R. P. Fender

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (568)1868.22 Total impact

  • G. Ponti · S. Bianchi · T. Munoz-Darias · K. De · R. P. Fender · A. Merloni
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of the new generation of X-ray telescopes yielded a significant step forward in our understanding of ionised absorption generated in the accretion discs of X-ray binaries. It has become evident that these relatively weak and narrow absorption features, sporadically present in the X-ray spectra of some systems, are actually the signature of equatorial outflows, which might carry away more matter than that being accreted. Therefore, they play a major role in the accretion phenomenon. These outflows (or ionised atmospheres) are ubiquitous during the softer states but absent during the power-law dominated, hard states, suggesting a strong link with the state of the inner accretion disc, presence of the radio-jet and the properties of the central source. Here, we discuss the current understanding of this field.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Astronomische Nachrichten
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    ABSTRACT: LS I +61 303 is a gamma-ray binary that exhibits an outburst at GHz frequencies each orbital cycle of $\approx$ 26.5 d and a superorbital modulation with a period of $\approx$ 4.6 yr. We have performed a detailed study of the low-frequency radio emission of LS I +61 303 by analysing all the archival GMRT data at 150, 235 and 610 MHz, and conducting regular LOFAR observations within the Radio Sky Monitor (RSM) at 150 MHz. We have detected the source for the first time at 150 MHz, which is also the first detection of a gamma-ray binary at such a low frequency. We have obtained the light-curves of the source at 150, 235 and 610 MHz, all of them showing orbital modulation. The light-curves at 235 and 610 MHz also show the existence of superorbital variability. A comparison with contemporaneous 15-GHz data shows remarkable differences with these light-curves. At 15 GHz we see clear outbursts, whereas at low frequencies we see variability with wide maxima. The light-curve at 235 MHz seems to be anticorrelated with the one at 610 MHz, implying a shift of $\sim$ 0.5 orbital phases in the maxima. We model the shifts between the maxima at different frequencies as due to changes in the physical parameters of the emitting region assuming either free-free absorption or synchrotron self-absorption, obtaining expansion velocities for this region close to the stellar wind velocity with both mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present coordinated multiwavelength observations of the high Galactic latitude (b = +50°) black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) Swift J1357.2−0933 in quiescence. Our broad-band spectrum includes strictly simultaneous radio and X-ray observations, and near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet data taken 1–2 d later. We detect Swift J1357.2−0933 at all wavebands except for the radio (f5 GHz < 3.9 μJy beam−1; 3σrms). Given current constraints on the distance (2.3–6.3 kpc), its 0.5–10 keV X-ray flux corresponds to an Eddington ratio LX/LEdd = 4 × 10−9–3 × 10−8 (assuming a black hole mass of 10 M⊙). The broad-band spectrum is dominated by synchrotron radiation from a relativistic population of outflowing thermal electrons, which we argue to be a common signature of short-period quiescent BHXBs. Furthermore, we identify the frequency where the synchrotron radiation transitions from optically thick-to-thin (νb ≈ 2–5 × 1014 Hz), which is the most robust determination of a ‘jet break’ for a quiescent BHXB to date. Our interpretation relies on the presence of steep curvature in the ultraviolet spectrum, a frequency window made observable by the low amount of interstellar absorption along the line of sight. High Galactic latitude systems like Swift J1357.2−0933 with clean ultraviolet sightlines are crucial for understanding black hole accretion at low luminosities.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a four-month campaign searching for low-frequency radio transients near the North Celestial Pole with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), as part of the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). The data were recorded between 2011 December and 2012 April and comprised 2149 11-min snapshots, each covering 175 deg2. We have found one convincing candidate astrophysical transient, with a duration of a few minutes and a flux density at 60 MHz of 15–25 Jy. The transient does not repeat and has no obvious optical or high-energy counterpart, as a result of which its nature is unclear. The detection of this event implies a transient rate at 60 MHz of $3.9^{+14.7}_{-3.7}\times 10^{-4}$ d−1 deg−2, and a transient surface density of 1.5 × 10−5 deg−2, at a 7.9-Jy limiting flux density and ∼10-min time-scale. The campaign data were also searched for transients at a range of other time-scales, from 0.5 to 297 min, which allowed us to place a range of limits on transient rates at 60 MHz as a function of observation duration.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The tidal disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole leads to a short-lived thermal flare. Despite extensive searches, radio follow-up observations of known thermal stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs) have not yet produced a conclusive detection. We present a detection of variable radio emission from a thermal TDF, which we interpret as originating from a newly-launched jet. The multi-wavelength properties of the source present a natural analogy with accretion state changes of stellar mass black holes, suggesting all TDFs could be accompanied by a jet. In the rest frame of the TDF, our radio observations are an order of magnitude more sensitive than nearly all previous upper limits, explaining how these jets, if common, could thus far have escaped detection.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Science
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    ABSTRACT: LOFAR offers the unique capability of observing pulsars across the 10-240 MHz frequency range with a fractional bandwidth of roughly 50%. This spectral range is well-suited for studying the frequency evolution of pulse profile morphology caused by both intrinsic and extrinsic effects: such as changing emission altitude in the pulsar magnetosphere or scatter broadening by the interstellar medium, respectively. The magnitude of most of these effects increases rapidly towards low frequencies. LOFAR can thus address a number of open questions about the nature of radio pulsar emission and its propagation through the interstellar medium. We present the average pulse profiles of 100 pulsars observed in the two LOFAR frequency bands: High Band (120-167 MHz, 100 profiles) and Low Band (15-62 MHz, 26 profiles). We compare them with Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and Lovell Telescope observations at higher frequencies (350 and1400 MHz) in order to study the profile evolution. The profiles are aligned in absolute phase by folding with a new set of timing solutions from the Lovell Telescope, which we present along with precise dispersion measures obtained with LOFAR. We find that the profile evolution with decreasing radio frequency does not follow a specific trend but, depending on the geometry of the pulsar, new components can enter into, or be hidden from, view. Nonetheless, in general our observations confirm the widening of pulsar profiles at low frequencies, as expected from radius-to-frequency mapping or birefringence theories. We offer this catalog of low-frequency pulsar profiles in a user friendly way via the EPN Database of Pulsar Profiles (http://www.epta.eu.org/epndb/).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky LOFAR imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic multifrequency nature providing information about the spectral properties of the detected sources over more than two octaves (from 30 to 160 MHz). The broadband frequency coverage, together with the fast survey speed generated by LOFAR's multibeaming capabilities, make MSSS the first survey of the sort anticipated to be carried out with the forthcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Two of the sixteen frequency bands included in the survey were chosen to exactly overlap the frequency coverage of large-area Very Large Array (VLA) and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) surveys at 74 MHz and 151 MHz respectively. The survey performance is illustrated within the "MSSS Verification Field" (MVF), a region of 100 square degrees centered at J2000 (RA,Dec)=(15h,69deg). The MSSS results from the MVF are compared with previous radio survey catalogs. We assess the flux and astrometric uncertainties in the catalog, as well as the completeness and reliability considering our source finding strategy. We determine the 90% completeness levels within the MVF to be 100 mJy at 135 MHz with 108" resolution, and 550 mJy at 50 MHz with 166" resolution. Images and catalogs for the full survey, expected to contain 150,000-200,000 sources, will be released to a public web server. We outline the plans for the ongoing production of the final survey products, and the ultimate public release of images and source catalogs.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter provides an overview of the possibilities for transient and variable-source astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array. While subsequent chapters focus on the astrophysics of individual events, we focus on the broader picture, and how to maximise the science coming from the telescope. The SKA as currently designed will be a fantastic and ground-breaking facility for radio transient studies, but the scientifc yield will be dramatically increased by the addition of (i) near-real-time commensal searches of data streams for events, and (ii) on occasion, rapid robotic response to Target-of-Opprtunity style triggers.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: XTE J1908+094 is an X-ray transient black hole candidate in the Galactic plane that was observed in outburst in 2002 and 2013. Here we present multifrequency radio and X-ray data, including radio polarimetry, spanning the entire period of the 2013 outburst. We find that the X-ray behaviour of XTE J1908+094 traces the standard black hole hardness–intensity path, evolving from a hard state, through a soft state, before returning to a hard state and quiescence. Its radio behaviour is typical of a compact jet that becomes quenched before discrete ejecta are launched during the late stages of X-ray softening. The radio and X-ray fluxes, as well as the light-curve morphologies, are consistent with those observed during the 2002 outburst of this source. The polarization angle during the rise of the outburst infers a jet orientation in agreement with resolved observations but also displays a gradual drift, which we associate with observed changes in the structure of the discrete ejecta. We also observe an unexpected 90° rotation of the polarization angle associated with a second component.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Rob Fender · Teo Muñoz-Darias
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    ABSTRACT: In this review we discuss the population of stellar-mass black holes in our galaxy and beyond, which are the extreme endpoints of massive star evolution. In particular we focus on how we can attempt to balance the available accretion energy with feedback to the environment via radiation, jets and winds, considering also possible contributions to the energy balance from black hole spin and advection. We review quantitatively the methods which are used to estimate these quantities, regardless of the details of the astrophysics close to the black hole. Once these methods have been outlined, we work through an outburst of a black hole X-ray binary system, estimating the flow of mass and energy through the different accretion rates and states. While we focus on feedback from stellar mass black holes in X-ray binary systems, we also consider the applicability of what we have learned to supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. As an important control sample we also review the coupling between accretion and feedback in neutron stars, and show that it is very similar to that observed in black holes, which strongly constrains how much of the astrophysics of feedback can be unique to black holes.
    Preview · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: PSR B0823+26, a 0.53-s radio pulsar, displays a host of emission phenomena over time-scales of seconds to (at least) hours, including nulling, subpulse drifting, and mode-changing. Studying pulsars like PSR B0823+26 provides further insight into the relationship between these various emission phenomena and what they might teach us about pulsar magnetospheres. Here we report on the LOFAR (Low-Frequency Array) discovery that PSR B0823+26 has a weak and sporadically emitting ‘quiet’ (Q) emission mode that is over 100 times weaker (on average) and has a nulling fraction forty-times greater than that of the more regularly-emitting ‘bright’ (B) mode. Previously, the pulsar has been undetected in the Q mode, and was assumed to be nulling continuously. PSR B0823+26 shows a further decrease in average flux just before the transition into the B mode, and perhaps truly turns off completely at these times. Furthermore, simultaneous observations taken with the LOFAR, Westerbork, Lovell, and Effelsberg telescopes between 110 MHz and 2.7 GHz demonstrate that the transition between the Q mode and B mode occurs within one single rotation of the neutron star, and that it is concurrent across the range of frequencies observed.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Rob Fender · Tom Oosterloo
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    ABSTRACT: If Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are truly at astronomical, in particular cosmological, distances, they represent one of the most exciting discoveries in astrophysics of the past decade. However, the distance to FRBs has, to date, been estimated purely from their excess dispersion, and has not been corroborated by any independent means. In this Letter, we discuss the possibility of detecting neutral hydrogen absorption against FRBs both from spiral arms within our own galaxy, or from intervening extragalactic H i clouds. In either case a firm lower limit on the distance to the FRB would be established. Absorption against galactic spiral arms may already be detectable for bright low-latitude bursts with existing facilities, and should certainly be so by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Absorption against extragalactic H i clouds, which would confirm the cosmological distances of FRBs, should also be detectable with the SKA, and maybe also Arecibo. Quantitatively, we estimate that SKA1-Mid should be able to detect H i absorption against about a few per cent of FRBs at a redshift z ∼ 1.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~4"), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~30"), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it is intermittently active as it moves in the dense environment in the cluster core. Using LOFAR, we can trace the relic plasma from that episode of activity out to greater distances from the core than ever before. Using the the WSRT, we detect HI in absorption against the center of the radio source. The absorption profile is relatively broad (FWHM of 288 km/s), similar to what is found in other clusters. Understanding the duty cycle of the radio emission as well as the triggering mechanism for starting (or restarting) the radio-loud activity can provide important constraints to quantify the impact of AGN feedback on galaxy evolution. The study of these mechanisms at low frequencies using morphological and spectral information promises to bring new important insights in this field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of two new X-ray transients in archival Chandra data. The first transient, XRT 110103, occurred in 2011 January and shows a sharp rise of at least three orders of magnitude in count rate in less than 10 s, a flat peak for about 20 s and decays by two orders of magnitude in the next 60 s. We find no optical or infrared counterpart to this event in pre-existing survey data or in an observation taken by the Simultaneous-3color InfraRed Imager for Unbiased Survey (SIRIUS) instrument at the Infrared Survey Facility ∼2.1 yr after the transient, providing limiting magnitudes of J > 18.1, H > 17.6 and Ks > 16.3. This event shows similarities to the transient previously reported in Jonker et al. which was interpreted as the possible tidal disruption of a white dwarf by an intermediate-mass black hole. We discuss the possibility that these transients originate from the same type of event. If we assume these events are related a rough estimate of the rates gives 1.4 × 105 per year over the whole sky with a peak 0.3–7 keV X-ray flux greater than 2 × 10−10 erg cm−2 s−1. The second transient, XRT 120830, occurred in 2012 August and shows a rise of at least three orders of magnitude in count rate and a subsequent decay of around one order of magnitude all within 10 s, followed by a slower quasi-exponential decay over the remaining 30 ks of the observation. We detect a likely infrared counterpart with magnitudes J = 16.70 ± 0.06, H = 15.92 ± 0.04 and Ks = 15.37 ± 0.06 which shows an average proper motion of 74 ± 19 mas yr−1 compared to archival 2MASS observations. The JHKs magnitudes, proper motion and X-ray flux of XRT 120830 are consistent with a bright flare from a nearby late M or early L dwarf.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: MAXI J1836-194 is a Galactic black hole candidate X-ray binary that was discovered in 2011 when it went into outburst. In this paper, we present the full radio monitoring of this system during its `failed' outburst, in which the source did not complete a full set of state changes, only transitioning as far as the hard intermediate state. Observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) show that the jet properties changed significantly during the outburst. The VLA observations detected linearly polarised emission at a level of ~1% early in the outburst, increasing to ~3% as the outburst peaked. High-resolution images with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) show a ~15 mas jet along the position angle $-21 \pm 2^\circ$, in agreement with the electric vector position angle found from our polarisation results ($-21 \pm 4^\circ$), implying that the magnetic field is perpendicular to the jet. Astrometric observations suggest that the system required an asymmetric natal kick to explain its observed space velocity. Comparing quasi-simultaneous X-ray monitoring with the 5 GHz VLA observations from the 2011 outburst shows an unusually steep hard-state radio/X-ray correlation of $L_{\rm R} \propto L_{\rm X}^{1.8\pm0.2}$, where $L_{\rm R}$ and $L_{\rm X}$ denote the radio and X-ray luminosities, respectively. With ATCA and Swift monitoring of the source during a period of re-brightening in 2012, we show that the system lay on the same steep correlation. Due to the low inclination of this system, we then investigate the possibility that the observed correlation may have been steepened by variable Doppler boosting.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Astronomy and Computing
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    ABSTRACT: The universal link between the processes of accretion and ejection leads to the formation of jets and outflows around accreting compact objects. Incoherent synchrotron emission from these outflows can be observed from a wide range of accreting binaries, including black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs. Monitoring the evolution of the radio emission during their sporadic outbursts provides important insights into the launching of jets, and, when coupled with the behaviour of the source at shorter wavelengths, probes the underlying connection with the accretion process. Radio observations can also probe the impact of jets/outflows (including other explosive events such as magnetar giant flares) on the ambient medium, quantifying their kinetic feedback. The high sensitivity of the SKA will open up new parameter space, enabling the monitoring of accreting stellar-mass compact objects from their bright, Eddington-limited outburst states down to the lowest-luminosity quiescent levels, whose intrinsic faintness has to date precluded detailed studies. A census of quiescently accreting black holes will also constrain binary evolution processes. By enabling us to extend our existing investigations of black hole jets to the fainter jets from neutron star and white dwarf systems, the SKA will permit comparative studies to determine the role of the compact object in jet formation. The high sensitivity, wide field of view and multi-beaming capability of the SKA will enable the detection and monitoring of all bright flaring transients in the observable local Universe, including the ULXs, ... [Abridged] This chapter reviews the science goals outlined above, demonstrating the progress that will be made by the SKA. We also discuss the potential of the astrometric and imaging observations that would be possible should a significant VLBI component be included in the SKA.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Observational consequences of the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) can enable us to discover quiescent SMBHs and constrain their mass function. Moreover, observing jetted TDEs (from previously non-active galaxies) provides us with a new means of studying the early phases of jet formation and evolution in an otherwise "pristine" environment. Although several (tens) TDEs have been discovered since 1999, only two jetted TDEs have been recently discovered in hard X-rays, and only one, Swift J1644+57, has a precise localization which further supports the TDE interpretation. These events alone are not sufficient to address those science issues, which require a substantial increase of the current sample. Despite the way they were discovered, the highest discovery potential for {\em jetted} TDEs is not held by current and up-coming X-ray instruments, which will yield only a few to a few tens events per year. In fact, the best strategy is to use the Square Kilometer Array to detect TDEs and trigger multi-wavelength follow-ups, yielding hundreds candidates per year, up to $z \sim 2$. Radio and X-ray synergy, however, can in principle constrain important quantities such as the absolute rate of jetted TDEs, their jet power, bulk Lorentz factor, the black hole mass function, and perhaps discover massive black holes (MBH) with $<10^{5} M_{\odot}$. Finally, when comparing SKA results with information from optical surveys like LSST, one can more directly constrain the efficiency of jet production.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,868.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013-2015
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Department of Astrophysics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2004-2015
    • University of Southampton
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998-2014
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Rice University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Physics: Cavendish Laboratory
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012-2013
    • University of Cape Town
      • Department of Astronomy
      Kaapstad, Western Cape, South Africa
  • 2006-2013
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2006-2007
    • University of New Hampshire
      Durham, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2000-2002
    • IMSA Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Alabama in Huntsville
      Huntsville, Alabama, United States
    • University of Central Lancashire
      Preston, England, United Kingdom
    • Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2001
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Space Sciences Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Utrecht University
      • Astronomical Institute
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1996-2000
    • University of Sussex
      • Astronomy Centre
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Physics
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1996-1998
    • Milton Keynes College
      Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • The University of Manchester
      • Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom