Mihai Gheorghiade

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States

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Publications (784)5488.67 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Circulation Heart Failure
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    ABSTRACT: Serum osmolality may fluctuate with neurohormonal activation and with therapies targeting it in patients with heart failure (HF). The clinical relevance of osmolality among patients with HF has not been defined. In this post hoc analysis of the EVEREST trial, we analyzed serum osmolality measured at discharge in 3,744 patients hospitalized for HF and reduced ejection fraction (EF≤40%). Median follow-up was 9.9 months. The association between discharge osmolality and all-cause mortality (ACM) and composite cardiovascular mortality or HF hospitalization was non-linear and thus patients were divided into low (≤284), normal (285-300), and high (≥300mOsm/kg) osmolality. Median serum osmolality at discharge was 297 (290-304) mOsm/kg. Patients in the low osmolality group (n=454,12.1%) were more likely to be younger, male, have lower rates of hypertension, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and have lower serum sodium, creatinine, systolic blood pressure, and EF (all p<0.001). Low discharge osmolality was associated with higher ACM (low 29.3%; normal 23.6%; high 25.2%; p=0.04) and the composite endpoint (low 45.6%; normal 39.3%; high 41.8%; p=0.04). After risk adjustment, a 15 mOsm/kg decrease in osmolality was predictive of higher ACM (HR 1.61, 95%CI 1.19-2.17) and the composite endpoint (HR 1.37, 95%CI 1.06-1.75) in the low osmolality group. These associations were not seen among patients with normal or high osmolality. Interaction analyses for tolvaptan treatment were non-significant (p>0.4). In conclusion, low discharge serum osmolality was independently predictive of worse post-discharge mortality and readmission. Further study is required to clarify the clinical utility of serum osmolality in hospitalized HF patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The American journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between resting heart rate (RHR) and incident heart failure (HF) has been questioned. RHR was assessed at baseline in 7073 participants in 3 prospective cohorts (Cardiovascular Health Study, Health ABC study and Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study) that recorded 1189 incident HF outcomes during 92 702 person-years of follow-up. Mean age of participants was 67 (9.9) years and mean RHR was 64.6 (11.1) bpm. Baseline RHR correlated (P<0.001) positively with body mass index (r=0.10), fasting glucose (r=0.18), and C-reactive protein (r=0.20); and inversely with serum creatinine (r=-0.05) and albumin (r=-0.05). Baseline RHR was non-linearly associated with HF risk. The age and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for HF comparing the top (>72 bpm) versus the bottom (<57 bpm) quartile of baseline RHR was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26 to 1.74) and was modestly attenuated (1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.53) with further adjustment for body mass index, history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking status, serum creatinine, and left ventricular hypertrophy. These findings remained consistent in analyses accounting for incident coronary heart disease, excluding individuals with prior cardiovascular events, or those taking beta-blockers; and in subgroups defined by several individual participant characteristics. In a pooled random effects meta-analysis of 7 population-based studies (43 051 participants and 3476 HF events), the overall hazard ratio comparing top versus bottom fourth of RHR was 1.40 (95% CI: 1.19 to 1.64). There is a non-linear association between RHR and incident HF. Further research is needed to understand the physiologic foundations of this association. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) represents a global public health and economic problem associated with unacceptable rates of death, hospitalization, and healthcare expenditure. Despite available therapy, HF carries a prognosis comparable to many forms of cancer with a 5-year survival rate of ~50 %. The current treatment paradigm for HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF) centers on blocking maladaptive neurohormonal activation and decreasing cardiac workload with therapies that concurrently lower blood pressure and heart rate. Continued development of hemodynamically active medications for stepwise addition to existing therapies carries the risk of limited tolerability and safety. Moreover, this treatment paradigm has thus far failed for HF with preserved EF. Accordingly, development of hemodynamically neutral HF therapies targeting primary cardiac pathologies must be considered. In this context, a partial adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) agonist holds promise as a potentially hemodynamically neutral therapy for HF that could simultaneous improve cardiomyocyte energetics, calcium homeostasis, cardiac structure and function, and long-term clinical outcomes when added to background therapies. In this review, we describe the physiology and pathophysiology of HF as it relates to adenosine agonism, examine the existing body of evidence and biologic rationale for modulation of adenosine A1R activity, and review the current state of drug development of a partial A1R agonist for the treatment of HF.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Heart Failure Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Myocardial fibrosis (MF) in noninfarcted myocardium may be an interstitial disease pathway that confers vulnerability to hospitalization for heart failure, death, or both across the spectrum of heart failure and ejection fraction. Hospitalization for heart failure is an epidemic that is difficult to predict and prevent and requires potential therapeutic targets associated with outcomes. Method and results: We quantified MF with cardiovascular magnetic resonance extracellular volume fraction (ECV) measures in 1172 consecutive patients without amyloidosis or hypertrophic or stress cardiomyopathy and assessed associations with outcomes using Cox regression. ECV ranged from 16.6% to 47.8%. Over a median of 1.7 years, 111 patients experienced events after cardiovascular magnetic resonance, 55 had hospitalization for heart failure events, and there were 74 deaths. ECV was more strongly associated with outcomes than "nonischemic" MF observed with late gadolinium enhancement, thus ECV quantified MF in multivariable models. Adjusting for age, sex, renal function, myocardial infarction size, ejection fraction, hospitalization status, and heart failure stage, higher ECV was associated with hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio 1.77; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.36 for every 5% increase in ECV), death (hazard ratio 1.87 95% CI 1.45 to 2.40) or both (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.27). ECV improved classification of persons at risk and improved model discrimination for outcomes (eg, hospitalization for heart failure: continuous net reclassification improvement 0.33, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.66; P=0.02; 0.16, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.33; P=0.02; integrated discrimination improvement 0.037, 95% CI 0.008 to 0.073; P<0.01). Conclusion: MF measured by ECV is associated with hospitalization for heart failure, death, or both. MF may represent a principal phenotype of cardiac vulnerability that improves risk stratification. Because MF can be reversible, cells and enzymes regulating collagen could be potential therapeutic targets.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: In observational studies of patients hospitalized for heart failure (HHF), risk of death is highest immediately after discharge and decreases over time. It is unclear whether this population risk trajectory reflects (1) lowering of individual patient mortality risk with increasing time from index hospitalization or (2) temporal changes in population case-mix with earlier postdischarge death for "sicker" patients. Survival rate and longitudinal models were used to estimate temporal changes in postdischarge all-cause mortality risk in 3,993 HHF patients discharged alive in the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial. After median follow-up of 9.9 months, 971 patients died (24.2%). Predicted mortality rate decreased from 15.9 per 100 patient-years immediately after discharge to 13.4 at 30 days and 12.8 at 90 days; mortality rate increased steadily thereafter. Risk variation between quintiles of risk was considerably larger than the temporal variation within risk strata. In a longitudinal model serially reassessing predicted patient mortality risk after each follow-up visit using data collected at these visits, predicted mortality risk increased during the 90 days preceding subsequent heart failure readmission and then followed a postdischarge trajectory similar to the index admission. In conclusion, although there is transiently elevated individual patient risk in the 90 days before and after discharge, the patient's individual risk profile, rather than temporal change in risk relative to hospitalization, remains the main determinant of mortality. For purposes of reducing all-cause mortality in HF patients, preventative and therapeutic measures may be best implemented as long-term interventions for high mortality risk patients based on serial risk assessments, irrespective of recent hospitalization.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The American journal of cardiology
  • Hussein Abu Daya · Mihai Gheorghiade · Erik B. Schelbert

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that manifests from various cardiac and noncardiac abnormalities. Accordingly, rapid and readily accessible methods for diagnosis and risk stratification are invaluable for providing clinical care, deciding allocation of scare resources, and designing selection criteria for clinical trials. Natriuretic peptides represent one of the most important diagnostic and prognostic tools available for the care of heart failure patients. Natriuretic peptide testing has the distinct advantage of objectivity, reproducibility, and widespread availability.The concept of tailoring heart failure management to achieve a target value of natriuretic peptides has been tested in various clinical trials and may be considered as an effective method for longitudinal biomonitoring and guiding escalation of heart failure therapies with overall favorable results.Although heart failure trials support efficacy and safety of natriuretic peptide-guided therapy as compared with usual care, the relationship between natriuretic peptide trajectory and clinical benefit has not been uniform across the trials, and certain subgroups have not shown robust benefit. Furthermore, the precise natriuretic peptide value ranges and time intervals of testing are still under investigation. If natriuretic peptides fail to decrease following intensification of therapy, further work is needed to clarify the optimal pharmacologic approach. Despite decreasing natriuretic peptide levels, some patients may present with other high-risk features (e.g. elevated troponin). A multimarker panel investigating multiple pathological processes will likely be an optimal alternative, but this will require prospective validation.Future research will be needed to clarify the type and magnitude of the target natriuretic peptide therapeutic response, as well as the duration of natriuretic peptide-guided therapy in heart failure patients.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The association between natriuretic peptides and clinical outcome in asymptomatic hypertensive and diabetic patients with no clinical evidence of heart failure (HF) is still unclear. We assessed the prognostic value of NT-pro BNP, and its interactions with age and gender, in a cohort of asymptomatic, stage A/B HF hypertensive and diabetic patients enrolled in primary care. Methods: NT-proBNP was measured in 1012 asymptomatic subjects with systemic hypertension and/or type-2 diabetes (age 66.6 ± 7.8 years, 48 % males) with no clinical evidence of HF. Patients were prospectively followed over 49.8 ± 6.7 months for the development of cardiac death, HF hospitalization, and nonfatal myocardial infarction. Results: Patients with NT-proBNP above the 80th age- and gender-specific percentile showed a threefold risk of events as compared to those with NT-proBNP under this cut-off [hazard ratio 3.2 (2.6-8.3), p < 0.0001]. In multivariable analysis, NT-proBNP added independent and incremental prognostic information to a predictive model including established risk factors (p < 0.0001). After stratification by age, increased NT-proBNP predicted outcome among patients in the second and third age tertiles, but not among those in the first tertile. Increased NT-proBNP was associated with a 3.6-fold risk in women and a 2.9-fold risk in men. Addition of the gender-NT-proBNP interaction to prognostic models further improved prediction of events (p = 0.014). Conclusions: NT-proBNP measurement adds independent and incremental information for the prediction of clinical outcome in asymptomatic, stage A-B HF hypertensive and diabetic patients taken from primary care. This prognostic value might be further evident in the elderly and among women.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Clinical Research in Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Worsening chronic heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem.Objective To determine the optimal dose and tolerability of vericiguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).Design, Setting, and Participants Dose-finding phase 2 study that randomized 456 patients across Europe, North America, and Asia between November 2013 and January 2015, with follow-up ending June 2015. Patients were clinically stable with LVEF less than 45% within 4 weeks of a worsening chronic HF event, defined as worsening signs and symptoms of congestion and elevated natriuretic peptide level requiring hospitalization or outpatient intravenous diuretic.Interventions Placebo (n = 92) or 1 of 4 daily target doses of oral vericiguat (1.25 mg [n = 91], 2.5 mg [n = 91], 5 mg [n = 91], 10 mg [n = 91]) for 12 weeks.Main Outcomes and Measures The primary end point was change from baseline to week 12 in log-transformed level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The primary analysis specified pooled comparison of the 3 highest-dose vericiguat groups with placebo, and secondary analysis evaluated a dose-response relationship with vericiguat and the primary end point.Results Overall, 351 patients (77.0%) completed treatment with the study drug with valid 12-week NT-proBNP levels and no major protocol deviation and were eligible for primary end point evaluation. In primary analysis, change in log-transformed NT-proBNP levels from baseline to week 12 was not significantly different between the pooled vericiguat group (log-transformed: baseline, 7.969; 12 weeks, 7.567; difference, −0.402; geometric means: baseline, 2890 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 1932 pg/mL) and placebo (log-transformed: baseline, 8.283; 12 weeks, 8.002; difference, −0.280; geometric means: baseline, 3955 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 2988 pg/mL) (difference of means, −0.122; 90% CI, −0.32 to 0.07; ratio of geometric means, 0.885, 90% CI, 0.73-1.08; P = .15). The exploratory secondary analysis suggested a dose-response relationship whereby higher vericiguat doses were associated with greater reductions in NT-proBNP level (P < .02). Rates of any adverse event were 77.2% and 71.4% among the placebo and 10-mg vericiguat groups, respectively.Conclusions and Relevance Among patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced LVEF, compared with placebo, vericiguat did not have a statistically significant effect on change in NT-proBNP level at 12 weeks but was well-tolerated. Further clinical trials of vericiguat based on the dose-response relationship in this study are needed to determine the potential role of this drug for patients with worsening chronic HF.Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01951625
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents a major global and economic burden, but its epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data have varied according to study design. Methods and results: We conducted a systematic review of published HFpEF clinical trials and observational studies (community-based studies and registries) from August 1998 to July 2013 using PubMed and EMBASE databases. Two independent investigators manually screened and extracted relevant data. We included 62 articles (19 describing clinical trials, 12 describing community-based observational studies, and 31 describing registries). The ejection fraction (EF) cut-off values ranged widely for HFpEF from >40% to >55%. However, differences in EF cut-offs were not clearly associated with incidence and prevalence data across studies. Of all patients with heart failure in community studies, 33-84% had HFpEF, which tended to be higher than reported in registries. The HFpEF patients in included studies were primarily older, white (>70%) patients with hypertension (∼50-90%) and coronary artery disease (up to 60%). All-cause mortality and all-cause hospitalizations ranged from 13% to 23% (26-50 months follow-up) and 55% to 67% (37-50 months follow-up), respectively, in clinical trials; cardiovascular causes accounted for 70% of both outcomes. All-cause mortality tended to be higher in registries than in clinical trials and community-based observational studies up to 5 years into follow-up. Conclusions: Important differences in EF thresholds, epidemiological indices, clinical profiles, treatment patterns, and outcomes exist across contemporary HFpEF clinical trials, observational studies, and registries. Precision in definition and inclusion of more uniform populations may facilitate improved profiling of HFpEF patients.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European Journal of Heart Failure
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past 1.5 decades, numerous stem cell trials have been performed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Although encouraging outcome signals have been reported, these have been small, leading to uncertainty as to whether they will translate into significantly improved outcomes. A reassessment of the rationale for the use of stem cells in cardiovascular disease is therefore timely. Such a rationale should include analyses of why previous trials have not produced significant benefit and address whether mechanisms contributing to disease progression might benefit from known activities of stem cells. The present paper provides such a reassessment, focusing on patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, either nonischemic or ischemic. We conclude that many mechanisms contributing to progressive left ventricular dysfunction are matched by stem cell activities that could attenuate the myocardial effect of such mechanisms. This suggests that stem cell strategies may improve patient outcomes and justifies further testing.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • Waqas Qureshi · javed butler · Sean P. Collins · Alec Moorman · Mihai Gheorghiade
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    ABSTRACT: Hospitalization for heart failure is common condition and refers to the various acute heart failure syndromes that require urgent treatment. The chapter provides an overview of the classification, pathophysiology, management principles and current treatment modalities for hospitalization for heart failure. It also emphasizes the various diagnostic as well as prognostic evaluations of heart failure patients. However, the understanding and treatment still remains deficient in the wake of development of newer drugs, devices and novel approaches to decrease this immense health care problem that can improve morbidity, mortality and quality of life of our patients.
    No preview · Chapter · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: This article describes an ongoing study investigating the safety and efficacy of ischemia-tolerant mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in patients with nonischemic heart failure and dysfunctional viable myocardium without scarring. This study will follow principles of the previously described mechanistic translational-phase concept whereby the effect of the study agent on laboratory and imaging markers of cardiac structure and function will be tested in a small homogenous cohort with the goal to enhance the understanding of the effect of interventions on cardiac remodeling and performance. Study design: This single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, multicenter, randomized study will assess the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of allogeneic ischemia-tolerant MSCs in individuals with heart failure of nonischemic cause, ejection fraction 40% or less, and dysfunctional viable myocardium who have been receiving guideline-directed medical therapy. Eligible patients will have no evidence of baseline replacement scarring on delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Approximately 20 patients will be randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive an i.v. infusion of ischemia-tolerant MSCs or placebo. At 90 days, the two groups will undergo crossover and received the alternative treatment. The primary endpoint is safety, as evaluated through at least 1-year post-MSC infusion. Additional efficacy endpoints will include measures of cardiac structure and function, as evaluated by serial cine-CMR and transthoracic echocardiography at 90 and 180 days post-initial infusion. Conclusion: This pilot study will explore the safety and effects on cardiac structure and function of i.v. injection of ischemia-tolerant MSCs in a small homogenous cohort of nonischemic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and absent replacement scarring on CMR. This study also represents a prospective mechanistic translational-phase study using baseline and serial CMR imaging in heart failure patients and serves as a potential model for design of future heart failure trials (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02467387).
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: In the EVEREST trial, tolvaptan improved symptoms and body weight during hospitalization for heart failure (HF), but did not improve post-discharge cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that this disconnect between the short- and long-term effects may be related to changes in serum osmolality. We describe the longitudinal profile of osmolality and its response to tolvaptan during and after hospitalization for HF. Methods and results: EVEREST enrolled 4133 patients hospitalized for HF and reduced EF. Serum osmolality data were available in 3744 (91%). We assessed the effects of tolvaptan on serum osmolality and related these effects to in-hospital changes in body weight and physician-assessed symptoms. Calculated values of osmolality, determined from serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose, were 3-4 mOsm/kg higher than concurrently measured serum osmolality at enrolment and discharge in both treatment arms. During hospitalization in the placebo group, serum osmolality slightly increased throughout hospitalization, whereas serum sodium decreased and blood urea nitrogen increased until discharge. Tolvaptan increased osmolality by hospital day 1, but this effect diminished by post-discharge week 4-8 and disappeared by post-discharge week 56. In-hospital changes in osmolality were poorly correlated with in-hospital changes in body weight and physician-assessed dyspnoea. Conclusion: Tolvaptan increased serum osmolality during hospitalization for HF, a time frame when the drug also improved signs and symptoms of HF. However, this effect on osmolality declined in the early post-discharge period, when tolvaptan failed to influence clinical outcomes. Serum osmolality, which can be estimated based on readily available laboratory parameters, may be a marker or a target of response to tolvaptan.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · European Journal of Heart Failure
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    Erik B Schelbert · Timothy C Wong · Mihai Gheorghiade

    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial recovery in heart failure (HF) is possible, but its determinants are not fully defined. At least partial functional improvement is possible with current evidence-based therapies. However, once significant HF symptoms develop, patients have varied trajectories, including: 1) structural and functional recovery; 2) stabilization (remission); and 3) acceleration to end-stage HF/death. All 3 trajectories may be interrupted by sudden death. These trajectories may represent the interplay of heterogeneous causality, genetic predeterminants, and disease phenotypes. Enhanced phenotypic description with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, molecular imaging, or circulating biomarkers of the heterogeneous HF population may provide insights regarding specific biological targets amenable to existing and novel therapeutic strategies. The identification of patients in "remission," before progression to the end stage of predominantly nonviable tissue (e.g., fibrosis), has implications for clinical practice and future trials because such patients may be more likely to experience myocardial recovery (cardiac reserve). The identification of dysfunctional but viable myocardium and its diverse pathophysiological causes may provide opportunities to investigate existing and novel therapeutics aimed at enhancing myocardial recovery.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
  • Stephen J Greene · Mihai Gheorghiade

    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European Journal of Heart Failure
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    ABSTRACT: Acute worsening heart failure (WHF) is seen in a sizable portion of patients hospitalized for heart failure, and is increasingly being recognized as an entity that is associated with an adverse in-hospital course. WHF is generally defined as worsening heart failure symptoms and signs requiring an intensification of therapy, and is reported to be seen in anywhere from 5% to 42% of heart failure admissions. It is difficult to ascertain the exact epidemiology of WHF due to varying definitions used in the literature. Studies indicate that WHF cannot be precisely predicted on the basis of baseline variables assessed at the time of admission. Recent data suggest that some experimental therapies may reduce the risk of development of WHF among hospitalized heart failure patients, and this is associated with a reduction in risk of subsequent post-discharge cardiovascular mortality. In this respect, WHF holds promise as a endpoint for acute heart failure clinical trials to better elucidate the benefit of targeted novel therapies. Better understanding of the pathophysiology and a consensus on the definition of WHF will further improve our epidemiological and clinical understanding of this entity. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European Journal of Heart Failure

Publication Stats

32k Citations
5,488.67 Total Impact Points


  • 1998-2015
    • Northwestern University
      • • Center for Cardiovascular Innovation
      • • Feinberg School of Medicine
      • • Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      • • Division of Cardiology (Dept. of Medicine)
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1994-2015
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Section of Cardiology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2013
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2012
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2002-2012
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2002-2011
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1995-2011
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Medicine
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Oakland University
      • Department of Physics
      Рочестер, Michigan, United States
  • 2010
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
    • Medtronic
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
    • Wayne State University
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Detroit, MI, United States
    • Università degli Studi di Brescia
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences
      Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1993-2010
    • Northwestern Memorial Hospital
      • Northwestern Medicine
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2009
    • Cleveland Clinic
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2008
    • Attikon University Hospital
      • Department of Cardiology
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2007
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • Tufts Medical Center
      • Division of Cardiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002-2007
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      • Department of Cardiology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1987-2007
    • Henry Ford Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2003-2006
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Medicine
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1993-2004
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      • Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrologic and Geriatric Sciences
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1997
    • Northeastern Illinois University
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1986
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Section of Cardiology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1985-1986
    • University of Virginia
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1983
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States