Ken J. Chmiel

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (4)26.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine whether the extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) are involved in leukocyte transmigration across airway epithelium and the associated changes in epithelial permeability. In vitro, we used formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) to induce migration of HL-60 cells (a human leukocyte cell line) across sheets of polarized Calu-3 airway epithelial cells and also to induce migration of human neutrophils across primary cultures of cow tracheal epithelial cells. In both systems, leukocyte migration decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (R(te)), increased epithelial permeability to albumin (P(alb)), and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in epithelial cells. Leukocyte migration and the associated changes in R(te), P(alb), and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were inhibited by calphostin C, a blocker of protein kinase C (PKC), and by PD98059 (a blocker of ERK1/2). Leukocyte transmigration in rat tracheas in vivo was induced with fMLP, and was associated with increased P(alb) and phosphorylation of epithelial ERK1/2. Again, migration and the associated changes were inhibited by luminal PD98059 or calphostin C though neither agent affected rat leukocyte migration in Boyden chambers in vitro. We conclude that PKC and ERK1/2 pathways are activated in airway epithelial cells during migration of leukocytes and are important regulators of airway epithelial permeability.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2004 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in high-density DNA microarray technique allow the possibility to analyze thousands of genes simultaneously for their differential gene expression patterns in various biologic processes. Through clustering analysis and pattern recognition, the significance of these differentially expressed genes can be recognized and correlated with the biologic events that may take place inside the cell and tissue. High-density DNA microarray nylon membranes were used to explore gene expression and regulation associated with smoke- and hydrogen peroxide-induced injury and repair in differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. At least three phases of change in gene expression could be recognized. The first phase seems to be an immediate event in response to oxidant injury. This phase includes the induction of bcl-2 and mdm2 genes that are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 that functions as a regulator for various mitogen-activated protein kinase activities. The second phase, usually 5 h later, includes the induction of various stress proteins and ubiquitin, which are important in providing the chaperone mechanism and the turnover of damaged macromolecules. The third phase, which is 5 to 10 h later, includes the induction of genes that seem to be involved in reducing oxidative stress by metabolizing the cellular level of reactive oxygen species. In this phase, enzymes associated with tissue and cell remodeling are also elevated. These results demonstrated a complex gene expression array by bronchial epithelial cells in response to a single insult of oxidants that are relevant to environmental pollutants.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Development of the high-density DNA microarray technique permits the analysis of thousands of genes simultaneously for their differential expression patterns in various biological processes. Through clustering analysis and pattern recognition, the significance of differentially expressed genes can be recognized and correlated with biological events that may take place inside the cell and tissue. With this notion in mind, high-density DNA microarray nylon membrane with colorimetry detection was used to profile the expression of smoke- and hydrogen peroxide-inducible genes in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, HBE1. On the basis of the time course of expression, at least three phases of change in gene expression could be recognized. The first phase is an immediate event in response to oxidant injury. This phase includes induction of the bcl-2 and mdm-2 genes, which are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) gene, that functions as a regulator of various mitogen-activated protein kinase activities. The second phase, usually 5 h later, includes the induction of various stress proteins and ubiquitin, which are important in providing the chaperone mechanism and the turnover of damaged macromolecules. The third phase, which is 5-10 h later, includes the induction of genes that are apparently involved in reducing oxidative stress by metabolizing reactive oxygen species. In this phase, enzymes associated with tissue and cell remodeling are also elevated. These results demonstrate a complex gene expression array by bronchial epithelial cells in response to the insult of oxidants that are relevant to environmental pollutants.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
  • Vladimir B. Serikov · Hyon Choi · Ken J. Chmiel · Reen Wu

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