A. D. Montgomery

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (4)8.76 Total impact

  • Source
    D. Wagner · R. G. Waller · A. D. Montgomery · C. D. Kelley · R. J. Toonen
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    ABSTRACT: The Hawaiian black coral fishery has maintained steady catch levels for over 50 years. However, recent declines in the biomass of commercially valuable Hawaiian black corals question whether regulations need to be redefined for sustainable harvesting. Fishery management efforts are complicated by the limited information on the basic life history and reproduction of black corals. To address this knowledge gap, we used histological techniques to investigate sexual reproductive processes within Antipathes griggi, the dominant species targeted by the fishery. Our results indicate that A. griggi is likely gonochoric with a 1:1 sex ratio and has an annual reproductive cycle. Furthermore, the percentage of polyps containing gametes dropped continuously throughout the reproductive season, indicating that spawning occurs in successive events with greatest intensity between November and December. Current fishing regulations prohibit harvesting of colonies < 90 cm in height in state waters, and colonies < 120 cm in height in federal waters. This study indicates that 80% meeting the state harvesting limit, and 90% of colonies meeting the federal limit, are sexually mature. Therefore, increasing these minimum size harvesting limits would ensure that more colonies can reproduce before being exposed to fishing mortality. Although A. griggi can be found to depths of 100 m, it is rare below the 75 m depth limit at which commercial harvest occurs in Hawai'i. Thus, the supposed depth refuge from harvest does not really exist.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Coral Reefs
  • D.M. Opresko · D. Wagner · A.D. Montgomery · M.R. Brugler
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    ABSTRACT: Mesophotic coral reef surveys conducted off Maui in 2008-2009 revealed several specimens superficially resembling the commercial black coral species Antipathes griggi Opresko 2009. After subsequent microscopic examination of the skeletal features, these colonies proved to be morphologically very similar to Aphanipathes verticillata Brook 1889, a species never before reported from the Hawaiian Islands. A comparison with samples of the type material of A. verticillata indicated that the specimens collected in Hawaiian waters differed from the type in having simplier and less dense tubercles on the skeletal spines, a character which merits the recognition of the Hawaiian population as a new subspecies, A. verticillata mauiensis. Colonies of the new subspecies exhibit considerable morphological variation; DNA analysis of fifteen specimens ruled out the possibility of the presence of a cryptic species. Further DNA investigations on specimens from various localities in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean are needed to better understand the genetic relationship between the two forms. The morphological similarity of A. verticillata mauiensis with Antipathes griggi raises questions concerning the validity of past field surveys evaluating the population size and structure of A. griggi since it is possible that the two species could easily be misidentified based on gross morphology alone. Additional studies are also needed to document the geographic and bathymetric distribution of the subspecies along the Hawaiian Island chain.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Zootaxa
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    ABSTRACT: The commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral Antipathes grandis is redescribed based on reexamination of the holotype from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and field collections of 34 specimens from depths of 27–127 m. The first scanning electron micrographs of A. grandis skeletal spines are provided, along with a series of in situ colour photographs and morphometric measurements of spines and polyps. Three colour morphotypes were collected in the field (red, pale red, and white), none of which could be differentiated based on morphological or genetic characters (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). In situ observations are used in conjunction with morphological and genetic characters to distinguish amongst the commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species A. grandis and A. griggi. A. grandis is differentiated from A. griggi by its finer and more irregular branching, smaller and more closely-spaced polyps, and conical spines that are smaller and not characterized by bifurcations towards their apex. Morphologically, the species most closely resembling A. grandis is A. caribbeana from the Caribbean. Among analyzed congenerics, DNA sequences of A. grandis were likewise most similar to those of A. caribbeana for three of the four molecular markers used in this study. A combination of low genetic variability, incomplete taxonomic sampling, and unexpected similarity between A. caribbeana and the unbranched whip coral Stichopathes cf. occidentalis, hindered our ability to determine the sister relationship of A. grandis. However, in no phylogenetic reconstruction did A. grandis group sister to its sympatric congener A. griggi.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Invertebrate Systematics
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    ABSTRACT: The commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 is redescribed based on reexamination of the holotype from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and field collections of 34 specimens from depths of 27-127 m. The first scanning electron micrographs of A. grandis skeletal spines are provided, along with a series of in situ color photographs and morphometric measurements of spines and polyps. Three color morphotypes were collected in the field (red, pale red, and white), none of which could be differentiated based on morphological or genetic characters (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). In situ observations are used in conjunction with morphological and genetic characters to distinguish among the commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species A. grandis and A. griggi Opresko, 2009. A. grandis is differentiated from A. griggi by its finer and more irregular branching, smaller and more closely-spaced polyps, and conical spines that are smaller and not characterized by bifurcations towards their apex. Morphologically, the species most closely resembling A. grandis is A. caribbeana Opresko, 1996 from the Caribbean. Among analyzed congenerics, DNA sequences of A. grandis were likewise most similar to those of A. caribbeana for three of the four molecular markers used in this study. A combination of low genetic variability, incomplete taxonomic sampling, and unexpected similarity between A. caribbeana and the unbranched whip coral Stichopathes cf. occidentalis (Gray, 1860), hindered our ability to determine the sister relationship of A. grandis. However, in no phylogenetic reconstruction did A. grandis group sister to its sympatric congener A. griggi.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Invertebrate Systematics