[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The proteins in tissue interstitial fluids (TIFs) can spread into the blood and have been proposed as an ideal material to find blood biomarkers. The colon TIFs were collected from 8-, 13-, 18-, and 22-week ApcMin/+, a typical mouse model of colorectal cancer (CRC), and wild-type mice. iTRAQ-based quantification proteomics was conducted to survey the TIF proteins whose abundance appeared to depend on tumor progression. A total of 46 proteins that exhibited consecutive changes in abundance were identified, including six serine proteases, chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 (CELA1), chymotrypsin-like elastase 2A (CEL2A), chymopasin, chymotrypsinogen B (CTRB1), trypsin 2 (TRY2), and trypsin 4 (TRY4). The observed increases in the abundance of serine proteases were supported in another quantitative evaluation of the individual colon TIFs using a multiple reaction monitor (MRM) assay. Importantly, the increases in the abundance of serine proteases were also verified in the corresponding sera. The quantitative verification of the serine proteases was further extended to the clinical sera, revealing significantly higher levels of CELA1, CEL2A, CTRL/chymopasin, and TRY2 in CRC patients. The receiver operating characteristic analysis illustrated that the combination of CELA1 and CTRL reached the best diagnostic performance, with 90.0% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity. Thus, the quantitative target analysis demonstrated that some serine proteases are indicative of CRC progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) occurs at a very high rates in certain regions of China. There are increasing evidences demonstrating that selenium could act as a potential anti-esophageal cancer agent, but the precise mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. Methylseleninicacid (MSA), as a potent second-generation selenium compound, is a promising chemopreventive agent. Previous studies demonstrated that the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system plays a critical role in cancer prevention, but little is known about its association with MSA in ESCC cells. In this study, we observed that MSA treatment significantly down-regulated Keap1, induced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and enhance the antioxidant response element (ARE) promoter activity in ESCC cells. MSA could also significantly induce microRNA-200a (miR-200a) expression and inhibit Keap1 directly. Antagomir-200a could attenuate MSA treatment-induced Keap1 down-regulation in ESCC cells. Moreover, MSA-induced miR-200a expression was dependent on the mediation of Krüpple-like factor 4 (KLF4). These results reaffirm the potential role of MSA as a chemopreventive agent via the regulation of KLF4/miR-200a/Keap1/Nrf2 axis in ESCC cells.
Copyright 2015 The Author(s).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Aurora-A overexpression is common in various types of cancers and has been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis through different signaling pathways, yet how the deregulation affects cancer therapeutics remains elusive. Here we showed that overexpression of Aurora-A rendered esophageal cancer cells resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) by inhibiting apoptosis. By using an apoptosis array, we identified a downstream gene, p21-activated kinase 7 (PAK7). PAK7 was upregulated by Aurora-A overexpression at both mRNA and protein levels. Importantly, the expression levels of Aurora-A and PAK7 were correlated in ESCC primary samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that binding of E2F1 to the promoter of PAK7 was significantly enhanced upon Aurora-A activation, and knockdown of transcription factor E2F1 decreased PAK7 expression, suggesting that Aurora-A regulated PAK7 through E2F1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PAK7 knockdown led to increased apoptosis, and Aurora-A-induced resistance to CDDP was reversed by downregulation of PAK7, suggesting PAK7 was a downstream player of Aurora-A that mediated chemoresistance of ESCC cells to CDDP. Our data suggest that PAK7 may serve as an attractive candidate for therapeutics in ESCC patients with Aurora-A abnormality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death in China and has limited effective therapeutic options except for early surgery, since the underlying molecular mechanism driving its precursor lesions towards invasive ESCC is not fully understood. Cellular senescence is the state of the permanent growth arrest of a cell, and is considered as the initial barrier of tumor development. Human differentiated embryo chondrocyte expressed gene 1 (Dec1) is an important transcription factor that related to senescence. In this study, DEC1 immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarray blocks constructed from ESCC combined with adjacent precursor tissues of 241 patients. Compared with normal epithelia, DEC1 expression was significantly increased in intraepithelial neoplasia and DEC1 expression was significantly decreased in ESCC in comparison with intraepithelial neoplasia. In vitro, DEC1 overexpression induced cellular senescence, and it inhibited cell growth and colony formation in ESCC cell line EC9706. Fresh esophagectomy tissue sections from five ESCC patients were detected by immunohistochemistry of DEC1 and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity, and strongly positive expression of DEC1 was correlated to more senescent cells in these fresh tissue sections. Kaplan-Meier method analysis of the 241 patients revealed that DEC1 expression levels were significantly correlated with the survival of ESCC patients after surgery. The expression levels of DEC1 were also correlated with age, tumor embolus, depth of invasion of ESCC, lymph metastasis status and pTNMs. These results suggest that DEC1 overexpression in precursor lesions of ESCC is a protective mechanism by inducing cellular senescence in ESCC initiation, and DEC1 may be a potential prognostic marker of ESCC.