- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A consecutive series of 88 patients underwent transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis over a 7-year period. Liver transplantation was indicated because of the tumor in 75 cases (85.2%); tumor was an incidental finding in 13 cases (14.8%). One patient was retransplanted due to primary nonfunction. The perioperative mortality was 4.5%. Tumor recurrence was observed in seven patients (7.95%) with incidental tumor recurrence in one case. As in patients with known primary liver tumors pretransplant, a thorough follow-up is advisable to establish an early diagnosis of recurrence. The actuarial survival for nonincidental hepatocellular carcinoma at 1, 3, and 5 year was 92%, 77%, and 75%, respectively. The differences in actuarial survival between hepatitis C negative and positive hepatocellular carcinoma were not significant (log-rank test P=.27), though there was a clear improvement in results (94%, 85%, and 78% vs 90%, 71%, and 71%), at 1, 3, and 5 years meaning that HCV infection is an important prognostic factor. Although transplantation for HCC has the advantages of removing the tumor and the cirrhotic liver, it remains a controversial topic. In our experience patients showing lesions less than 5 cm or three or fewer lesions experience an equivalent survival to transplanted patients who do not have cancer.