[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1).
Between January 1, 2008, and March 1, 2011, 212 newly diagnosed patients with AML received treatment at our center. Ninety-five patients age less than 75 years with intermediate- or high-risk AML achieved a complete remission, and 21 patients achieved a morphologic remission with incomplete blood count recovery.
Seventy-eight (67%; 95% CI, 58% to 76%) of 116 patients received HCT at a median of 2.8 months (range, 0.5 to 19 months) from their CR1 date. The median age was 57 years in both the HCT patient group (range, 18 to 75 years) and the non-HCT patient group (range, 24 to 70 years; P = .514). Between the HCT patients and the non-HCT patients, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.1 compared with 1.5, respectively (P = .005), and the average HCT comorbidity score within 60 days of CR1 was 1.7 and 2.1, respectively (P = .68). Twenty-nine (76%) of 38 non-HCT patients were HLA typed, and matched donors were found for 13 of these 29 patients (34% of all non-HCT patients). The most common causes for patients not receiving transplantation in CR1 were early relapse (within 6 months) in 12 patients (32%), poor performance status in eight patients (21%), and physician decision in five patients (13%).
HCT can be performed in CR1 in the majority of patients with AML for whom it is currently recommended. The main barriers to HCT were early relapse and poor performance status, highlighting the need for improved therapies for patients with AML of all ages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only known cure for patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) who develop aplasia or leukemia. However, transplant regimens typically contain high-dose alkylators, which are poorly tolerated in FA patients. Furthermore, as many patients lack human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched family donors, alternative donors are used, which can increase the risk of both graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To improve on these three concerns, we developed a multi-institutional clinical trial using a fludarabine (FLU)-based conditioning regimen with limited alkylators/low-dose radiation, HLA-haploidentical marrow, followed by reduced-dose cyclophosphamide (CY) to treat three FA patients with aplasia. All three patients engrafted with 100% donor CD3 chimerism at 1 month. One patient died early from disseminated toxoplasmosis infection. Of the two survivors, one had significant pretransplant co-morbidities and inadequate immunosuppression, and developed severe acute GVHD. The other patient had only mild acute and no chronic GVHD. With a follow-up of 2 and 3 years, respectively, both patients are doing well, are transfusion-independent, and maintain full donor chimerism. The patient with severe GVHD has resolving oral GVHD and good quality of life. We conclude that using low-intensity conditioning, HLA-haploidentical marrow, and reduced-dose CY for in vivo T-cell depletion can correct life-threatening aplasia in FA patients.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is increasingly used as a potentially curative option for patients with advanced lymphoma; however, relapse remains a major challenge. Unfortunately, little data are available on outcomes, predictors of survival, and results of specific management strategies in these patients. In the present study, a total of 101 consecutive relapses occurred and were evaluated in 280 patients with lymphoma who underwent RIC HCT. Diseases included aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (n = 42), indolent NHL (n = 33), and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) (n = 26). Median time to relapse was 90 days (range, 3-1275 days), and graft-versus-host disease at relapse was present in 56 patients (55%). Interventions after relapse included no therapy (n = 14), withdrawal of immunosuppression alone (n = 11), chemoradiotherapy (n = 60), and donor lymphocyte infusion/second HCT (n = 16). Overall survival (OS) was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-44%) at 3 years after relapse and 23% (95% CI, 13%-34%) at 5 years after relapse. Both aggressive NHL (vs indolent disease; hazard ratio, 2.29; P = .008) and relapse within 1 month post-HCT (vs >6 months; hazard ratio, 3.17; P = .004) were associated with increased mortality. Estimated 3-year OS was 16% (95% CI, 5%-32%) after relapse for aggressive NHL, 40% (95% CI, 19%-61%) after relapse for indolent NHL, and 47% (95% CI, 29%-64%) after relapse for HL. The 1-year survival was 24% for patients relapsing within 1 month post-HCT, compared with 52% for those relapsing at 1-3 months, 74% for those relapsing at 3-6 months, and 77% for those relapsing at more than 6 months. We conclude that despite relapse of lymphoma after RIC HCT, some patients may experience prolonged survival, with better postrelapse outcomes occurring in patients with indolent NHL, HL, or late relapse.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a matched related donor (MRD) benefits many adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). The majority of patients does not have such a donor and will require an alternative donor if HCT is to be undertaken. We retrospectively analyzed 226 adult AML CR1 patients undergoing myeloablative unrelated donor (URD) (10/10 match, n=62; 9/10, n=29) or MRD (n=135) HCT from 1996 to 2007. The 5-year estimates of overall survival, relapse and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were 57.9, 29.7 and 16.0%, respectively. Failure for each of these outcomes was slightly higher for 10/10 URD than MRD HCT, although statistical significance was not reached for any end point. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.43 (0.89-2.30, P=0.14) for overall mortality, 1.17 (0.66-2.08, P=0.60) for relapse and 1.79 (0.86-3.74, P=0.12) for NRM, respectively, and the adjusted odds ratio for grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease was 1.50 (0.70-3.24, P=0.30). Overall mortality among 9/10 and 10/10 URD recipients was similar (adjusted HR 1.16 (0.52-2.61), P=0.71). These data indicate that URD HCT can provide long-term survival for CR1 AML; outcomes for 10/10 URD HCT, and possibly 9/10 URD HCT, suggest that this modality should be considered in the absence of a suitable MRD.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fludarabine is an integral anticancer agent for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and those receiving conditioning regimens prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). An individual's response to fludarabine may be influenced by the amount of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte suppression. Fludarabine undergoes cellular uptake and activation to form the cytotoxic metabolite, fludarabine triphosphate (F-ara-ATP).
We have previously developed a highly sensitive LC-MS method to quantitate intracellular F-ara-ATP concentrations in a leukemic cell line. However, quantitation of F-ara-ATP concentrations within CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes from pharmacokinetic blood samples obtained from patients receiving fludarabine therapy is not feasible because of the limited number of T-lymphocytes that can be isolated from each blood sample. Thus, we sought to determine F-ara-ATP accumulation after ex vivo exposure of freshly isolated human CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-lymphocytes to fludarabine. The method was optimized in T-lymphocytes obtained from healthy volunteers, and proved to be a feasible method to determine F-ara-ATP accumulation in patients undergoing HCT.
Considerable variability was observed in F-ara-ATP accumulation in HCT patients (10.5- and 12.5-fold in CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, respectively), compared to healthy volunteers (1.6- and 1.9-fold in CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, respectively). Larger variability was also observed in gene expression of transporters and enzymes involved in F-ara-ATP accumulation in HCT patients; however, F-ara-ATP accumulation was not correlated with gene expression, which is in agreement with previous studies.
The quantitation of F-ara-ATP accumulation in T-lymphocytes provides a novel tool to evaluate patient sensitivity to fludarabine. This tool can be used in future studies to evaluate whether intracellular F-ara-ATP accumulation is associated with efficacy and/or toxicity in patients receiving fludarabine.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology