[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pretherapeutic determination of tumor resistance to chemotherapy is a main challenge, hindered by the low number of mechanisms characterized at the same time, the small size of the clinical specimens and the heterogeneity of the techniques or the lack of true quantification. The aim of the present study was to determine in real time quantitative RT-PCR, tumor cell expression of several transcripts involved in cancer cell resistance with a unique cDNA sample from a tumor biopsy. The technique had to be suitable in clinical practice for determination of several factors involved in resistance to a given drug family, for example, fluoropyrimidines resistance factors: thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidine kinase (TK), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS). A frame-shifted artificial construct was designed specifically to work within the same conditions. We validated our technique by quantifying expressions of these 5 genes starting from tissue samples of colorectal carcinoma and the surrounding normal mucosa of 33 different patients. That real time quantitative RT-PCR technique using the frame-shifted artificial construct as a standard provided a real comparison and quantification of different resistance factors. Tumor resistance phenotype determination based on that approach will be investigated in a control study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A structural profile-based computational screen was used to identify neuropoietin (NP), a new cytokine. The np gene is localized in tandem with the cardiotrophin-1 gene on mouse chromosome 7. NP shares structural and functional features with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin-1, and cardiotrophin-like cytokine. It acts through a membrane receptor complex comprising CNTF receptor-alpha component (CNTFRalpha), gp130, and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway. NP is highly expressed in embryonic neuroepithelia. Strikingly, CNTFRalpha, but not its alternate ligands, CNTF and cardiotrophin-like cytokine, is expressed at the same developmental stages. NP is also observed in retina and to a lesser extent in skeletal muscle. Moreover, NP could sustain the in vitro survival of embryonic motor neurons and could increase the proliferation of neural precursors when associated to epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2. Thus, NP is a new ligand for CNTFRalpha, with important implications for murine nervous system development.
Full-text · Article · May 2004 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vasopressin V1a receptor undergoes homologous and heterologous desensitizations which can be mimicked by activation of protein kinase C. This suggests that phosphorylation of the V1a receptor may be involved in the desensitization mechanisms. Such a phosphorylation was presently investigated in HEK 293 cells stably transfected with rat vasopressin V1a receptor. Metabolic labelling and immunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged V1a receptor evidenced a 52-kDa band and a 92-kDa band. Glycosidase treatments and immunoblotting experiments suggest that the 52-kDa band corresponds to an immature unprocessed receptor protein, whereas the 92-kDa band would correspond to a highly glycosylated form of the mature V1a receptor. Exposure of the cells to vasopressin induced a selective 32P phosphate incorporation in the 92-kDa form of the receptor. This homologous ligand-induced phosphorylation was dose dependent with maximal phosphate incorporation corresponding to four times the basal level. Stimulation of the endogenous phospholipase C-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor by carbachol-induced heterologous phosphorylation of the V1a receptor whose amplitude was half that of the homologous phosphorylation. This heterologous phosphorylation was associated with a reduced vasopressin-dependent increase in intracellular calcium.
No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · Cellular Signalling