[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To identify specific mutations causing North Carolina macular dystrophy (NCMD).
Whole-genome sequencing coupled with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of gene expression in human retinal cells.
A total of 141 members of 12 families with NCMD and 261 unrelated control individuals.
Genome sequencing was performed on 8 affected individuals from 3 families affected with chromosome 6-linked NCMD (MCDR1) and 2 individuals affected with chromosome 5-linked NCMD (MCDR3). Variants observed in the MCDR1 locus with frequencies <1% in published databases were confirmed using Sanger sequencing. Confirmed variants absent from all published databases were sought in 8 additional MCDR1 families and 261 controls. The RT-PCR analysis of selected genes was performed in stem cell-derived human retinal cells.
Main outcome measures:
Co-segregation of rare genetic variants with disease phenotype.
Five sequenced individuals with MCDR1-linked NCMD shared a haplotype of 14 rare variants spanning 1 Mb of the disease-causing allele. One of these variants (V1) was absent from all published databases and all 261 controls, but was found in 5 additional NCMD kindreds. This variant lies in a DNase 1 hypersensitivity site (DHS) upstream of both the PRDM13 and CCNC genes. Sanger sequencing of 1 kb centered on V1 was performed in the remaining 4 NCMD probands, and 2 additional novel single nucleotide variants (V2 in 3 families and V3 in 1 family) were identified in the DHS within 134 bp of the location of V1. A complete duplication of the PRDM13 gene was also discovered in a single family (V4). The RT-PCR analysis of PRDM13 expression in developing retinal cells revealed marked developmental regulation. Next-generation sequencing of 2 individuals with MCDR3-linked NCMD revealed a 900-kb duplication that included the entire IRX1 gene (V5). The 5 mutations V1 to V5 segregated perfectly in the 102 affected and 39 unaffected members of the 12 NCMD families.
We identified 5 rare mutations, each capable of arresting human macular development. Four of these strongly implicate the involvement of PRDM13 in macular development, whereas the pathophysiologic mechanism of the fifth remains unknown but may involve the developmental dysregulation of IRX1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Innovation is important for the improvement of health care. A small grant innovation funding program was implemented by the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) for the Perioperative Services group, awarding relatively small funds (approximately $10 000) in order to stimulate innovation. Of 48 applications, 26 (54.2%) different innovation projects were funded for a total allocation of $227 870. This program demonstrated the ability of small grants to stimulate many applications with novel ideas, a wide range of innovations and reasonable academic productivity.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal gene therapy for Leber’s congenital amaurosis, an autosomal recessive childhood blindness, has been widely considered to be safe and efficacious. Three years after therapy, improvement in vision was maintained, but the rate of loss of photoreceptors in the treated retina was the same as that in the untreated retina. Here we describe long-term follow-up data from three treated patients. Topographic maps of visual sensitivity in treated regions, nearly 6 years after therapy for two of the patients and 4.5 years after therapy for the third patient, indicate progressive diminution of the areas of improved vision.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate the behavioral phenotype of patients affected with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS).Study designTwenty-four patients with molecularly confirmed diagnosis of BBS (6–38 years of age) were evaluated using standardized neuropsychological tests. Results were compared to normative data.ResultsThe mean intellectual functioning of participants fell 1½ standard deviations below normal expectations; though, the majority of participants (75-80%) did not display an Intellectual Disability. The group's mean performance on most cognitive tasks and all scales of adaptive functioning was significantly weaker than norms. The majority (55-60%) of participants displayed broadly-average verbal fluency and auditory rote learning, while 22-40% were severely impaired in the same areas. The majority of participants were severely impaired in perceptual reasoning (53%), attentional capacity (69%), and functional independence (74%). Symptoms associated with Autism were reported for 77% of participants. Behavioral issues were unrelated to intellectual ability but significantly correlated with adaptive functioning.Conclusion
This first neurocognitive evaluation of a molecularly confirmed cohort of BBS patients shows that the majority of patients experience significant difficulties with perceptual intellectual abilities, auditory attentional capacity, adaptive independence, and behavior. The frequency of Autism-related symptoms far exceeds the incidence rate of diagnosed Autism in general and warrants further investigations.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Clinical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although rare in the general population, retinal dystrophies occupy a central position in current efforts to develop innovative therapies for blinding diseases. This status derives, in part, from the unique biology, accessibility, and function of the retina, as well as from the synergy between molecular discoveries and transformative advances in functional assessment and retinal imaging. The combination of these factors has fueled remarkable progress in the field, while at the same time creating complex challenges for organizing collective efforts aimed at advancing translational research. The present position paper outlines recent progress in gene therapy and cell therapy for this group of disorders, and presents a set of recommendations for addressing the challenges remaining for the coming decade. It is hoped that the formulation of these recommendations will stimulate discussions among researchers, funding agencies, industry, and policy makers that will accelerate the development of safe and effective treatments for retinal dystrophies and related diseases.
Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE :Retinal detachment with avascularity of the peripheral retina, typically associated with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), can result from mutations in KIF11, a gene recently identified to cause microcephaly, lymphedema, and chorioretinal dysplasia (MLCRD) as well as chorioretinal dysplasia, microcephaly, and mental retardation (CDMMR). Ophthalmologists should be aware of the range of presentations for mutations in KIF11 because the phenotypic distinction between FEVR and MLCRD/CDMMR portends management implications in patients with these conditions.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Jama Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PRPS1 codes for the enzyme phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRS-1). The spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders associated with reduced activity includes Arts syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5 (CMTX5) and X-linked non-syndromic sensorineural deafness (DFN2). We describe a novel phenotype associated with decreased PRS-1 function in two affected male siblings. Using whole exome and Sanger sequencing techniques, we identified a novel missense mutation in PRPS1. The clinical phenotype in our patients is characterized by high prenatal maternal α-fetoprotein, intrauterine growth restriction, dysmorphic facial features, severe intellectual disability and spastic quadraparesis. Additional phenotypic features include macular coloboma-like lesions with retinal dystrophy, severe short stature and diabetes insipidus. Exome sequencing of the two affected male siblings identified a shared putative pathogenic mutation c.586C>T p.(Arg196Trp) in the PRPS1 gene that was maternally inherited. Follow-up testing showed normal levels of hypoxanthine in urine samples and uric acid levels in blood serum. The PRS activity was significantly reduced in erythrocytes of the two patients. Nucleotide analysis in erythrocytes revealed abnormally low guanosine triphosphate and guanosine diphosphate. This presentation is the most severe form of PRPS1-deficiency syndrome described to date and expands the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 25 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.112.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Mutations in ZEB1 have been reported in posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD3; MIM #609141) and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD6; MIM #613270). Although PPCD and keratoconus are clinically and pathologically distinct, PPCD has been associated with keratoconus, suggesting a common genetic basis. The purpose of our study was to perform mutational screening of the ZEB1 gene in patients affected with keratoconus or PPCD.
Sanger sequencing of ZEB1 was performed in 70 unrelated patients with keratoconus and 18 unrelated patients with PPCD. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed on RNA from cultured corneal keratocytes obtained from a keratoconic patient harboring a missense ZEB1 mutation (p.Gln640His) undergoing corneal transplantation.
Mutational analysis of ZEB1 in PPCD identified a previously reported frameshift mutation (C.1578_1579INSG) and a novel nonsense mutation (C.2249C A) in exon 7 of ZEB1 causing the insertion of a stop codon: p.Ser750X. In the keratoconus cohort, a novel heterozygous pathogenic mutation in exon 7 (c.1920G > T; p.Gln640His) of ZEB1 was identified in a family affected with keratoconus and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy. RT-qPCR performed on cultured corneal keratocytes harboring the missense ZEB1 mutation (p.Gln640His) demonstrated that COL4A1 and COL4A2 were markedly downregulated, and COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL8A2 were moderately downregulated.
Our data combined with the previously reported mutational spectrum of ZEB1 support a genotypephenotype correlation: missense substitutions in the ZEB1 protein are associated with FECD6 and keratoconus, whereas protein truncating ZEB1 mutations result in PPCD3. The dysregulation of α-type IV collagens represents a common link between ZEB1 mutation and the clinical phenotypes (PPCD3, FECD, and keratoconus).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To report phenotypic characteristics including macular cone photoreceptor morphology in KCNV2-related "cone dystrophy with supernormal rod electroretinogram" (CDSR).
Seven patients, aged 9 to 18 years at last visit, with characteristic full-field electroretinographic (ERG) features of CDSR were screened for mutations in the KCNV2 gene. All patients underwent detailed ophthalmological evaluation, which included distance and color vision testing, contrast sensitivity measurement, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Follow-up visits were available in six cases. Rod photoreceptor function was assessed using a bright white flash ERG protocol (240 cd·s/m(2)). Macular cone photoreceptor morphology was assessed from 2° by 2° zonal images obtained using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) in six cases.
Pathogenic mutations in KCNV2 were identified in all seven cases. Best corrected vision was 20/125 or worse in all cases at the latest visit (20/125-20/400). Vision loss was progressive in two cases. Color vision and contrast sensitivity was abnormal in all cases. Retinal exam revealed minimal pigment epithelial changes at the fovea in four cases. A peri- or parafoveal ring of hyperfluorescence was the most common FAF abnormality noted (five cases). The SD-OCT showed outer retinal abnormalities in all cases. The rod photoreceptor maximal response was reduced but rod sensitivity was normal. AOSLO showed markedly reduced cone density in all six patients tested.
Central vision parameters progressively worsen in CDSR. Structural retinal and lipofuscin accumulation abnormalities are commonly present. Macular cone photoreceptor mosaic is markedly disrupted early in the disease.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy that manifests with genetic heterogeneity. We sequenced the exome of an individual with LCA and identified nonsense (c.507G>A, p.Trp169*) and missense (c.769G>A, p.Glu257Lys) mutations in NMNAT1, which encodes an enzyme in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis pathway implicated in protection against axonal degeneration. We also found NMNAT1 mutations in ten other individuals with LCA, all of whom carry the p.Glu257Lys variant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Eye (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in the management of children affected with retinoblastoma.
A review of clinical records of children with the diagnosis of retinoblastoma at the Hospital for Sick Children from January 1995 to December 2007, for whom UBM was used to determine the extent of intraocular tumor. Clinical characteristics were compared with UBM. Pathological correlation was performed for enucleated eyes.
In total, 101 eyes of 75 patients were included in the final analysis. Only 11 eyes were diagnosed on UBM to have extension of the tumor anterior to the ora serrata, and were enucleated. Histopathological examination confirmed the anterior extension in all the 11 eyes. In total, 50 eyes were enucleated because of various reasons, such as poor visual prognosis (12 eyes), unilateral group D or E (23 eyes), recurrences (8 eyes), and treatment failure (7 eyes). None of those patients were found to have anterior extension of the disease on histopathological examination. UBM did not yield any false negative (0/50) or any false positives (0/11).
The UBM provided a sensitive and reproducible visualization of the anterior retina, ciliary region, and anterior segment allowing a better staging of the advanced disease process. Primary assessment of the true extent of retinoblastoma is critical for the selection of an optimal management approach.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Eye (London, England)