[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the DNA-mediated simple synthetic methods to obtain anisotropic plasmonic nanostructures with a tailorable intra-nanogap distance ranging from 0.9 to 4.0 nm. Anisotropic half-shell structures with sub-1.0 nm intra-nanogaps showed a wavelength-independent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) intensity and a highly sensitive SERS response to NIR light. We found that the reaction conditions such as pH and NaCl concentration are responsible for the resulting shell structures and intra-nanogap distances. Three noticeable plasmonic nanostructures [i.e., half-shell with sub-1.0 nm nanogaps, closed-shell with wide nanogap (2.1 nm) and star-shaped with irregular nanogap (2.0–4.0 nm)] were synthesized, and solution-based and single particle-based Raman measurements showed the strong relationship between plasmonic structures and SERS intensity. An understanding of DNA-mediated control for nanogap-engineered plasmonic nanostructures and studies of SERS-activity relationships using single particle-correlated measurements can provide new insights into the design of new plasmonic nanostructures and SERS-based biosensing applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) have a high risk of acquiring cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection via breast milk and consequently developing serious symptoms. We evaluated whether freeze-thawing or pasteurization could prevent postnatal CMV infection transmitted through breast milk in ELBWIs.
Medical records of 385 ELBWIs with whole milk feeding, and freeze-thawed or pasteurized breast milk feeding were reviewed retrospectively. Postnatally acquired CMV infection was defined as an initial negative and a subsequent positive on follow-up urine CMV DNA polymerase chain reaction screening tests. The incidence, clinical characteristics, symptoms, sequelae, and long-term outcome at corrected age [(CA): 2 years of CMV infection] were analyzed.
While no infant developed CMV infection with whole milk (0/22) or pasteurized breast milk (0/62) feeding, postnatal CMV infection was diagnosed in 8% (27/301) of ELBWIs who were fed freeze-thawed breast milk. Gestational age in the CMV group was significantly lower than the control group. In 82% (22/27) of cases, CMV infection was symptomatic and was associated with increased ventilator days and ≥moderate bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Neurodevelopmental outcome and growth status at CA 2 years were not different between the study groups. Lower gestational age and freeze-thawed breast milk feeding >60% of total oral intake during the first 8 postnatal weeks were independent risk factors for acquiring postnatal CMV infection. BPD (≥moderate) was the only significant adverse outcome associated with this CMV infection.
Pasteurization but not freeze-thawing of breast milk eradicated the postnatal acquisition of CMV infection through breast milk.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Yonsei medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of prophylactic palivizumab on hospitalization secondary to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection (RSVhospitalization) in former very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This study also sought to identify the risk factors of RSVhospitalizationin this particular infant population. A prospective observational study was conducted between September 2007 and April 2008 in seven Korean hospitals. Children with a history of very low birth weight, a diagnosis of BPD and who were <2 yr old at the onset of the RSV season were included in this study. Palivizumab injections were administered monthly for a maximum of five months during the RSV season. RSVhospitalization rates were reviewed, and RSVhospitalization rates between subgroups were categorized by gestational age, birth weight, and duration of ventilator care. A total of 90 subjects completed the follow-up interviews. The mean gestational age at birth was 26.1±1.7 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 889.4±222.2 g. The incidence of RSVhospitalization in the study population was 8.9% (8/90), and the mean hospital stay was 11.0±5.5 days, including one death. There were no statistically significant differences in the patients' demographic characteristics or risk factors for RSV hospitalization. When subgroup analyses were conducted, there were still no statistically significant differences. The administration of palivizumab prophylaxis during the entire RSV season is important in VLBWI with BPD, regardless of their gestational age and birth weight, or previous ventilator dependency.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Korean Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The standard assessment method for tremor severity in Parkinson's disease is visual observation by neurologists using clinical rating scales. This is, therefore, a subjective rating that is dependent on clinical expertise. The objective of this study was to report clinicians' tendencies to under-rate Parkinsonian tremors in the less affected hand. This was observed through objective tremor measurement with accelerometers. Tremor amplitudes were measured objectively using tri-axis-accelerometers for both hands simultaneously in 53 patients with Parkinson's disease during resting and postural tremors. The videotaped tremor was rated by neurologists using clinical rating scales. The tremor measured by accelerometer was compared with clinical ratings. Neurologists tended to under-rate the less affected hand in resting tremor when the contralateral hand had severe tremor in Session I. The participating neurologists corrected this tendency in Session II after being informed of it. The under-rating tendency was then repeated by other uninformed neurologists in Session III. Kappa statistics showed high inter-rater agreements and high agreements between estimated scores derived from the accelerometer signals and the mean Clinical Tremor Rating Scale evaluated in every session. Therefore, clinicians need to be aware of this under-rating tendency in visual inspection of the less affected hand in order to make accurate tremor severity assessments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells may be a feasible approach for regeneration of bone defects through secretion of various components of mesenchymal stem cells such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Mesenchymal stem cells secrete and accumulate the multiple factors in conditioned medium under specific physiological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether the conditioned medium collected under hypoxic condition could effectively influence bone regeneration through enhanced migration and adhesion of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells. Cell migration and adhesion abilities were increased through overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in hypoxic conditioned medium treated group. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was upregulated by microRNA-221 in mesenchymal stem cells because microRNAs are key regulators of various biological functions via gene expression. To investigate the effects in vivo, evaluation of bone regeneration by computed tomography and histological assays revealed that osteogenesis was enhanced in the hypoxic conditioned medium group relative to the other groups. These results suggest that behavioral changes of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells through mi-croRNA-221 targetedintercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression under hypoxic conditions may be a potential treatment for patients with bone defects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the effects of various LED light treatments (red 655 nm, blue 456 nm, white and mixed light) on growth pattern, gene expression and flavonoid contents in lettuce leaf. Plants treated with mixed light (red+blue+ white) showed better growth performance than those treated with single LED and fluorescent lamp (FL). Expression analysis of the eight genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in plants treated with LED light was examined. Results showed that red lettuce grown under mixed light showed high expression levels of LsC4H, LsF3H and LsDRF genes. Morever, the same treatment plants possessed higher content of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercetin contents than those in plants exposed to single light. However, the highest total anthocyanin content was identified in plants treated with red+blue light and the lowest content was identified in plants exposed to white fluorescent lamp and single LED light condition. Thus, this study indicates that the ratio of blue to red LEDs is important for the morphology, growth, and phenolic compounds with anthocyanin properties in the two lettuce cultivars tested.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Plant Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) is commonly used with various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and autoimmune disease. Liver cirrhosis is a predominant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we show that the therapeutic effect of OD, which was investigated both in vitro and chemically, induced HCC model. OD significantly enhanced apoptosis and antiproliferative activity and reduced migration ability of HCC cells. In vivo, OD was treated twice a day for 28 days after confirmed HCC model through 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) imaging. The survival in OD treated groups was shown to have a greater therapeutic effect than the control group. 28 days after OD treatment, OD treated groups resulted in a significant reduction in tumor number, size, (18)F-FDG uptake, and serum levels such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphate compared to the control group. Also, proliferated cells in tumor sites by OD were reduced compared to the control group. Furthermore, several rats in OD treated group survived over 60 days and liver morphology of these rats showed the difference between tumor mass and normal tissue. These results suggest that OD may have antiproliferative activity, inhibition of metastasis, and apoptotic effects in chemically induced HCC model and can have the potential use for clinical application as anticancer drug of the herbal extract.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pain is a common and distressing feature in Parkinson disease (PD). The major indication of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) is motor complications in advanced PD; however, pain reduction after STN DBS has been noted.
To evaluate the long-term effect of STN DBS on pain in PD.
Twenty-four patients who underwent STN DBS at the Movement Disorder Center at Seoul National University Hospital from June 1, 2005, through March 31, 2006, were studied. The assessments of pain were performed preoperatively and 8 years after surgery. Because 13 of the total 24 patients had additional 2-year postoperative data, the serial change between the preoperative and the 2- and 8-year follow-ups after surgery was also evaluated.
Motor symptoms were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn and Yahr staging scale. The severity of pain was scored according to an ordinal scale ranging from 0 (absent) to 10 (maximal pain) in 7 parts of the body (head, neck, trunk, and the upper and lower extremities on each side of the body). For each body part, the quality of pain was grouped into 1 of 4 categories: dystonic, musculoskeletal, radiculoneuritic, and central.
Sixteen of the 24 patients (67%) experienced pain at baseline when not taking medication (off-state). All off-state pain at baseline improved or disappeared at 8 years after surgery. The number of body parts with pain was 21 at baseline and decreased to 11 at 8 years after the surgery. The mean (SD) and median scores of the off-state pain were 6.2 (2.5) and 7.0 at baseline and improved to 3.5 (2.2) and 2.5 at 8 years after the surgery, respectively. However, new pain developed in 18 of 24 patients (75%) during the 8-year follow-up period. The number of body parts with newly developed pain was 47, and the mean (SD) and median scores for new pain were 4.4 (3.0) and 3.0, respectively. The types of new pain at 8 years were musculoskeletal in 11 patients, central in 4 patients, radiculoneuritic in 3 patients, and dystonic in 1 patient.
Pain associated with PD is improved by STN DBS, and the beneficial effect persists after a long-term follow-up of 8 years. In addition, new pain, especially the musculoskeletal type, developed in most patients, becoming a long-term distressing problem.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although there are various movement disorders that can develop after thalamic stroke, isolated tremors confined to the lower extremities are rare, and their pathophysiological mechanism is unclear . Here, we present a case of delayed-onset, regular, transient tremor following thalamic hemorrhage, which we confirm using surface electromyography (EMG).A previously healthy 59-year-old woman presented with sudden onset weakness and numbness in her left side. Left limb muscle power was assessed as Medical Research Council (MRC) grade 2, and sensations of pinprick and light touch were also slightly decreased. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed an acute hemorrhage in the right thalamus, associated with intra-ventricular hemorrhage. Twenty days later, her left limb muscle power improved to MRC grade 4. However, an involuntary, coarse tremor in the left lower extremity developed two months after the stroke. The tremor was present mainly when the patient was at rest, but postural compone ...
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Neurological Sciences