[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On-wafer electrooptic probing of two-dimensional electric-field vector (E-vector) is demonstrated by using one laser beam and one electrooptic prober. This technique utilizes both compressed-stretched deformation and rotational deformation on the index ellipsoid of the electrooptic crystal. Both experiment and simulation were performed to map the E-vector on a circuit board, and the measurement error is within 2.2%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An electro-optic probe tip that is made from LiTaO crystal to make tangentially two-dimensional electric-field (E-field) vector measurements is presented. We combine a new electro-optic modulation technique and a conventional one to resolve the two E-field components. The new modulation effect on the optical probing beam is caused by rotation of the principal axis the electro-optic crystal, which is proportional to the E-field. Inasmuch as there is no free charge involved in the axis rotation, rotation modulation of the axis can be as fast as conventional modulation. The principles are carefully derived, and an experimental system constructed, to measure two-dimensional E-field vectors on a test pattern. The results are in good agreement with those obtained with commercial software for electromagnetic simulation. The sensitivities of two tangential E-field components are 76 (mV/cm)/ radicalHz and 0.8 (V/cm)/ radicalHz, respectively. The root-mean-square error of an E-field directional measurement is 1.5 degrees .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary form only given. Depending upon the space group of EO
crystals and the applied electric-field vectors (E vector), the index
ellipsoid of the EO crystal experiences compressed/stretched deformation
or rotational deformation. Most conventional EO probing techniques only
use compressed/stretched deformation modulation (CSDM), hence, two beams
or two different EO crystals are required to differentiate the applied
electric field directions. Consequently, the measurement becomes
complicated and inaccurate. Now, we present the EO probing technique
using single beam and single crystal to monitor the 2D electric field
using rotational deformation modulation (RDM), a newly developed
modulation skill. Both CSDM and RDM techniques are adopted by our system
to monitor the electric field vector. The measured results are in good
agreement with the simulations obtained by a commercial “Ansoft
Maxell 3-D Field Simulator”. The experiment set-up is similar to
our previous work on 2-beam E-vector measurement except that the He-Ne
laser is replaced by a single longitudinal mode laser diode (wavelength
= 635 nm), and the compensator is no longer needed for RDM. The beam
path within the LiTaO<sub>3</sub> is presented
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new technique for three-dimensional (3D) electric-field (e-field) vector measurement is presented. Three laser beams with different propagation paths in an electro-optic (EO) crystal were used to resolve 3D components of e-field vectors. We adopted a special geometric shape of bismuth silicon oxide EO crystal so that the three beams would propagate within it. A sensitivity of 0.6 V/cm square root Hz was achieved. A commercial Ansoft Maxwell 3D field simulator was also used to verify our measurements.