Paul M Thompson

Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Ángeles, California, United States

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Publications (1100)4935.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Reduction in hippocampal and amygdala volume measured via structural MRI is an early marker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Whether genetic risk factors for AD exert an effect on these subcortical structures independent of clinical status has not been fully investigated. METHODS: We examine whether increased genetic risk for AD influences hippocampal and amygdala volumes in case-control and population cohorts at different ages, in 1674 Older (aged >53yrs; 17% AD, 39% MCI) and 467 young (16-30 yrs) adults. RESULTS: An AD polygenic risk score (PRS) combining common risk variants excluding APOE, and a SNP in TREM2, were both associated with reduced hippocampal volume in healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). APOE ε4 was associated with hippocampal and amygdala volume in those with AD and MCI, but was not associated in healthy older adults. No associations were found in young adults. DISCUSSION: Genetic risk for AD affects the hippocampus before the clinical symptoms of AD, reflecting a neurodegenerative effect prior to clinical manifestations in older adults.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Head motion (HM) is a well known confound in analyses of functional MRI (fMRI) data. Neuroimaging researchers therefore typically treat HM as a nuisance covariate in their analyses. Even so, it is possible that HM shares a common genetic influence with the trait of interest. Here we investigate the extent to which this relationship is due to shared genetic factors, using HM extracted from resting-state fMRI and maternal and self report measures of Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity from the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviour (SWAN) scales. Our sample consisted of healthy young adult twins (N = 627 (63% females) including 95 MZ and 144 DZ twin pairs, mean age 22, who had mother-reported SWAN; N = 725 (58% females) including 101 MZ and 156 DZ pairs, mean age 25, with self reported SWAN). This design enabled us to distinguish genetic from environmental factors in the association between head movement and ADHD scales. HM was moderately correlated with maternal reports of Inattention (r = 0.17, p-value = 7.4E-5) and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity (r = 0.16, p-value = 2.9E-4), and these associations were mainly due to pleiotropic genetic factors with genetic correlations [95% CIs] of rg = 0.24 [0.02, 0.43] and rg = 0.23 [0.07, 0.39]. Correlations between self-reports and HM were not significant, due largely to increased measurement error. These results indicate that treating HM as a nuisance covariate in neuroimaging studies of ADHD will likely reduce power to detect between-group effects, as the implicit assumption of independence between HM and Inattention or Hyperactivity-Impulsivity is not warranted. The implications of this finding are problematic for fMRI studies of ADHD, as failing to apply HM correction is known to increase the likelihood of false positives. We discuss two ways to circumvent this problem: censoring the motion contaminated frames of the RS-fMRI scan or explicitly modeling the relationship between HM and Inattention or Hyperactivity-Impulsivity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is widely used to study microstructural characteristics of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI) are frequently used in radiology and neuroscience research but can be limited in describing the signal behavior in composite nerve fiber structures. Here, we developed and assessed the benefit of a comprehensive diffusion encoding scheme, known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI), composed of 300 DWI volumes acquired at 7-Tesla with diffusion weightings at b = 1000, 3000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 s/mm2 and applied it in transgenic Alzheimer rats (line TgF344-AD) that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease. We studied and visualized the effects of the multiple concentric "shells" when computing three distinct anisotropy maps-fractional anisotropy (FA), generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA). We tested the added value of the multi-shell q-space sampling scheme, when reconstructing neural pathways using mathematical frameworks from DTI and q-ball imaging (QBI). We show a range of properties of HYDI, including lower apparent anisotropy when using high b-value shells in DTI-based reconstructions, and increases in apparent anisotropy in QBI-based reconstructions. Regardless of the reconstruction scheme, HYDI improves FA-, GFA- and NQA-aided tractography. HYDI may be valuable in human connectome projects and clinical research, as well as magnetic resonance research in experimental animals.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: In network analysis, the so-called "rich club" describes the core areas of the brain that are more densely interconnected among themselves than expected by chance, and has been identified as a fundamental aspect of the human brain connectome. This is the first in-depth diffusion imaging study to investigate the rich club along with other organizational changes in the brain's anatomical network in behavioral frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and a matched cohort with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). Our study sheds light on how bvFTD and EOAD affect connectivity of white matter fiber pathways in the brain, revealing differences and commonalities in the connectome among the dementias. To analyze the breakdown in connectivity, we studied three groups: 20 bvFTD, 23 EOAD, and 37 healthy elderly controls. All participants were scanned with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and based on whole-brain probabilistic tractography and cortical parcellations, we analyzed the rich club of the brain's connectivity network. This revealed distinct patterns of disruption in both forms of dementia. In the connectome, we detected less disruption overall in EOAD than in bvFTD [false discovery rate (FDR) critical Pperm = 5.7 × 10(-3) , 10,000 permutations], with more involvement of richly interconnected areas of the brain (chi-squared P = 1.4 × 10(-4) )-predominantly posterior cognitive alterations. In bvFTD, we found a greater spread of disruption including the rich club (FDR critical Pperm = 6 × 10(-4) ), but especially more peripheral alterations (chi-squared P = 6.5 × 10(-3) ), particularly in medial frontal areas of the brain, in line with the known behavioral socioemotional deficits seen in these patients. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Human Brain Mapping
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    ABSTRACT: In this review, we discuss recent work by the ENIGMA Consortium ( - a global alliance of over 500 scientists spread across 200 institutions in 35 countries collectively analyzing brain imaging, clinical, and genetic data. Initially formed to detect genetic influences on brain measures, ENIGMA has grown to over 30 working groups studying 12 major brain diseases by pooling and comparing brain data. In some of the largest neuroimaging studies to date - of schizophrenia and major depression - ENIGMA has found replicable disease effects on the brain that are consistent worldwide, as well as factors that modulate disease effects. In partnership with other consortia including ADNI, CHARGE, IMAGEN and others, ENIGMA's genomic screens - now numbering over 30,000 MRI scans - have revealed at least 8 genetic loci that affect brain volumes. Downstream of gene findings, ENIGMA has revealed how these individual variants - and genetic variants in general - may affect both the brain and risk for a range of diseases. The ENIGMA consortium is discovering factors that consistently affect brain structure and function that will serve as future predictors linking individual brain scans and genomic data. It is generating vast pools of normative data on brain measures - from tens of thousands of people - that may help detect deviations from normal development or aging in specific groups of subjects. We discuss challenges and opportunities in applying these predictors to individual subjects and new cohorts, as well as lessons we have learned in ENIGMA's efforts so far.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · NeuroImage
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    ABSTRACT: In cognitively normal (CN) elderly individuals, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly viewed as a marker of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). SVD is due to exposure to systemic vascular injury processes associated with highly prevalent vascular risk factors (VRFs) such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. However, cerebral amyloid accumulation is also prevalent in this population and is associated with WMH accrual. Therefore, we examined the independent associations of amyloid burden and VRFs with WMH burden in CN elderly individuals with low to moderate vascular risk. Participants (n = 150) in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) received fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI at study entry. Total WMH volume was calculated from FLAIR images co-registered with structural MRI. Amyloid burden was determined by cerebrospinal fluid Aβ1-42 levels. Clinical histories of VRFs, as well as current measurements of vascular status, were recorded during a baseline clinical evaluation. We tested ridge regression models for independent associations and interactions of elevated blood pressure (BP) and amyloid to total WMH volume. We found that greater amyloid burden and a clinical history of hypertension were independently associated with greater WMH volume. In addition, elevated BP modified the association between amyloid and WMH, such that those with either current or past evidence of elevated BP had greater WMH volumes at a given burden of amyloid. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cerebral amyloid accumulation and VRFs are independently associated with clinically latent white matter damage represented by WMHs. The potential contribution of amyloid to WMHs should be further explored, even among elderly individuals without cognitive impairment and with limited VRF exposure.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: The human hippocampal formation can be divided into a set of cytoarchitecturally and functionally distinct subregions, involved in different aspects of memory formation. Neuroanatomical disruptions within these subregions are associated with several debilitating brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease, major depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Multi-center brain imaging consortia, such as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium, are interested in studying disease effects on these subregions, and in the genetic factors that affect them. For large-scale studies, automated extraction and subsequent genomic association studies of these hippocampal subregion measures may provide additional insight. Here, we evaluated the test–retest reliability and transplatform reliability (1.5 T versus 3 T) of the subregion segmentation module in the FreeSurfer software package using three independent cohorts of healthy adults, one young (Queensland Twins Imaging Study, N = 39), another elderly (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, ADNI-2, N = 163) and another mixed cohort of healthy and depressed participants (Max Planck Institute, MPIP, N = 598). We also investigated agreement between the most recent version of this algorithm (v6.0) and an older version (v5.3), again using the ADNI-2 and MPIP cohorts in addition to a sample from the Netherlands Study for Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) (N = 221). Finally, we estimated the heritability (h2) of the segmented subregion volumes using the full sample of young, healthy QTIM twins (N = 728). Test–retest reliability was high for all twelve subregions in the 3 T ADNI-2 sample (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.70–0.97) and moderate-to-high in the 4 T QTIM sample (ICC = 0.5–0.89). Transplatform reliability was strong for eleven of the twelve subregions (ICC = 0.66–0.96); however, the hippocampal fissure was not consistently reconstructed across 1.5 T and 3 T field strengths (ICC = 0.47–0.57). Between-version agreement was moderate for the hippocampal tail, subiculum and presubiculum (ICC = 0.78–0.84; Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) = 0.55–0.70), and poor for all other subregions (ICC = 0.34–0.81; DSC = 0.28–0.51). All hippocampal subregion volumes were highly heritable (h2 = 0.67–0.91). Our findings indicate that eleven of the twelve human hippocampal subregions segmented using FreeSurfer version 6.0 may serve as reliable and informative quantitative phenotypes for future multi-site imaging genetics initiatives such as those of the ENIGMA consortium.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · NeuroImage
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Resting sympathetic tone, a measure of physiological arousal, is decreased in patients with apathy and inertia, such as those with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other frontally-predominant disorders. Objective: To identify the neuroanatomical correlates of skin conductance levels (SCLs), an index of resting sympathetic tone and apathy, among patients with bvFTD, where SCLs is decreased, compared to those with Alzheimer's disease (AD), where it is not. Methods: This study analyzed bvFTD (n = 14) patients and a comparison group with early-onset AD (n = 19). We compared their resting SCLs with gray matter and white matter regions of interest and white matter measures of fiber integrity on magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Results: As expected, bvFTD patients, compared to AD patients, had lower SCLs, which correlated with an apathy measure, and more gray matter loss and abnormalities of fiber integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) in frontal-anterior temporal regions. After controlling for group membership, the SCLs were significantly correlated with white matter volumes in the cingulum and inferior parietal region in the right hemisphere. Conclusion: Among dementia patients, SCLs, and resting sympathetic tone, may correlate with quantity of white matter, rather than with gray matter or with white matter fiber integrity. Loss of white matter volumes, especially involving a right frontoparietal network, may reflect chronic loss of cortical axons that mediate frontal control of resting sympathetic tone, changes that could contribute to the apathy and inertia of bvFTD and related disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Paul M Thompson

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) can reveal the orientation of the underlying fiber populations in the brain. High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) is increasingly used to better resolve the orientation and mixing of fibers. Here, we assessed the added value of multi-shell q-space sampling on the reconstruction of major fibers using mathematical frameworks from q-ball imaging (QBI) and generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI), as compared to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We scanned a healthy mouse brain using 7-Tesla 5-shell HARDI (b=1000, 3000, 4000, 8000, 12000 s/mm 2), also known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI). We found that QBI may provide greater reconstruction accuracy for major fibers, which improves with the addition of higher b-value shells, unlike GQI or DTI (as expected). Although QBI is a special case of GQI, the major fiber orientation in QBI was more closely related to the orientation in DTI, rather than GQI. HYDI can aid the clinical outcomes of research and especially – more advanced human and animal connectomics projects to map the brain's neural pathways and networks.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this work was to assess statistical power to detect treatment effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived brain biomarkers. We used unbiased tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to analyze n = 5,738 scans, from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 participants scanned with both accelerated and nonaccelerated T1-weighted MRI at 3T. The study cohort included 198 healthy controls, 111 participants with significant memory complaint, 182 with early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) and 177 late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI), and 155 AD patients, scanned at screening and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The statistical power to track brain change in TBM-based imaging biomarkers depends on the interscan interval, disease stage, and methods used to extract numerical summaries. To achieve reasonable sample size estimates for potential clinical trials, the minimal scan interval was 6 months for LMCI and AD and 12 months for EMCI. TBM-based imaging biomarkers were not sensitive to MRI scan acceleration, which gave results comparable with nonaccelerated sequences. ApoE status and baseline amyloid-beta positron emission tomography data improved statistical power. Among healthy, EMCI, and LMCI participants, sample size requirements were significantly lower in the amyloid+/ApoE4+ group than for the amyloid-/ApoE4- group. ApoE4 strongly predicted atrophy rates across brain regions most affected by AD, but the remaining 9 of the top 10 AD risk genes offered no added predictive value in this cohort.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Neurobiology of aging
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) methods can noninvasively ascertain cerebral microstructure by examining pattern and directions of water diffusion in the brain. We calculated heritability for DWI parameters in cerebral white (WM) and gray matter (GM) to study the genetic contribution to the diffusion signals across tissue boundaries. Methods: Using Old Order Amish (OOA) population isolate with large family pedigrees and high environmental homogeneity, we compared the heritability of measures derived from three representative DWI methods targeting the corpus callosum WM and cingulate gyrus GM: diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the permeability-diffusivity (PD) model, and the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model. These successively more complex models represent the diffusion signal modeling using one, two, and three diffusion compartments, respectively. Results: We replicated the high heritability of the DTI-based fractional anisotropy (h(2) = 0.67) and radial diffusivity (h(2) = 0.72) in WM. High heritability in both WM and GM tissues were observed for the permeability-diffusivity index from the PD model (h(2) = 0.64 and 0.84), and the neurite density from the NODDI model (h(2) = 0.70 and 0.55). The orientation dispersion index from the NODDI model was only significantly heritable in GM (h(2) = 0.68). Conclusion: DWI measures from multicompartmental models were significantly heritable in WM and GM. DWI can offer valuable phenotypes for genetic research; and genes thus identified may reveal mechanisms contributing to mental and neurological disorders in which diffusion imaging anomalies are consistently found. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Human Brain Mapping
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical and subcortical nuclei degenerate in the dementias, but less is known about changes in the white matter tracts that connect them. To better understand white matter changes in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), we used a novel approach to extract full 3D profiles of fiber bundles from diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and map white matter abnormalities onto detailed models of each pathway. The result is a spatially complex picture of tract-by-tract microstructural changes. Our atlas of tracts for each disease consists of 21 anatomically clustered and recognizable white matter tracts generated from whole-brain tractography in 20 patients with bvFTD, 23 with age-matched EOAD, and 33 healthy elderly controls. To analyze the landscape of white matter abnormalities, we used a point-wise tract correspondence method along the 3D profiles of the tracts and quantified the pathway disruptions using common diffusion metrics - fractional anisotropy, mean, radial, and axial diffusivity. We tested the hypothesis that bvFTD and EOAD are associated with preferential degeneration in specific neural networks. We mapped axonal tract damage that was best detected with mean and radial diffusivity metrics, supporting our network hypothesis, highly statistically significant and more sensitive than widely studied fractional anisotropy reductions. From white matter diffusivity, we identified abnormalities in bvFTD in all 21 tracts of interest but especially in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, frontal callosum, anterior thalamic radiations, cingulum bundles and left superior longitudinal fasciculus. This network of white matter alterations extends beyond the most commonly studied tracts, showing greater white matter abnormalities in bvFTD versus controls and EOAD patients. In EOAD, network alterations involved more posterior white matter - the parietal sector of the corpus callosum and parahipoccampal cingulum bilaterally. Widespread but distinctive white matter alterations are a key feature of the pathophysiology of these two forms of dementia.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Brain Imaging and Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Speed with which brain performs information processing influences overall cognition and is dependent on the white matter fibers. To understand genetic influences on processing speed and white matter FA, we assessed processing speed and diffusion imaging fractional anisotropy (FA) in related individuals from two populations. Discovery analyses were performed in 146 individuals from large Old Order Amish (OOA) families and findings were replicated in 485 twins and siblings of the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The heritability of processing speed was h(2)=43% and 49% (both p<0.005), while the heritability of whole brain FA was h(2)=87% and 88% (both p<0.001), in the OOA and HCP, respectively. Whole brain FA was significantly correlated with processing speed in the two cohorts. Quantitative genetic analysis demonstrated a significant degree to which common genes influenced joint variation in FA and brain processing speed. These estimates suggested common sets of genes influencing variation in both phenotypes, consistent with the idea that common genetic variations contributing to white matter may also support their associated cognitive behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · NeuroImage
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing interest in understanding how the structural interconnections among brain regions change with the occurrence of neurological diseases. Diffusion weighted MRI imaging has allowed researchers to non-invasively estimate a network of structural cortical connections made by white matter tracts, but current statistical methods for relating such networks to the presence or absence of a disease cannot exploit this rich network information. Standard practice considers each edge independently or summarizes the network with a few simple features. We enable dramatic gains in biological insight via a novel unifying methodology for inference on brain network variations associated to the occurrence of neurological diseases. The key of this approach is to define a probabilistic generative mechanism directly on the space of network configurations via dependent mixtures of low-rank factorizations, which efficiently exploit network information and allow the probability mass function for the brain network-valued random variable to vary flexibly across the group of patients characterized by a specific neurological disease and the one comprising age-matched cognitively healthy individuals.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This article investigates late-onset cognitive impairment using neuroimaging and genetics biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants. Eight-hundred and eight ADNI subjects were identified and divided into three groups: 200 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 383 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 225 asymptomatic normal controls (NC). Their structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were parcellated using BrainParser, and the 80 most important neuroimaging biomarkers were extracted using the global shape analysis Pipeline workflow. Using Plink via the Pipeline environment, we obtained 80 SNPs highly-associated with the imaging biomarkers. In the AD cohort, rs2137962 was significantly associated bilaterally with changes in the hippocampi and the parahippocampal gyri, and rs1498853, rs288503, and rs288496 were associated with the left and right hippocampi, the right parahippocampal gyrus, and the left inferor temporal gyrus. In the MCI cohort, rs17028008 and rs17027976 were significantly associated with the right caudate and right fusiform gyrus, rs2075650 (TOMM40) was associated with the right caudate, and rs1334496 and rs4829605 were significantly associated with the right inferior temporal gyrus. In the NC cohort, Chromosome 15 [rs734854 (STOML1), rs11072463 (PML), rs4886844 (PML), and rs1052242 (PML)] was significantly associated with both hippocampi and both insular cortices, and rs4899412 (RGS6) was significantly associated with the caudate. We observed significant correlations between genetic and neuroimaging phenotypes in the 808 ADNI subjects. These results suggest that differences between AD, MCI, and NC cohorts may be examined by using powerful joint models of morphometric, imaging and genotypic data.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
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    ABSTRACT: Image templates, or atlases, play a critical role in imaging studies by providing a common anatomical coordinate system for analysis of shape and function. It is now common to estimate an atlas as a deformable average of the very images being studied, in order to provide a representative example of the particular population, imaging hardware, protocol, etc. However, when imaging data is aggregated across multiple sites, estimating an atlas from the pooled data fails to account for the variability of these factors across sites. In this paper, we present a hierarchical Bayesian model for diffeomorphic atlas construction of multi-site imaging data that explicitly accounts for the inter-site variability, while providing a global atlas as a common coordinate system for images across all sites. Our probabilistic model has two layers: the first consists of the average diffeomorphic transformations from the global atlas to each site, and the second consists of the diffeomorphic transformations from the site level to the individual input images. Our results on multi-site datasets, both synthetic and real brain MRI, demonstrate the capability of our model to capture inter-site geometric variability and give more reliable alignment of images across sites.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral changes in dementia, especially behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), may result in alterations in moral reasoning. Investigators have not clarified whether these alterations reflect differential impairment of care-based vs. rule-based moral behavior. This study investigated 18 bvFTD patients, 22 early onset Alzheimer's disease (eAD) patients, and 20 healthy age-matched controls on care-based and rule-based items from the Moral Behavioral Inventory and the Social Norms Questionnaire, neuropsychological measures, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) regions of interest. There were significant group differences with the bvFTD patients rating care-based morality transgressions less severely than the eAD group and rule-based moral behavioral transgressions more severely than controls. Across groups, higher care-based morality ratings correlated with phonemic fluency on neuropsychological tests, whereas higher rule-based morality ratings correlated with increased difficulty set-shifting and learning new rules to tasks. On neuroimaging, severe care-based reasoning correlated with cortical volume in right anterior temporal lobe, and rule-based reasoning correlated with decreased cortical volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that frontotemporal disease decreases care-based morality and facilitates rule-based morality possibly from disturbed contextual abstraction and set-shifting. Future research can examine whether frontal lobe disorders and bvFTD result in a shift from empathic morality to the strong adherence to conventional rules.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Neuropsychologia
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause widespread and prolonged brain degeneration. TBI can affect cognitive function and brain integrity for many years after injury, often with lasting effects in children, whose brains are still immature. Although TBI varies in how it affects different individuals, image analysis methods such as tensor-based morphometry (TBM) can reveal common areas of brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), secondary effects of the initial injury, which will differ between subjects. Here we studied 36 pediatric moderate to severe TBI (msTBI) participants in the post-acute phase (1-6 months post-injury) and 18 msTBI participants who returned for their chronic assessment, along with well-matched controls at both time-points. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests that we used to create a global cognitive performance score. Using TBM, we created three-dimensional (3D) maps of individual and group differences in regional brain volumes. At both the post-acute and chronic time-points, the greatest group differences were expansion of the lateral ventricles and reduction of the lingual gyrus in the TBI group. We found a number of smaller clusters of volume reduction in the cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and fusiform gyrus, and throughout the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. Additionally, we found extensive associations between our cognitive performance measure and regional brain volume. Our results indicate a pattern of atrophy still detectable 1-year post-injury, which may partially underlie the cognitive deficits frequently found in TBI.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of neurotrauma
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    ABSTRACT: In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the hemodynamic response function (HRF) reflects regulation of regional cerebral blood flow in response to neuronal activation. The HRF varies significantly between individuals. This study investigated the genetic contribution to individual variation in HRF using fMRI data from 125 monozygotic (MZ) and 149 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. The resemblance in amplitude, latency, and duration of the HRF in six regions in the frontal and parietal lobes was compared between MZ and DZ twin pairs. Heritability was estimated using an ACE (Additive genetic, Common environmental, and unique Environmental factors) model. The genetic influence on the temporal profile and amplitude of HRF was moderate to strong (24%-51%). The HRF may be used in the genetic analysis of diseases with a cerebrovascular etiology.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · NeuroImage

Publication Stats

44k Citations
4,935.34 Total Impact Points


  • 2014-2016
    • Keck School of Medicine USC
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • Schizophrenia Research Institute
      Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      • Faculty of Psychology
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2015
    • Queensland Institute of Medical Research
      • Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2002-2015
    • University of Southern California
      • • Institute for Neuroimaging and Informatics (INI)
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1999-2015
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Division of Adult Psychiatry
      • • Laboratory of Neuro Imaging
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1996-2015
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 1999-2014
    • University College London
      • • Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy
      • • Institute of Neurology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010-2013
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2007-2012
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Computer Science
      Davis, California, United States
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of Queensland
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2011
    • Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
      • Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
    • University of Newcastle
      • Centre for Brain and Mental Health Research
      Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2009
    • Center for Magnetic Resonance Research Minnesota, USA
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2006-2007
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2005-2006
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • San Diego State University
      San Diego, California, United States
    • University of Texas at San Antonio
      • Department of Psychology
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 2000-2006
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      • Child Psychiatry Branch
      Maryland, United States
    • University of Freiburg
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • McGill University
      • McConnell Brain Imaging Centre
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2004
    • Università degli Studi di Brescia
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychology
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Wales
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • Epilepsy Society
      Lincoln, England, United Kingdom