[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the late phase of retroviral replication, newly synthesized Gag proteins are targeted to the plasma membrane (PM), where they assemble and bud to form immature virus particles. Membrane targeting by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag is mediated by the PM marker molecule phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)], which is capable of binding to the matrix (MA) domain of Gag in an extended lipid conformation and of triggering myristate exposure. Here, we show that, as observed previously for HIV-1 MA, the myristyl group of HIV-2 MA is partially sequestered within a narrow hydrophobic tunnel formed by side chains of helices 1, 2, 3, and 5. However, the myristate of HIV-2 MA is more tightly sequestered than that of the HIV-1 protein and does not exhibit concentration-dependent exposure. Soluble PI(4,5)P(2) analogs containing truncated acyl chains bind HIV-2 MA and induce minor long-range structural changes but do not trigger myristate exposure. Despite these differences, the site of HIV-2 assembly in vivo can be manipulated by enzymes that regulate PI(4,5)P(2) localization. Our findings indicate that HIV-1 and HIV-2 are both targeted to the PM for assembly via a PI(4,5)P(2)-dependent mechanism, despite differences in the sensitivity of the MA myristyl switch, and suggest a potential mechanism that may contribute to the poor replication kinetics of HIV-2.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that the matrix domain (MA) of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein directs Gag to the plasma membrane for virus assembly via a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2))-dependent myristyl switch mechanism. MA also has been reported to direct nuclear trafficking via nuclear import and export functions, and some studies suggest that nuclear targeting may be regulated by MA phosphorylation (although this proposal remains controversial). We have prepared and studied a series of HIV-1 MA mutants containing Ser-to-Asp substitutions designed to mimic phosphorylation, including substitutions in regions of the protein involved in protein-protein interactions and known to influence the myristyl switch (S6D, S9D, S67D, S72D, S6D/S9D, and S67D/S72D). We were particularly interested in substitutions at residue 6, since conservative mutations adjacent to this site strongly perturb the myristyl switch equilibrium, and this site had not been genetically tested due to its involvement in post-translational myristylation. Our studies reveal that none of these mutations, including S6D, influences the PIP(2)- or concentration-dependent myristyl switch equilibrium. In addition, all of the mutants bind liposomes with affinities that are only slightly reduced in comparison with the native protein. In contrast, the myristylated mutants bind liposomes with substantially greater affinity than that of the native, unmyristylated protein. These findings support the hypothesis that phosphorylation is unlikely to significantly influence membrane-mediated intracellular trafficking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the late phase of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) replication, newly synthesized retroviral Gag proteins are targeted to lipid raft regions of specific cellular membranes, where they assemble and bud to form new virus particles. Gag binds preferentially to the plasma membrane (PM) of most hematopoietic cell types, a process mediated by interactions between the cellular PM marker phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) and Gag's N-terminally myristoylated matrix (MA) domain. We recently demonstrated that PI(4,5)P(2) binds to a conserved cleft on MA and promotes myristate exposure, suggesting a role as both a direct membrane anchor and myristyl switch trigger. Here we show that PI(4,5)P(2) is also capable of binding to MA proteins containing point mutations that inhibit membrane binding in vitro, and in vivo, including V7R, L8A and L8I. However, these mutants do not exhibit PI(4,5)P(2) or concentration-dependent myristate exposure. NMR studies of V7R and L8A MA reveal minor structural changes that appear to be responsible for stabilizing the myristate-sequestered (myr(s)) species and inhibiting exposure. Unexpectedly, the myristyl group of a revertant mutant with normal PM targeting properties (V7R,L21K) is also tightly sequestered and insensitive to PI(4,5)P(2) binding. This mutant binds PI(4,5)P(2) with twofold higher affinity compared with the native protein, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism for membrane binding.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal of Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the late phase of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication, newly synthesized retroviral Gag proteins are targeted to the plasma membrane of most hematopoietic cell types, where they colocalize at lipid rafts and assemble into immature virions. Membrane binding is mediated by the matrix (MA) domain of Gag, a 132-residue polypeptide containing an N-terminal myristyl group that can adopt sequestered and exposed conformations. Although exposure is known to promote membrane binding, the mechanism by which Gag is targeted to specific membranes has yet to be established. Recent studies have shown that phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)], a factor that regulates localization of cellular proteins to the plasma membrane, also regulates Gag localization and assembly. Here we show that PI(4,5)P(2) binds directly to HIV-1 MA, inducing a conformational change that triggers myristate exposure. Related phosphatidylinositides PI, PI(3)P, PI(4)P, PI(5)P, and PI(3,5)P(2) do not bind MA with significant affinity or trigger myristate exposure. Structural studies reveal that PI(4,5)P(2) adopts an "extended lipid" conformation, in which the inositol head group and 2'-fatty acid chain bind to a hydrophobic cleft, and the 1'-fatty acid and exposed myristyl group bracket a conserved basic surface patch previously implicated in membrane binding. Our findings indicate that PI(4,5)P(2) acts as both a trigger of the myristyl switch and a membrane anchor and suggest a potential mechanism for targeting Gag to membrane rafts.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences