[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents the annual overall energy performance and energy-saving potential of a ventilated photovoltaic double-skin facade (PV-DSF) in a cool-summer Mediterranean climate zone. A numerical simulation model based on EnergyPlus was utilized to simulate the PV-DSF overall energy performance, simultaneously taking into account thermal power and daylight. Based on numerical model, sensitivity analyses about air gap width and ventilation modes have been lead in Berkeley (California) with the aim to optimize unit's structure design and operational strategy of PV-DSF. Via simulation, the overall energy performance including thermal, power and daylighting of the optimized PV-DSF was evaluated using the typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data. It was found that per unit area of the proposed PV-DSF was able to generate about 65 kW h electricity yearly. If high efficiency cadmium telluride (CdTe) semi-transparent PV modules are adopted, the annual energy output could be even doubled. The PV-DSF studied, also featured good thermal and daylighting performances. The PV-DSF can effectively block solar radiation while still providing considerable daylighting illuminance. Due simply to excellent overall energy performance, a PV-DSF at Berkeley can reduce net electricity use by about 50% compared with other commonly used glazing systems. Efficiency improvements of semi-transparent PV modules would further increase the energy saving potential of a PV-DSF and thus making this technology more promising.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Irregular circadian rhythm and some of its most characteristic symptoms are frequently observed in patients with schizophrenia. However, changes in the expression of clock genes or neuropeptides that are related to the regulation of circadian rhythm may influence the susceptibility to recurrence after antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia, but this possibility has not been investigated.
Blood samples were collected from 15 healthy male controls and 13 male schizophrenia patients at 4h intervals for 24h before and after treatment with clozapine for 8 weeks. The outcome measures included the relative expression of clock gene mRNA PERIOD1 (PER1), PERIOD2 (PER2), PERIOD3 (PER3) and the levels of plasma cortisol, orexin, and insulin.
Compared with healthy controls, schizophrenia patients presented disruptions in diurnal rhythms of the expression of PER1, PER3, and NPAS2 and the release of orexin, accompanied by a delayed phase in the expression of PER2, decreases in PER3 and NPAS2 expression, and an increase in cortisol levels at baseline. Several of these disruptions (i.e., in PER1 and PER3 expression) persisted after 8 weeks of clozapine treatment, similar to the decreases in the 24-h expression of PER3 and NPAS2. Clozapine treatment for 8 weeks significantly decreased the 24-h levels of PER2 and increased the 24-h levels of insulin.
These persistent neurobiological changes that occur after 8 weeks of clozapine treatment may contribute to the vulnerability to recurrence and efficacy of long-term maintenance treatment in schizophrenia.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Psychoneuroendocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new transient analytical model for describing the heat transfer process of pile geothermal heat exchangers with spiral coils (PGHE-SC). A numerical model has been established based on the finite element method to validate this new analytical model, which shows a good agreement between the two models. The temperature responses for different heat transfer conditions were calculated and are discussed. When the thermal conductivities of pile is twice as the one of soil, the dimensionless temperature at middle of the pile is 0.3832 which almost twice as the temperature response of homogeneous case. The results indicate that the thermal difference between pile and soil is an important factor influencing PGHE-SC simulation/design. As this new model not only successfully takes the limited length of an energy pile into consideration but also distinguishes thermal properties in its modeling process, it may provide a desirable and better design tool for the PGHE-CS.
No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The research on the influence that groundwater exerts on borehole ground heat exchanger has been made progress. However, the investigation on how to obtain the groundwater velocity is a little. According to the line heat source model with groundwater flow, a new methodology is explored to obtain the value and direction of groundwater velocity while it flows through borehole. Some points are distributed around borehole and they have the same distance to the center line of borehole, and the temperature responses of these points are significant parameters which lay firm foundation for reverse-reasoning. The reverse-reasoning calculation can be conducted by establishing objective function. The comparisons of temperature responses between theoretical results and the simulative recorded data are made. The impact degree of groundwater flow can be displayed and then the velocity is estimated. Differences among points' temperature responses are made full use of to respectively indicate the direction and value ranges of velocity. The relativity between the points' location and the velocity intensity is investigated and then some cases are chosen as the trials to verify the rationality of reverse calculation method. To a large extent, the research work of this paper provides theoretical guidance or computing mode for getting velocity of groundwater. The methodology can be employed for obtaining the velocity in actual engineering projects or other cases.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · International Journal of Thermal Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both the formation of long-term memory (LTM) and dendritic spine growth that serves as a physical basis for the long-term storage of information require de novo protein synthesis. Memory formation also critically depends on transcription. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a transcriptional regulator that has emerged as a major energy sensor that maintains cellular energy homeostasis. However, still unknown is its role in memory formation. In the present study, we found that AMPK is primarily expressed in neurons in the hippocampus, and then we demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in AMPK activity and increase in mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity after contextual fear conditioning in the CA1 but not CA3 area of the dorsal hippocampus. Using pharmacological methods and adenovirus gene transfer to bidirectionally regulate AMPK activity, we found that increasing AMPK activity in the CA1 impaired the formation of long-term fear memory, and decreasing AMPK activity enhanced fear memory formation. These findings were associated with changes in the phosphorylation of AMPK and p70s6k and expression of BDNF and membrane GluR1 and GluR2 in the CA1. Furthermore, the prior administration of an mTORC1 inhibitor blocked the enhancing effect of AMPK inhibition on fear memory formation, suggesting that this negative regulation of contextual fear memory by AMPK in the CA1 depends on the mTORC1 signaling pathway. Finally, we found that AMPK activity regulated hippocampal spine growth associated with memory formation. In summary, our results indicate that AMPK is a key negative regulator of plasticity and fear memory formation.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 09 December 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.355.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Operation conditions significantly affect the energy and economic performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant cooling systems. This study optimized the system control parameters for buildings in different climates, i.e., Singapore (hot and humid), Beijing (moderate) and Boulder (hot and dry), with a multi-parameter optimization based on the Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm to obtain optimal system performance in terms of relatively maximum electricity saving rate with a minimum cost payback period. The results indicated that the selection of operation parameters is significantly influenced by climatic conditions. The solar collector installation area exhibited the greatest effect on both energy and economic performance in humid areas, and the heating water flow rate was also important. For dry areas, a change in desiccant concentration had the largest effect on system performance. Although the effect of the desiccant flow rate was significant in humid cities, it appeared to have little influence over buildings in dry areas. Furthermore, the requirements of the solar collector installation area in humid areas were much higher. The optimized area was up to 70 m2 in Singapore compared with 27.5 m2 in Boulder. Similar results were found for the flow rates of heating water and the desiccant solution. Applying the optimization, humid cities could achieve an electricity saving of more than 40% with a six-year payback period. The optimal performance for hot and dry areas of a 38% electricity saving with a payback period of 14 years was also acceptable. The results facilitate anyone faced with choosing suitable operational parameters under different climate conditions.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Energy Conversion and Management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The seasonality of depressive symptoms is prevalent in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms that underlie such susceptibility to seasonal influences on mood disorders are unclear. We examined the effects of a short photoperiod condition on the susceptibility to subchronic unpredictable mild stress (SCUS) and rhythmic alterations of plasma corticosterone (CORT), melatonin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in adolescent male rats. Compared with the 12h/12h light/dark photoperiod control (CON) rats, the 8h/16h photoperiod SCUS rats exhibited significant anhedonia, a core symptom of human depression, together with a blunted diurnal rhythm and elevation of 24h CORT, melatonin, and NPY levels. The 8h/16h photoperiod condition also blunted the rhythmicity of CORT, caused a phase inversion of melatonin, and caused a phase delay of NPY compared with 12h/12h CON rats. Such abnormalities of plasma CORT, NPY, and melatonin might cause adolescent individuals to present higher stress reactivity and greater vulnerability to stress over their lifetimes. The present study provides evidence of the susceptibility to the seasonality of stress-related disorders in adolescence.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Behavioural brain research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of highly inheritable mental disorders associated with synaptic dysfunction, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain to be clarified. Here we report that autism in Chinese Han population is associated with genetic variations and copy number deletion of P-Rex1 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1). Genetic deletion or knockdown of P-Rex1 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in mice resulted in autism-like social behavior that was specifically linked to the defect of long-term depression (LTD) in the CA1 region through alteration of AMPA receptor endocytosis mediated by the postsynaptic PP1α (protein phosphase 1α)-P-Rex1-Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) signaling pathway. Rescue of the LTD in the CA1 region markedly alleviated autism-like social behavior. Together, our findings suggest a vital role of P-Rex1 signaling in CA1 LTD that is critical for social behavior and cognitive function and offer new insight into the etiology of ASDs.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined pharmacological treatments are the most used approach for neuropathic pain. Carbamazepine, an antiepileptic agent, is generally used as a third-line treatment for neuropathic pain and can be considered an option only when patients have not responded to the first- and second-line medications. In the case presented herein, a patient with neuropathic pain was treated using a combined pharmacological regimen. The patient's pain deteriorated, despite increasing the doses of opioids, when carbamazepine was discontinued, potentially because carbamazepine withdrawal disrupted the balance that was achieved by the multifaceted pharmacological regimen, thus inducing hyperalgesia. Interestingly, when carbamazepine was prescribed again, the patient's pain was successfully managed. Animal research has reported that carbamazepine can potentiate the analgesic effectiveness of morphine in rodent models of neuropathic pain and postoperative pain. This clinical case demonstrates that carbamazepine may have a synergistic effect on the analgesic effectiveness of morphine and may inhibit or postpone opioid-induced hyperalgesia. We postulate that a probable mechanism of action of carbamazepine may involve -aminobutyric acid-ergic potentiation and the interruption of glutamatergic function via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Further research is warranted to clarify the analgesic action of carbamazepine and its potential use for the prevention of opioid-induced hyperalgesia in chronic neuropathic pain patients. Key words: Analgesia, hyperalgesia, carbamazepine, opioids, neuropathic pain, pharmacologic treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic factors contribute to more than 50% of the variation in the vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD). Although significant advances have been made in medications for AD, these medications do not work for all people. Precise tailoring of medicinal strategies for individual alcoholic patients is needed to achieve optimal outcomes. This review updates the most promising information on genetic variants in AD, which may be useful for improving diagnostic, therapeutic, and monitoring strategies. We describe genetic candidates of various neurotransmitter and enzyme systems. In addition to biological and allelic associations with AD, genetic effects on AD-related phenotypes and treatment responses have also been described. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions have been considered. Potential applications of genomewide and epigenetic approaches for identifying genetic biomarkers of AD have been discussed. Overall, the application of genetic findings in precision medicine for AD will likely involve an integrated approach that distinguishes effect sizes of specific genetic predictors with regard to sex, pharmacotherapy, ethnicity, and AD-related aspects and considers gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Our work may pave the way toward more precise treatment for AD that could ultimately improve clinical management and interventions.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Behavioural pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cooling system with liquid desiccant dehumidification is an energy-efficient and eco-friendly solution for the ever-increasing energy consumption and environmental impact of modern buildings. By significantly influencing the wetted area, the contact angle of the liquid-air interface is critical to the performance of desiccant dehumidification. In this study, to enhance heat and mass transfer performance, a new approach was developed with a titanium dioxide superhydrophilic self-cleaning coating on the dehumidifier surfaces that was made of a highly dispersed paste with nanoscale titanium dioxide particles and activated with ultraviolet light. We first tested the effect of the coatings on samples made of three commonly used materials, SUS304, SUS316, and SUS410, with a 30% LiBr solution and deionized water. Results show that the contact angle on the coated samples dramatically decreased to only 1/7 for water and 1/6 for the LiBr solution compared to uncoated samples. The durability of the coatings was studied experimentally by repeatedly immersing the samples in 30% LiBr, exposing them for 2 months, and reactivating them. It was found that the angle changed slightly for SUS304/316 samples with good anticorrosion performance, whereas the angle increased by 10°-20° for SUS410 samples due to the accelerated catalytic oxidization of the Titanium dioxide coating, which could possibly be solved by precoating an SiO2 compact layer. Furthermore, we found numerically that the wetted area during desiccant dehumidification could be effectively increased by 5-7 times with the coating. Accordingly, the heat exchange rate and moisture removal rate between the air and the desiccant could be increased by 1.2 and 2 times, respectively. Therefore, by dramatically reducing the desiccant contact angle on dehumidifier surfaces and enlarging the wetted area accordingly, the titanium dioxide self-cleaning coating could significantly improve the heat and mass transfer performance of liquid desiccant dehumidification, especially the mass transfer performance. The coatings' manufacture is cheap and facile for industrialization. This measure can be considered an effective and economic way to improve the performance of a dehumidifier and also has other applications in heat exchangers, evaporators, and absorption towers.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Cleaner Production
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the influences of rib spacing and height on particle deposition in ribbed duct air flows were numerically investigated. The turbulent air flow was resolved using the Reynolds stresses model (RSM) with turbulent fluctuation correction, while the particle phase was tracked by the discrete particle model (DPM). The ratios of rib spacing to rib height p/e were 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 while the ratios of rib height to duct diameter e/D were 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2. The air flow velocity profiles for both smooth and ribbed ducts as well as particle deposition velocity in a smooth duct obtained in the simulation agree well with previous related study data. It is found that particle deposition velocity is significantly enhanced by the surface ribs for several orders of magnitude, especially for small particles . Particle deposition enhancement increases with the decreasing rib spacing, while no significant difference is found for different rib heights. The mechanisms of particle deposition enhancement were analyzed and discussed in relation to different rib spacings and heights. Moreover, an efficiency ratio has been defined to evaluate the particle deposition enhancement ratio together with the increase of flow drag. The maximum efficiency ratio can reach about 1000 for small particles and about 100 for large particles when p/e = 2 and e/D = 0.1. Therefore, a reasonable arrangement of surface ribs is an efficient and effective choice for enhancing particle deposition, and could be adopted in air filtration devices.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Building and Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanobelt is very attractive anode electrode for LIBs because of their high theoretical capacity. To enhance the capacity and cyclic performance of MoO3-based electrode materials of lithium ion battery (LIB), here, as a proof of concept, we report in this work a novel surface disordered engineering strategy of fabrication of island-like mesoporous amorphous Fe2O3 layer on MoO3 nanobelts (a-Fe2O3@MoO3). The island-like mesoporous amorphous Fe2O3 layer is obtained by direct hydrolysis of FeCl3.6H2O on MoO3 nanobelts assisted by low-temperature heat treatment. Here, the FeCl3.6H2O plays a multifunctional role of the formation of amorphous Fe2O3 layer, disordering MoO3 nanobelts and increasing the specific surface area and porosity of MoO3 nanobelts. The as-formed amorphous Fe2O3 layer is demonstrated to significantly improve the kinetics behavior of lithium-ion diffusion and electronic transport due to its isotropic feature during cycling. As a result, the designed anode exhibits dramatically enhanced electrochemical properties compared with individual MoO3 nanobelts and physical mixture of Fe2O3 powdes and MoO3 nanobelts: a high initial discharge capacity of 1523 mAh g−1 at 50 mA g−1, remarkable rate capability (386 mAh g−1 at 500 mA g−1) and outstanding cycling performance. Our results reveal new possibilities of designing amorphous oxides layer of anode electrodes by surface disorder engineering on achieving enhanced LIBs performance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of surface rib arrangements on particle deposition in two-dimensional ribbed duct air flows by CFD method. The turbulent duct air flows were simulated by Reynolds stress model (RSM) with UDF correction, and the particle motions were solved by discrete particle model (DPM). The surface ribs were arranged in aligned or staggered layouts. The air velocity profiles for both smooth and ribbed duct flows as well as the particle deposition velocity for smooth duct cases were all in good agreement with the relative literature data. The simulation results showed that the surface ribs with aligned arrangement have better performance on small particle deposition enhancement, compared with staggered surface ribs. Nevertheless, the large particle deposition rates are not enhanced obviously by both kinds of surface ribs. Considering the flow drag increase, the maximum particle deposition enhancement can reach 425 times for particles with 1 μm diameter. Finally, the mechanisms of particle deposition enhancement by aligned and staggered surface ribs were analyzed and discussed from the views of rib interception, deposition area increase, turbulent eddy capture and the flow passage width. Surface ribs with aligned arrangement are recommended to be applied in particle removal and air clean devices.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Applied Thermal Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS), which combines battery for long-term energy management and supercapacitor for fast dynamic power regulation, is proposed for remote area renewable energy power supply systems. The operation of a passive connected HESS was examined via both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation using Matlab/Simulink. An electric inductor was further introduced to improve the performance of the HESS. An experimental test bench was developed to validate the simulation results. It was demonstrated that the HESS can stabilize energy provision, not only for the intermittent renewable energy (RE), but also for fluctuating load applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a set of indoor and outdoor measurement methods and procedures to determine the empirical coefficients of the Sandia Array Performance Model (SAPM) for a semi-transparent amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV module. After determining and inputting the total 39 parameters into the SAPM, the dynamic power output of the a-Si PV module was predicted. In order to validate the accuracy of using SAPM for simulating the energy output of the a-Si PV module, a long-term outdoor testing campaign was conducted. The results indicated that the SAPM with indoor and outdoor measured coefficients could accurately simulate the energy output of the a-Si PV module on sunny days, but it didn't work well on overcast days due to the inappropriate spectral correction as well as the equipment measuring error caused by the intense fluctuation of solar irradiance on overcast days. Specifically, all the errors between the simulated daily energy output and the measured one were less than 4% on sunny days. In order to achieve a better prediction performance for a-Si PV technologies, the SAPM was suggested to incorporate a more comprehensive spectral correction function to correct the impact of solar spectrum on overcast days in future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic component. Many lines of evidence indicated that ASD shares common genetic variants with other psychiatric disorders (for example, schizophrenia). Previous studies detected that calcium channels are involved in the etiology of many psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Significant association between CACNA1C (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit) and schizophrenia was detected. Furthermore, rare mutation in CACNA1C is suggested to cause Timothy syndrome, a multisystem disorder including autism-associated phenotype. However, there is no evidence for association between CACNA1C and autism in Chinese Han population. To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in CACNA1C and autism, we first performed a family-based association study between eighteen SNPs in CACNA1C and autism in 239 trios. All SNPs were genotyped by using Sequenom genotyping platform. Two SNPs (rs1006737 and rs4765905) have a trend of association with autism. To further confirm the association between these two SNPs with autism, we expanded the sample size to 553 trios by adding 314 trios. Association analyses for SNPs and haplotype were performed by using family-based association test (FBAT) and Haploview software. Permutation tests were used for multiple testing corrections of the haplotype analyses (n=10,000). The significance level for all statistical tests was two-tailed (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that G allele of rs1006737 and G allele of rs4765905 showed a preferential transmission to affected offspring in 553 trios (p=0.035). Haplotype analyses showed that two haplotypes constructed from rs1006737 and rs4765905 were significantly associated with autism (p=0.030, 0.023, respectively; Global p=0.046). These results were still significant after permutation correction (n=10,000, p=0.027). Our research suggests that CACNA1C might play a role in the genetic etiology of autism in Chinese Han population.