Vincent J. Catalano

University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada, United States

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Publications (96)476.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The intramolecular aza-(4+3) cycloaddition reactions of in-situ generated aza-oxyallylic cations and furans have been reported for the construction of medium sized hydroxamate macrocycles. This method provides direct access to 12-18 membered bicyclic macrocycles. The highly functionalized macrocycles have been transformed easily in to a wide range of highly functionalized heterocyclic scaffolds including lactones and lactams that could serve the synthesis of complex macrocyclic natural products and pharmaceuticals.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Frontiers in Organic Chemistry
  • Michelle M. Nenzel · Kelly Chen · Vincent J. Catalano
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    ABSTRACT: A series of Au(I)-Cu(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) halide complexes [AuCu2(im(CH2py)2)2X]2+ where X = Cl (1), Br (2), I (3) was prepared by refluxing [AuCu2(im(CH2py)2)2(NCCH3)4]3+ with the appropriate halide in acetonitrile. The compounds were characterized by NMR, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy. They feature similar solution behavior and solid-state photoemissions. The solid-state structures feature a rhomboidal [AuCu2X]2+ core which is influenced by the type of halide. Compared to other Au(I)-Cu(I) NHC complexes, 1-3 comprise a new structural motif containing a bridging halide. The benzimidazolium analog of 1 was also characterized crystallographically. The structure of [AuCu2(benzim(CH2py)2)2Cl]2+ (4) features different coordination modes of the NHC ligands with the carbenic carbon bonded to both gold and copper and the pyridyl groups bonded to the same copper(I) ion.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Coordination Chemistry
  • Kelly Chen · Vincent J. Catalano
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    ABSTRACT: The AuI complex [Au(Ph2PCH2py)2]BF4 (1) was prepared by mixing (tetrahydrothiophene)gold(I) chloride with 2-[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine (Ph2PCH2py) in dichloromethane. The addition of [Cu(NCCH3)4]BF4 to 1 produced green-luminescent [AuCu(Ph2PCH2py)2(NCCH3)2](BF4)2 (2). When crystals of 2 were exposed to air, two acetonitrile molecules were lost to form crystals of yellow-luminescent [AuCu(Ph2PCH2py)2](BF4)2 (3). This simple solvent loss perturbs the environment around the CuI center, and the Au···Cu distance shortens from 3.3 to 2.8 Å. Crystallization of 2 or 3 from dichloromethane produced the two-coordinate CuI–solvate complex, [AuCu(Ph2PCH2py)2](BF4)2·CH2Cl2 (3·CH2Cl2). Compound 3 exhibits temperature-dependent emissions from 77 to 298 K (543 nm), 298 to 343 K (551 nm), and above 343 K (505 nm) that is reversed upon return to room temperature. The low-temperature emission is typical of complexes with luminescent rigidochromic properties. However, based on differential scanning calorimetry, a phase change is responsible for the high-temperature emission of 3.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft
  • Kelly Chen · Michelle M Nenzel · Thomas M Brown · Vincent J Catalano
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    ABSTRACT: The silver(I) species [Ag(benzim(CH2py)2)2]PF6 (1) was prepared by refluxing the ligand precursor [H(benzim(CH2py)2)2]PF6 with Ag2O and aqueous sodium hydroxide in dichloromethane. Simple transmetalation of 1 with tetrahydrothiophenegold(I) chloride forms the gold(I) analogue [Au(benzim(CH2py)2)2]PF6 (2). The addition of 2 equiv of [Cu(NCCH3)4]PF6 to 2 in acetonitrile produces a blue-luminescent, trimetallic complex, [AuCu2(benzim(CH2py)2)2(NCCH3)4](PF6)3·2CH3CN (3·2CH3CN). When blue-luminescent 3·2CH3CN is exposed to air, the complex loses four acetonitrile molecules, and the emission of the desolvated complex (4) appears aquamarine. Crystallization of 4 from different solvents produces the complexes [AuCu2(benzim(CH2py)2)2](PF6)3 (5) and [AuCu2(benzim(CH2py)2)2(NCCH2CH3)2](PF6)3 (6). Upon grinding, both 3·2CH3CN and 4 exhibit mechanochromic transformations to a yellow-luminescent powder (ground-4). The reversible mechanochromic transformation of 3·2CH3CN to ground-4 is a crystalline-to-amorphous conversion accompanied by partial desolvation. The luminescent mechanochromism of 4 to ground-4 is an "amorphous-to-amorphous" process and does not require solvent loss. In addition to their mechanochromic properties, both 3·2CH3CN and 4 exhibit luminescent thermochromism through desolvation to form a weak luminescent powder (7).
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Inorganic Chemistry
  • Kelly Chen · Jason Shearer · Vincent J Catalano
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    ABSTRACT: A series of Cu4X4(PPh2py)2 compounds (X = Cl (1), Br (2), I (3), PPh2py = 2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridine) were prepared and characterized using X-ray crystallography, NMR, UV-vis, and luminescence spectroscopy. The copper chloride and bromide clusters have Cu4X4 octahedral cores while the copper iodide clusters contain an unprecedented butterfly shaped core. Crystallization of the copper bromide and iodide clusters from the appropriate solvent produced the solvates 2·2CH2Cl2, 2·2CHCl3, and 3·0.5CH2Cl2 where the presence of the lattice solvate influences the overall structural properties. Using TD-DFT calculations, the emission was assigned to a mixed metal- and halide-to-ligand charge transfer, (M + X)LCT. Subtle differences in the copper core geometry and μ-halide bonding perturb the emissions of these copper(I) halide clusters.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Inorganic Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The reaction of [Zn3 Cl3 L], in which L(3-) is a tris(β-diketiminate) cyclophane, with K(sBu)3 BH afforded [Zn3 (μ-H)3 L] (2), as confirmed by NMR spectroscopy, NOESY, and X-ray crystallography. The complex 2 was air-stable and unreactive towards water, methanol, and other substrates (e.g., nitriles) at room temperature over 24 h but reacted with CO2 (ca. 1 atm) to generate [Zn3 (μ-H)2 (μ-1,1-O2 CH)] (3). In contrast, [Zn3 (OH)3 L] (4) was found to be unreactive toward CO2 over the course of several days at 90 °C. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Angewandte Chemie International Edition
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    ABSTRACT: The reaction of [Zn3Cl3L], in which L3− is a tris(β-diketiminate) cyclophane, with K(sBu)3BH afforded [Zn3(μ-H)3L] (2), as confirmed by NMR spectroscopy, NOESY, and X-ray crystallography. The complex 2 was air-stable and unreactive towards water, methanol, and other substrates (e.g., nitriles) at room temperature over 24 h but reacted with CO2 (ca. 1 atm) to generate [Zn3(μ-H)2(μ-1,1-O2CH)] (3). In contrast, [Zn3(OH)3L] (4) was found to be unreactive toward CO2 over the course of several days at 90 °C.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Angewandte Chemie
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    Korry L Barnes · Kelly Chen · Vincent Joseph Catalano · Christopher Scott Jeffrey
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    ABSTRACT: Polyhydroxlated piperidines are a functionally rich class of biologically active molecules that have broad therapeutic potential. Recently developed aza-[4+3] cycloadditions of putative aza-oxyallylic cations provide heterocyclic scaffolds that enabled a concise synthesis of polyhydoxylated piperidines. Chemoselective amide reduction and reductive hemiaminal ring opening was achieved in one pot by the action of aluminium hydride generated in situ via aluminium chloride and lithium aluminium hydride. Aziridinium ion mediated ring contraction and chloride displacement was triggered by silver acetate, followed by simple acetate hydrolysis using potassium carbonate to give four tetrahydropyridine diols. Olefin oxidation by osmium tetroxide installed the final hydroxyl groups, which yielded four novel polyhydroxylated N-alkoxypiperidines in good overall yield and high diastereoselectivity.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
  • Lyndsay B. Munro · Vincent J. Catalano
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 12 picolyl-containing NHC ligand precursors and their AgI salts are reported. The complexes [Ag3{Sim(CH2pyCl)2}3]X3 [2(PF6)3], [Ag3{Sim(CH2pyBr)2}3]X3 [3(PF6)3], [Ag3{Sim(CH2isoquin)2}3]X3 [4(PF6)3], [Ag3{5,6-Cl2-benzim(CH2py)2}3]X3 [6(BF4)3], [Ag3{5,6-Me2-benzim(CH2py)2}3]X3 [7(PF6)3], [Ag3(benzim{CH2py-3,4-(OMe)2}2)3]X3 [8(PF6)3], [Ag3{benzim(CH2py-3,5-Me2-4-OMe)2}3]X3 [9(PF6)3], [Ag3(5,6-Me2-benzim{CH2py-3,4-(OMe)2}2)3]X3 [10(PF6)3], [Ag3{5,6-Me2-benzim(CH2py-3,5-Me2-4-OMe)2}3]X3 [11(PF6)3], and [Ag3{5-OMe-benzim(CH2py)2}3]X3 [12(PF6)3] (X = PF6– or BF4–) each contain a central [Ag3]3+ core spanned by three NHC ligands. The optically pure [Ag3{(R,R)-cyclohexylim(CH2py)2}3](PF6)3 [(R,R)-5(PF6)3] adopts a different coordination mode. All complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HRMS. In addition, complexes 3(PF6), (R,R)-5(PF6), 6(BF4), 7(PF6), and 8(PF6) were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and found to exhibit Ag–Ag distances of approximately 2.7 Å.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft
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    ABSTRACT: Reactions between [Au(C6Cl2F3)(tht)] and P,N-donor bridging ligands of the type PPh2py and (PPh2)2phen lead to the homonuclear gold complexes [Au(C6Cl2F3)(PPh2py)] () and [Au2(C6Cl2F3)2{(PPh2)2phen}] (). Subsequent addition of [Cu(CH3CN)4](BF4) leads to the formation of the corresponding gold-copper heterometallic complexes [Au2Cu(C6Cl2F3)2(PPh2py)2](BF4) () and [Au2Cu(C6Cl2F3)2{(PPh2)2phen)}(CH3CN)](BF4) (). The four complexes have been structurally characterized and are luminescent. The gold precursors show emissions arising from metal-perturbed intraligand transitions. The heterometallic complexes show a red shift of the emissions that is proposed to arise from an admixture of IL (intraligand) and MLCT (metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer) transitions. DFT and TD-DFT calculations agree well with these results.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Dalton Transactions
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to the wide number and variety of available synthetic routes to conventional linear polymers, the synthesis of two-dimensional polymers and unambiguous proof of their structure remains a challenge. Two-dimensional polymers-single-layered polymers that form a tiling network in exactly two dimensions-have potential for use in nanoporous membranes and other applications. Here, we report the preparation of a fluorinated hydrocarbon two-dimensional polymer that can be exfoliated into single sheets, and its characterization by high-resolution single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The procedure involves three steps: preorganization in a lamellar crystal of a rigid monomer bearing three photoreactive arms, photopolymerization of the crystalline monomers by [4 + 4] cycloaddition, and isolation of individual two-dimensional polymer sheets. This polymer is a molecularly thin (~1 nm) material that combines precisely defined monodisperse pores of ~9 Å with a high pore density of 3.3 × 10(13) pores cm(-2). Atomic-resolution single-crystal X-ray structures of the monomer, an intermediate dimer and the final crystalline two-dimensional polymer were obtained and prove the single-crystal-to-single-crystal nature and molecular precision of the two-dimensional photopolymerization.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Nature Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: An N,N-carbonyl-bridged dipyrrinone oxime has been synthesized and studied as a potential sensor for organophosphates. The molecular sensor underwent a drastic colorimetric response upon formation of the adduct. The pesticide dimethoate was found to produce the biggest spectral response, with a limit of detection equal to 4.0 ppm using UV-visible spectroscopy. Minimal fluorescence "turn on" via a PET mechanism was seen, and molecular modeling studies were used to explain the lower than expected PET response. The X-ray crystal structure of the fluorescent dipyrrinone oxime was also obtained.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Organic Letters
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    ABSTRACT: The trigonally coordinated [AuCu(PPh(2)py)(3)](BF(4))(2) (1) crystallizes in two polymorphs and a pseudopolymorph, each of which contains a trigonally coordinated cation with short Au(I)-Cu(I) separations of ∼2.7 Å. Under UV illumination, these crystals luminesce different colors ranging from blue to yellow. The structures of these cations are nearly superimposable, and the primary difference resides in the relative placement of the anions and solvate molecules. As confirmed by time-dependent density functional theory calculations, it is these interactions that are responsible for the differential emission properties.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Inorganic Chemistry
  • Christoph E Strasser · Vincent J Catalano
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    ABSTRACT: The picolyl-substituted NHC complex [Au(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)]PF(6) (1) reacts with two equivalents of copper(I) halides, affording compounds [Au(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)(CuX)(2)]PF(6) (X = Cl, 2; Br, 3; I, 4). Each complex contains a nearly linearly coordinated [Au(NHC)(2)](+) center where the two picolyl groups on each im(CH(2)py)(2) ligand chelate a single copper atom. The Cu(I) center resides in a distorted tetrahedral environment and is coordinated to two pyridyl groups, a halide ion, and a gold metalloligand. The Au(I)-Cu(I) separations measure 2.7030(5), 2.6688(9), and 2.6786(10) Å for 2-4, respectively. Additionally, each Cu(I) center is further coordinated by a semibridging NHC ligand with short Cu-C separations of ~2.3 Å. In solution, these complexes dissociate the Cu(I) ion. In the solid state, 2-4 are photoluminescent with respective emission maxima of 512, 502, and 507 nm. The reaction of [Au(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)]PF(6) with four equivalents of CuBr afforded the coordination polymer {[AuCu(2)Br(2)(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)]Br·3CH(3)CN}(n) (5). This polymeric complex contains [Au(NHC)(2)](+) units interconnected by Cu(2)Br(2) dimers. In 5, the Au-Cu separations are long at 4.23 and 4.79 Å, while the Cu-Cu distance is considerably shorter at 2.9248(14) Å. In the solid state, 5 is photoluminescent with a broad band appearing at 533 nm.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Inorganic Chemistry
  • Vincent J Catalano · Lyndsay B Munro · Christoph E Strasser · Ahmad F Samin
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    ABSTRACT: A series of picolyl-substituted NHC-bridged triangular complexes of Ag(I) and Cu(I) were synthesized upon reaction of the corresponding ligand precursors, [Him(CH(2)py)(2)]BF4 (1a), [Him(CH(2)py-3,4-(OMe)(2))(2)]BF4 (1b), [Him(CH(2)py-3,5-Me-2-4-OMe)(2)]BF4 (1c), [Him(CH(2)py-6-COOMe)(2)]BF4 (1d), and [H(S)im(CH(2)py)(2)]-BF4 (1e), with Ag2O and Cu2O, respectively. Complexes [Cu-3(im(CH(2)py)(2))(3)](BF4)(3) (2a), [Cu-3(im(CH(2)py-3,4-(OMe)(2))(2))(3)](BF4)(3) (2b), [Cu-3(im(CH(2)py-3,5-Me-2-4-OMe)(2))(3)](BF4)(3), (2c), [Ag-3(im(CH(2)py-3,4-(OMe)(2))(2))(3)](BF4)(3), (3b), [Ag-3(im(CH(2)py-3,5-Me-2-4-OMe)(2))(3)](BF4)(3) (3c), [Ag-3(im(CH(2)py-6-COOMe)(2))(3)](BF4)(3) (3d), and [Ag-3((S)im(CH(2)py)(2))(3)](BF4)(3) (3e) were easily prepared by this method. Complex 2e, [Cu-3((S)im(CH(2)py)(2))(3)](BF4)(3), was synthesized by a carbene-transfer reaction of 3e, [Ag-3((S)im(CH(2)py)(2))(3)](BF4)(3), with CuCl in acetonitrile. The ligand precursor Id did not react with Cu2O. All complexes were fully characterized by NMR, UV-vis, and luminescence spectroscopies and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Complexes 2a-2c, 2e, and 3b-3e were additionally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Each metal complex contains a nearly equilateral triangular M-3 core wrapped by three bridging NHC ligands. In 2a-2c and 2e, the Cu-Cu separations are short and range from 2.4907 to 2.5150 angstrom. In the corresponding Ag(I) system, the metal-metal separations range from 2.7226 to 2.8624 angstrom. The Cu(I)-containing species are intensely blue photoluminescent at room temperature both in solution and in the solid state. Upon UV excitation in CH3CN, complexes 2a-2c and 2e emit at 459, 427, 429, and 441 nm, whereas in the solid state, these bands move to 433, 429, 432, and 440 nm, respectively. As demonstrated by H-1 NMR spectroscopy, complexes 3b-3e are dynamic in solution and undergo a ligand dissociation process. Complexes 3b-3e are weakly photoemissive in the solid state.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Inorganic Chemistry
  • Christoph E Strasser · Vincent J Catalano
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    ABSTRACT: Reaction of the Au(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) compound [Au(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)]PF(6) with 2 equiv of [Cu(MeCN)(4)]PF(6) affords the tricationic compound [Au(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)(Cu(MeCN)(2))(2)](PF(6))(3) (1), which exhibits blue luminescence (lambda(max) = 462 nm). Reaction of 1 with either liquid MeOH or MeOH vapor affords [Au(im(CH(2)py)(2))(2)(Cu(MeOH))(2)](PF(6))(3) (2), which produces green luminescence (lambda(max) = 520 nm) under UV excitation. The molecular structures of 1 x 2MeCN and 2 x 2MeOH.2Et(2)O were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 contains a linearly coordinated [Au(NHC)(2)](+) core in which each picolyl side arm bridges a [Cu(MeCN)(2)](+) center. The Au...Cu separations are long at 4.596 A. Compound 2 exhibits two short Au...Cu interactions of 2.7195(7) A, with the Au(NHC)(2) core acting as an additional ligand toward each copper center to complete its tetrahedral coordination mode. Exposure of 2 to atmosphere produces a partial loss of MeOH accompanied by a luminescence color change to yellow (lambda(max) = 543 nm). The uptake and loss of MeOH vapor is rapid and reversible. Exposure of 2 to vacuum affords complete loss of MeOH, and the luminescence changes to yellow-orange (lambda(max) = 573 nm). Treatment of 2 with MeCN vapor regenerates 1. The interconversion of 1 and 2 was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 also reacts with acetone and H(2)O vapors, leading to species that produce yellow-orange (lambda(max) = 591 nm) and green (lambda(max) = 519 nm) emission, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 are examples of molecular vapochromic materials that exhibit large changes in the emission though ligand substitution reactions between the solid complex and solvent vapors. The dramatic color change likely results from the "on-off" Au...Cu interactions induced by the ligand exchange reaction.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • Vincent J Catalano · Adam L Moore · Jason Shearer · Jineun Kim
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    ABSTRACT: The coordination chemistry of copper(I) halides to the homoleptic, N-heterocyclic carbene Au(I) complexes [Au(CH(3)imCH(2)quin)(2)]BF(4) and Au(CH(3)imCH(2)py)(2)]BF(4) was explored. The reaction of CuX (X = Cl, Br, I) with either [Au(CH(3)imCH(2)quin)(2)]BF(4) or [Au(CH(3)imCH(2)py)(2)]BF(4) produces trimetallic complexes containing Cu(2)X(2)-butterfly copper clusters coordinated to the two imine moieties. The triangular arrangement of the metals places the gold(I) center in close proximity (approximately 2.5-2.6 A) to the centroid of the Cu-Cu vector. The Cu-Cu separations vary as a function of bridging halide with the shortest Cu-Cu separations of approximately 2.5 A found in the iodo-complexes and the longest separations of 2.9 A found in the bridging chloride complexes. In all six complexes the Au-Cu separations range from approximately 2.8 to 3.0 A. In the absence of halides, the dimetallic complex [AuCu(CH(3)imCH(2)py)(2)(NCCH(3))(2)](BF(4))(2), containing a long Au-Cu distance of approximately 4.72 A is formed. Additionally, as the byproduct of the reaction of CuBr with [Au(CH(3)imCH(2)quin)(2)]BF(4) the deep-red, dimetallic compound, AuCuBr(2)(CH(3)imCH(2)quin)(2), was isolated in very low yield. All of these complexes were studied by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and the copper containing species were additionally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In solution the copper centers dissociate from the gold complexes, but as shown by XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy, at low temperature the Cu-Cu linkage is broken, and the individual copper(I) halides reposition themselves to opposite sides of the gold complex while remaining coordinated to one imine moiety. In the solid state all of the complexes are photoluminescent, though the nature of the excited state was not determined.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Inorganic Chemistry
  • Amit K. Ghosh · Vincent J. Catalano
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    ABSTRACT: The reaction of [Au(CH3impy)2]PF6 (2), with substituted silver benzoate salts bearing different halide substituents produced a series of new mixed-metal species having two different structural motifs. One structural motif contains discrete tetrametallic Ag2Au2 diamond cores, whereas the other motif contains the same tetrametallic diamond core interconnected by benzoate-bridged silver dimers to form polymers. All the complexes are substitution-inert and stable both in the solid state as well as in solution. We also report the synthesis of oxidative addition products of [Au(CH3impy)2]PF6, which were also obtained during our attempts to oxidize the above-mentioned multimetallic assembly with bromine and iodine. Compounds 3–7 are intensely luminescent in frozen acetonitrile solution, but surprisingly no luminescence is observed at room temperature. All the complexes were completely characterized by 1H, 13C NMR, electronic absorption, emission spectroscopy, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009)
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft
  • Guozhu Zhang · Vincent J. Catalano · Liming Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · ChemInform
  • Michael T. Huggins · Chris Musto · Lyndsay Munro · Vincent J. Catalano
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    ABSTRACT: We present our investigations of 2-ethyl-3-methyl-(10H)-dipyrrin-1-one, its self-association, and anion binding properties. This receptor is easily accessible in a facile single step synthesis with a straightforward workup. An examination of the concentration dependence of the dipyrrinone NH chemical shifts in CDCl3 and (CDCl2)2 over the temperature range from −20 °C to 100 °C determined the self-association constant to be 3850 M−1. Molecular recognition studies have shown that it has a preference for guests with an OH moiety, such as hydrogen sulfate (HSO4−) and carboxylic acids (RCO2H).Graphical abstract
    No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Tetrahedron

Publication Stats

3k Citations
476.58 Total Impact Points


  • 1995-2015
    • University of Nevada, Reno
      • Department of Chemistry
      Reno, Nevada, United States
  • 1997
    • Occidental College
      • Department of Chemistry
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1990-1997
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Chemistry
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1996
    • Dalhousie University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada