[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon.
Materials and methods:
Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis.
Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening after receiving information on overdiagnosis, while women with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention.
Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excessive salt intake and gastric cancer risk, and this potential risk increases the need for adequate gastric cancer screening in individuals with high salt intake. However, the association between salt intake and gastric cancer screening in the general population has rarely been investigated. We explored the association between salt preference and participation in gastric cancer screening among a nationally representative Korean population.
Materials and methods:
The study population was derived from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2006-2007, an annual nationwide interview survey investigating cancer screening rates. Of 4,055 individuals who participated in the KNCSS 2006-2007, 3,336 individuals aged over 40 years were included in our analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression.
Individuals with higher salt preference were less likely to participate in regular gastric cancer screening. After adjusting for age, sex, monthly household income, education, family history of cancer, and self-rated health status, ORs for undergoing regular gastric cancer screening were 1.00, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61-1.12), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.54-1.00), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56-1.05), and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16-0.92) according to the level of salt preference (p for trend = 0.048).
Individuals with higher salt preference showed suboptimal gastric cancer screening adherence compared to those with a lower salt preference. These findings highlight the need for better delivery of educational messages to change risk perceptions regarding gastric cancer screening practice.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has increased by about 25 % every year for the past 10 years. This increase is largely due to a rising incidence in papillary thyroid cancer, which is associated with an overdiagnosis of small tumors that may never become clinically significant. This study was conducted to explore Korean women's understanding of overdiagnosis and to investigate changes in screening intention in response to overdiagnosis information.
Focus group interviews were conducted among women of ages 30-69 years, who are commonly targeted in Korea for cancer screening. Women were divided into four groups according to thyroid cancer screening history and history of thyroid disease. Of 51 women who were contacted, 29 (57 %) participated in the interviews.
Prior awareness of thyroid cancer overdiagnosis was minimal. When informed about the risks of overdiagnosis, the participants were often surprised. Overcoming initial malcontent, many women remained skeptic about overdiagnosis and trusted in the advice of their physicians. Meanwhile, some of the study participants found explanations of overdiagnosis difficult to understand. Further, hearing about the risks of overdiagnosis had limited impact on the participants' attitudes and intentions to undergo thyroid cancer screening, as many women expressed willingness to undergoing continued screening in the future.
A large majority of Korean women eligible for and had undergone thyroid cancer screening were unaware of the potential for overdiagnosis. Nevertheless, overdiagnosis information generally had little impact on their beliefs about thyroid cancer screening and their intentions to undergo future screening. Further research is needed to determine whether these findings could be generalized to the wider Korean population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection over a 10-year period in terms of population-level trends, we established hypothetical birth cohorts that represented each 10-year interval age group.We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 1998 to 2001 and 2008 to 2011. Trends in the HBV infection were calculated using data from individuals aged 20 to 59 years in 1998 to 2001 and those aged 30 to 69 years in 2008 to 2011.In 2008 to 2011, the prevalence of HBV infection, as measured using serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence, among participants aged 30 to 69 years was 4.2% (95% CI = 3.7-4.7%), which represents a 1.3% absolute change and 20% change in prevalence ratio, which was significant compared with the prevalence among those aged 20 to 59 years in 1998 to 2001 (5.5%, 95% CI = 4.7-6.3%). The prevalence of HBV infection decreased most in the lowest income group, with marginal significance in males (P = 0.06) and significance in females (P = 0.03). In terms of education, females with at least a high school education showed a significant decrease (P = 0.03).Using a birth cohort approach, the prognosis for HBV infection in terms of death or hospitalization, or resolution upon antiviral treatment of their HBV infections, identified by a decrease in the HBsAg seroprevalence was worse in the lower income group and in females with higher education. We postulate that these socioeconomic inequalities were caused by alcohol consumption, disparities in liver cancer surveillance, and access to antiviral treatment because of cost and reimbursement guidelines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates of CRC are higher among lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations.
We investigated the association between different indicators of SES and CRC screening rates in Korea. The eligible study population included males and females aged 50 to 74 years who participated in a nationwide cross-sectional survey (2010–2012). The “compliance with recommendation” category was applicable to participants who had undergone a fecal occult blood test (FOBT), double-contrast barium enema, or colonoscopy within 1, 5, or 10 years, respectively.
In total, 6221 subjects (51.4% female, 55.6% aged 50 years) were included in the final analysis. Lower household income was significantly negatively related to compliance with screening recommendations (P for trend < 0.01) and marginally significantly related to noncompliance with recommendations (P for trend = 0.07). Older age and poor self-reported health were associated with the screening rate using the FOBT; male sex, older age, higher household income, having supplemental insurance, family history of cancer, and poor self-reported health were associated with a higher screening rate using colonoscopy.
Lower household income was associated with a higher screening rate using the FOBT and with a lower screening rate using colonoscopy. To increase the rate of CRC screening using colonoscopy, efforts should be made toward improving the education and promotion of screening to the low household income target population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outcome-expectation beliefs and knowledge may ultimately influence behavior for cancer prevention. The aims of this study were to measure changes in knowledge and beliefs about cancer prevention before and after viewing a television advertisement and identify the factors affecting receptivity to its messages.
A one-group pretest-posttest design was used in this study of 1,000 individuals aged 20 to 65 years who were recruited online in November 2014. The outcome variables included cancer prevention beliefs based on the Health Belief Model (five items) and knowledge about risk factors for cancer (seven items).
Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy increased significantly and their perceived severity and perceived barriers decreased significantly, after participants viewed the television advertisement. Correct responses to questions about risk factors also increased significantly, except for smoking. The main factors affecting changes in the outcome variables were age, interest in cancer prevention, social network, satisfaction with the ad, and pretest scores.
Television advertisements with positive frameworks can be an efficient channel of improving beliefs and knowledge about cancer prevention in a short period. The continuous development of intervention materials that consider the demographics, needs, and satisfaction of the target group will be necessary for future studies.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The possibility of developing breast cancer is a concern for all women; however, few studies have examined the relationship between cancer worry and the stages of adoption for breast cancer screening in Korea. Here, we investigated the associations between cancer worry, the stages of adopting breast cancer screening, and socio-demographic factors known to influence screening behaviors.
This study was based on the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, an annual cross-sectional survey that utilized nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. Data were analyzed from 1,773 randomly selected women aged 40-74 years. Chi-squared tests and multinomial logistic analyses were conducted to determine the associations between cancer worry and the stages of adoption for breast cancer screening and to outline the factors associated with each stage.
Korean women were classified into the following stages of adoption for breast cancer screening: pre-contemplation (24.7%), contemplation (13.0%), action/maintenance (50.8%), relapse risk (8.9%), and relapse (2.6%). Women in the action/maintenance stages reported more moderate to higher levels of worry about getting cancer than those in the pre-contemplation stage. Further, age of 40-49 years and having private cancer insurance were associated with women in the action/maintenance stages.
Interventions to address breast cancer worry may play an important role in increasing participation and equity in breast cancer screening.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background& AimsIt remains unclear whether the respective dose-response relationships between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels and risk of mortality are consistent by age.Methods
We used sampled cohort data from the National Health Insurance Corporation to conduct a retrospective cohort study. A total of 313 252 participants who received medical health check-ups from 2002 to 2008 were assessed for risk of death according to serum ALT and GGT levels over an average of 6 years. The hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model.ResultsThe crude mortality rate increased linearly with increasing serum ALT and GGT levels in adults aged <60 years. However, the all-cause mortality rate showed a J-shaped relationship with increasing serum ALT levels whereas all-cause mortality rate showed a linear relationship with increasing serum GGT levels in adults aged ≥60 years. The HR of death showed U-shaped relationships with increasing serum ALT levels in adults aged ≥60 years. On the contrary, the HR of death from any cause had a linear association with increasing serum GGT levels among all age groups.Conclusions
In this study, U-shaped relationship patterns were demonstrated between serum ALT levels and risk for all-cause mortality in adults aged ≥60 years while serum GGT levels showed a linear relationship with risk for all-cause death. Very low levels of serum ALT in elderly patients suggest that they are at high risk of mortality.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between the concentrations of immune-related proteins in mid-trimester amniotic fluid (AF) and the subsequent risk of spontaneous preterm delivery in twins.
The study population consisted of consecutive women with a twin pregnancy who underwent clinically indicated genetic amniocentesis at 15 to 20 weeks, and had a subsequent spontaneous delivery in the early preterm period (<32 weeks (cases)) or at term (37 to 42 weeks (controls)). AF was analyzed for cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IL-15, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9 and MMP-12), and chemokines (complement factor-D/Adipsin, Serpin E1/PAI-1, Adiponectin/Acrp30, C-Reactive Protein, CCL2/MCP-1, Leptin, Resistin) using multiplex immunoassay kits. The association between AF protein levels and subsequent early preterm birth were examined.
A total of 96 sets of twins were enrolled, including 17 early preterm birth cases and 79 term controls. AF concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, MMP-3, MMP-8 and MMP-9, and CCL2/MCP-1 were significantly higher in cases than controls. Among these analytes, the combination of AF IL-8 and MMP-9 values had the highest predictive value for early preterm birth. The risk was 8% (10/132) for IL-8<1200 pg ml(-1) and MMP-9<1000 pg ml(-1), 30% (15/50) for IL-8>1200 pg ml(-1) or MMP-9>1000 pg ml(-1), and 90% (9/10) for IL-8>1200 pg ml(-1) and MMP-9>1000 pg ml(-1) (P<0.001).
High concentrations of IL-8 and MMP-9 in mid-trimester AF in twins predicted well the risk of early preterm birth.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 9 April 2015; doi:10.1038/jp.2015.29.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period.
Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ≥40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates.
Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC = 4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC = 5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy.
This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of endoscopy on gastric cancer mortality is needed, and future evaluations of screening methods should take into account both cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opportunistic screening for lung cancer is commonly conducted in Korea in accordance with physician recommendations and screenee's preferences. However, studies have yet to thoroughly examine the public's understanding of the risks posed by lung cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in intentions to undergo lung cancer screening in response to being informed about exposure to radiation during low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) tests and to identify factors with the greatest influence thereon among Korean men. We conducted sub-group interviews among men chosen from the 2013 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey of men aged 40 to 74 years and women aged 30 to 74 years. From 4100 participants in the KNCSS, 414 men who underwent any cancer screening test within the last 2 years were randomly selected for inclusion in this study. Via face-to-face interviews, their intentions to undergo lung cancer screening were assessed before and after being informed about exposure to radiation during LDCT testing. Of the 414 participants, 50% were current smokers. After receiving information on the benefits of the test, 95.1% stated an intention to undergo screening; this decreased to 81.6% after they received information on the harms of the test. The average decrease in intention rate was 35.3%. Smoking status, household income, and education level were not associated with lowered intentions to undergo lung cancer screening. Participants who were older than 60 years old (OR=0.56; 95% CI= 0.33-0.96) and those with less concern for radiation exposure (OR=0.56; 95% CI=0.36-0.89) were less likely to lower their screening intentions. The results of this study suggest that there is a need to educate both non-smokers and former smokers on the harms of lung cancer screening.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP