[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cohesion is essential for the identification of sister chromatids and for the biorientation of chromosomes until their segregation. Here, we have demonstrated that an RNA-binding motif protein encoded on the X chromosome (RBMX) plays an essential role in chromosome morphogenesis through its association with chromatin, but not with RNA. Depletion of RBMX by RNA interference (RNAi) causes the loss of cohesin from the centromeric regions before anaphase, resulting in premature chromatid separation accompanied by delocalization of the shugoshin complex and outer kinetochore proteins. Cohesion defects caused by RBMX depletion can be detected as early as the G2 phase. Moreover, RBMX associates with the cohesin subunits, Scc1 and Smc3, and with the cohesion regulator, Wapl. RBMX is required for cohesion only in the presence of Wapl, suggesting that RBMX is an inhibitor of Wapl. We propose that RBMX is a cohesion regulator that maintains the proper cohesion of sister chromatids.