Publications (2)6.68 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: Early age at natural menopause has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in several studies, although the literature is not consistent. This relation has not been examined among African American women. Study design: Data were from the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of African-American women enrolled in 1995. Among 11,212 women who were naturally menopausal at entry to the study or during follow-up through 2008, we assessed the relation of age at natural menopause to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. At baseline and biennially, participants reported on reproductive and medical history, including gynecologic surgeries and exogenous hormone use. Mortality data were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for categories of age at menopause. Results: Of 692 deaths identified during 91,829 person years of follow-up, 261 were due to cancer, 199 to cardiovascular diseases and 232 to other causes. Natural menopause before age 40 was associated with increased all-cause mortality (MRR=1.34, 95% CI 0.96-1.84, relative to menopause at 50-54 years; P-trend=0.04) and with the subcategories of death considered - cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all other causes. The associations were present among never and ever users of postmenopausal female hormones and among never and ever smokers. Conclusions: In this large prospective cohort of African-American women, natural menopause before age 40 was associated with a higher rate of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. These findings provide support for the theory that natural menopause before age 40 may be a marker of accelerated somatic aging.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have consistently identified maternal obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) as risk factors for macrosomia, but little is known about the effects of central adiposity and body fat distribution. Using self-reported data from the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS), a large follow-up study of US black women, we examined the risk of macrosomia in relation to prepregnancy waist circumference, prepregnancy waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), prepregnancy BMI, and GWG. During 1995-2003, BWHS participants ages 21-44 years delivered 6,687 full-term singleton births (gestational age >37 weeks). We compared mothers of 691 infants weighing ≥4,000 g with mothers of 5,996 infants weighing <4,000 g. Generalized estimating equation models (GEE) that accounted for more than one birth per mother were used to estimate multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Independent of prepregnancy BMI, prepregnancy waist circumference was positively associated with risk of macrosomia (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.07-2.32, for ≥35.0 vs. <27.0 inches (≥88.9 vs. <68.6 cm); P trend = 0.04). As expected, prepregnancy BMI was also positively associated with macrosomia (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.25-2.41 for BMI ≥35.0 vs. 18.5-24.9 kg m(-2) ). GWG above the amount recommended by the 2009 Institute of Medicine report was associated with an increased risk of macrosomia and the association was present in each category of prepregnancy BMI (18.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, and ≥30.0 kg m(-2) ; P trend <0.001). Our data suggest that overall obesity, high GWG, and high waist circumference are independent risk factors for macrosomia among US black women.
Boston UniversityBoston, Massachusetts, United States