[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Craniofacial abnormalities account for about one-third of all human congenital defects, but our understanding of the genetic mechanisms governing craniofacial development is incomplete. We show that GTF2IRD1 is a genetic determinant of mammalian craniofacial and cognitive development, and we implicate another member of the TFII-I transcription factor family, GTF2I, in both aspects. Gtf2ird1-null mice exhibit phenotypic abnormalities reminiscent of the human microdeletion disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS); craniofacial imaging reveals abnormalities in both skull and jaws that may arise through misregulation of goosecoid, a downstream target of Gtf2ird1. In humans, a rare WBS individual with an atypical deletion, including GTF2IRD1, shows facial dysmorphism and cognitive deficits that differ from those of classic WBS cases. We propose a mechanism of cumulative dosage effects of duplicated and diverged genes applicable to other human chromosomal disorders.
Full-text available · Article · Dec 2005 · Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a congenital narrowing of the ascending aorta which can occur sporadically, as an autosomal dominant condition, or as one component of Williams syndrome. SVAS is caused by translocations, gross deletions and point mutations that disrupt the elastin gene (ELN) on 7q11.23. Functional hemizygosity for elastin is known to be the cause of SVAS in patients with gross chromosomal abnormalities involving ELN. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of point mutations are less clear. One hundred patients with diagnosed SVAS and normal karyotypes were screened for mutations in the elastin gene to further elucidate the molecular pathology of the disorder. Mutations associated with the vascular disease were detected in 35 patients, and included nonsense, frameshift, translation initiation and splice site mutations. The four missense mutations identified are the first of this type to be associated with SVAS. Here we describe the spectrum of mutations occurring in familial and sporadic SVAS and attempt to define the mutational mechanisms involved in SVAS. SVAS shows variable penetrance within families but the progressive nature of the disorder in some cases, makes identification of the molecular lesions important for future preventative treatments.
Full-text available · Article · Jan 2001 · European Journal of HumanGenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Pseudovitamin D-defiency rickets (PDDR) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypocalcemia, rickets (which are resistant to treatment with vitamin D), and low or undetectable serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). The symptoms are corrected with 1,25(OH)2D treatment, and the disease is now believed to result from a defect in the cytochrome P450 component (P450c1; CYP27B1) of the renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1-OHase). We have studied genomic DNA from three families with PDDR and have identified the same homozygous mutation in the P450c1 gene in two of the index cases, causing a frameshift in exon 8, resulting in a premature stop codon in the heme-binding domain. The two cases in the third kindred were compound heterozygotes with missense mutations in exons 6 and 9. We have also identified a C/T polymorphism in intron 6 of the P450c1 genomic DNA. Interferon gamma-inducible 1-OHase activity in blood-derived macrophages was shown by 1,25(OH)2D synthesis in all control cells tested (37-184 fmol/h/106 cells) and those from the PDDR family parents (34-116 fmol/h/106 cells) but was totally absent from the patients' cells, indicating a defect in their macrophage 1-OHase, similar to the presumed renal defect. The assumption of similarity between the renal and macrophage P450c1 was supported by our ability to clone a 514 bp sequence, including the heme-binding region of the macrophage P450c1 cDNA from controls, which was identical to that published for both the renal and keratinocyte P450c1 cDNAs.
Full-text available · Article · Jun 1999 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Research