[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myofibroblasts in the stroma of pancreatic cancers promote tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis by increasing extracellular matrix and secretion of several growth factors. In contrast, the role of myofibroblasts at peritoneally disseminated sites of pancreatic cancer has not yet been determined. This study was designed to assess the role of myofibroblasts at peritoneally disseminated sites of pancreatic cancer. Three primary cultures of human peritoneal myofibroblasts (hPMFs) were established from disseminated sites of pancreatic cancer and their interactions with the SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1 human pancreatic cancer cell lines were analyzed in vitro. Using a model in BALB/c nu/nu mice, we compared the dissemination ability of intraperitoneally implanted pancreatic cancer cells, with and without hPMFs, and examined the presence of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled hPMFs at peritoneally disseminated sites in mice. hPMFs significantly promoted the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells (P<0.05), while the cancer cells significantly promoted the migration and invasion of hPMFs (P<0.05). In vivo, the number of peritoneally disseminated nodules, more than 3 mm in size, was significantly greater in mice implanted with cancer cells plus hPMFs compared to mice implanted with cancer cells alone, with GFP-labeled hPMFs surviving in the peritoneal cavity of the former. hPMFs promote the peritoneal dissemination of pancreatic cancer. The cancer-stromal cell interaction in the peritoneal cavity may be a new therapeutic target to prevent the dissemination of pancreatic cancer.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frozen human tissues are necessary for research purposes, but tissue banking methods have not changed for more than a decade. Many institutions use cryovial tubes or plastic molds with an optimal cutting temperature compound. However, these methods are associated with several problems, such as samples sticking to one another and the need for a larger storing space. We established an efficient tissue freezing and storing procedure ("tissue tablet method") applicable to both molecular analysis and frozen tissue microarray. Tissue samples were chopped into tiny fragments and embedded into tablet-shaped frozen optimal cutting temperature compound using our original tissue-freezing plate. These tablets can be sectioned and stored in cryovial tubes. We compared the tissue quality of tablet-shaped samples with that of conventional optimal cutting temperature blocks and found no significant difference between them. Tissue microarray is a key method to utilize tissue-banking specimens. However, most tissue microarrays require the coring out of cylindrically shaped tissues from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Antigenic changes and mRNA degradation are frequently observed with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Therefore, we have applied tablet-shaped samples to construct frozen tissue microarrays with our original mounting base. Constructed tissue microarray sections showed good morphology without obvious artifact and good immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization results. These results suggest that the quality of arrayed samples was sufficiently appropriate for research purposes. In conclusion, the tissue tablet method and frozen tissue microarray procedure can save time, provides easy tissue handling and processing, and satisfies the demands of research methodologies and tissue banking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is associated with a devastating prognosis, partially because of its aggressive metastatic ability. Identification of prognostic markers of metastasis would be useful in the clinical management of postoperative patients with pancreatic cancer. Mal, T-cell differentiation protein 2 (MAL2) has been identified as a molecule predictive of metastases; the clinical relevance of MAL2 in pancreatic cancer is unknown.
Orthotopic human pancreatic cancer xenografts from the pancreatic cancer cell line SUIT-2 were established in nude mice. Only liver metastasis was harvested and cultured. These metastatic cycles were repeated 5 times to establish a highly metastatic cell line, termed metastatic SUIT-2 (MS). We investigated proliferation and motility of MS cells compared with those of the parent SUIT-2. Microarray analysis was performed to investigate differences in gene expression. We also performed immunohistochemical analysis of 89 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human pancreatic cancer tissue samples to investigate the clinical significance of MAL2 expression.
MS cells showed a greater metastatic rate after orthotopic implantation than parental SUIT-2. MS cells had increased motility but decreased proliferation compared with parental SUIT-2. Microarray analyses showed that 26 genes were significantly upregulated (>10-fold) in MS cells compared with parental SUIT-2, particularly MAL2 expression. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that high expression of MAL2 was associated with a lesser survival of postoperative patients (P = .03) and a high rate of distant metastasis (P = .008).
We characterized a newly established pancreatic cancer cell line with highly metastatic potential. MAL2 is a promising predictive marker for distant metastasis and short survival in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is predominantly mediated by fibroblasts using intracellular and extracellular pathways. Although it is well known that extracellular degradation of the ECM by proteases derived from cancer cells facilitates cellular invasion, the intracellular degradation of ECM components by cancer cells has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to characterize collagen internalization, which is the initial step of the intracellular degradation pathway in pancreatic cancer cells, in light of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
We analyzed the function of collagen internalization in two pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and KP-2, and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) using Oregon Green 488-gelatin. PSCs had a strong ability for collagen uptake, and the pancreatic cancer cells also internalized collagen although less efficiently. The collagen internalization abilities of SUIT-2 and KP-2 cells were promoted by EMT induced by human recombinant transforming growth factor β1 (P<0.05). Expression of Endo180, a collagen uptake receptor, was high in mesenchymal pancreatic cancer cell lines, as determined by EMT marker expression (P<0.01). Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that Endo180 expression was also increased by EMT induction in SUIT-2 and KP-2 cells. Endo180 knockdown by RNA interference attenuated the collagen uptake (P<0.01) and invasive abilities (P<0.05) of SUIT-2 and KP-2 cells.
Pancreatic cancer cells are capable of collagen internalization, which is enhanced by EMT. This ECM clearance system may be a novel mechanism for cellular invasion and a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a promising alternative to standard multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). However, generalization of SILC is still hampered by technical difficulties mainly associated with the lack of trocars used for retraction of the gallbladder. We therefore developed a modified method of SILC with the use of needle graspers (SILC-N) for optimal retraction and exposure. Methodology: In addition to two trocars inserted through a single transumbilical incision, two needle ports were placed on the right subcostal and lateral abdominal wall, through which needle graspers were used for retraction of the gallbladder. Since December, 2009, 12 patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were treated by SILC-N. Results: SILC-N was successfully performed in all but one patient requiring a conversion to the 4-port LC with a mean operative time of 71.5 (48-107) minutes. None of the patients experienced intraoperative or postoperative complications. The transumbilical incision and pinholes for needle graspers were almost invisible on discharge. Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that SILC-N is a simple, safe and feasible technique of cholecystectomy offering similar postoperative recovery and better cosmetic outcome as compared to conventional LC.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Hepato-gastroenterology