the production of ROS, restored high-glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction through the activation of TRPV1 and acted in a UCP2-dependent manner in vivo. Administration of dietary capsaicin for 14 weeks increased the levels of PKA phosphorylation and UCP2 expression, ameliorated the vascular oxidative stress and increased NO levels observed in diabetic mice. Prolonged dietary administration of capsaicin promoted endothelium-dependent relaxation in diabetic mice. However, the beneficial effect of capsaicin on vasorelaxation was absent in the aortas of UCP2 -/- mice exposed to high-glucose levels.
TRPV1 activation by capsaicin might protect against hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction through a mechanism involving the PKA/UCP2 pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of the improvement of glucose homeostasis through angiotensin receptor blockers are not fully elucidated in hypertensive patients. We investigated the effects of telmisartan on insulin signaling and glucose uptake in cultured myotubes and skeletal muscle from wild-type and muscle-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ knockout (MCK-PPARδ(-/-)) mice. Telmisartan increased PPARδ expression and activated PPARδ transcriptional activity in cultured C2C12 myotubes. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes, telmisartan enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt and Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation as well as Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These effects were inhibited by antagonizing PPARδ or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, but not by PPARγ and PPARα inhibition. Palmitate reducing the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes could be restored by telmisartan. In vivo experiments showed that telmisartan treatment reversed high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in wild-type mice but not in MCK-PPARδ(-/-) mice. The protein levels of PPARδ, phospho-Akt, phospho-AS160, and Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane in the skeletal muscle on insulin stimulation were reduced by high-fat diet and were restored by telmisartan administration in wild-type mice. These effects were absent in MCK-PPARδ(-/-) mice. These findings implicate PPARδ as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertensive subjects with insulin resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sitagliptin, a selective dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, inhibits the inactivation and degradation of glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the role of GLP-1 in hypertension. This study investigated whether the activation of GLP-1 signaling protects endothelial function in hypertension. Two-week sitagliptin treatment (10 mg/kg per day, oral gavage) improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in renal arteries, restored renal blood flow, and reduced systolic blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In vivo sitagliptin treatment elevated GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor expressions, increased cAMP level, and subsequently activated protein kinase A, liver kinase B1, AMP-activated protein kinase-α and endothelial NO synthase in spontaneously hypertensive rat renal arteries. Inhibition of GLP-1 receptor, adenylyl cyclase, protein kinase A, AMP-activated protein kinase-α, or NO synthase reversed the protective effects of sitagliptin. We also demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin 4 in vitro treatment had similar vasoprotective effects in spontaneously hypertensive rat renal arteries and increased NO production in spontaneously hypertensive rat aortic endothelial cells. Studies using transient expressions of wild-type and dominant-negative AMP-activated protein kinase-α2 support the critical role of AMP-activated protein kinase-α in mediating the effect of GLP-1 in endothelial cells. Ex vivo exendin 4 treatment also improved endothelial function of renal arteries from hypertensive patients. Our results elucidate that upregulation of GLP-1 and related agents improve endothelial function in hypertension by restoring NO bioavailability, suggesting that GLP-1 signaling could be a therapeutic target in hypertension-related vascular events.