P. Mauskopf

The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States

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Publications (126)169.64 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: NIKA2 (New IRAM KID Array 2) is a camera dedicated to millimeter wave astronomy based upon kilopixel arrays of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID). The pathfinder instrument, NIKA, has already shown state-of-the-art detector performance. NIKA2 builds upon this experience but goes one step further, increasing the total pixel count by a factor $\sim$10 while maintaining the same per pixel performance. For the next decade, this camera will be the resident photometric instrument of the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) 30m telescope in Sierra Nevada (Spain). In this paper we give an overview of the main components of NIKA2, and describe the achieved detector performance. The camera has been permanently installed at the IRAM 30m telescope in October 2015. It will be made accessible to the scientific community at the end of 2016, after a one-year commissioning period. When this happens, NIKA2 will become a fundamental tool for astronomers worldwide.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Polarization sensitive, microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are under development for the next generation BLAST instrument (BLAST-TNG). BLAST-TNG is a balloon-borne submillimeter polarimeter designed to study magnetic fields in diffuse dust regions and molecular clouds. We present the design and performance of feedhorn-coupled, dual-polarization sensitive MKIDs fabricated from TiN/Ti multilayer films, which have been optimized for the 250 (Formula presented.)m band. Measurements show effective selection of linear polarization and good electrical isolation between the orthogonally crossed X and Y detectors within a single spatial pixel. The detector cross-polar coupling is (Formula presented.)3 %. Passband measurements are presented, which demonstrate that the desired band-edges (1.0–1.4 THz) have been achieved. We find a near linear response to the optical load from a blackbody source, which has been observed in previous devices fabricated from TiN. Blackbody-coupled noise measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of the detectors is limited by photon noise when the optical load is greater than 1 pW.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the design and measured performance of a titanium nitride (TiN) mesh absorber we are developing for controlling optical crosstalk in horn-coupled lumped-element kinetic inductance detector arrays for millimeter-wavelengths. This absorber was added to the fused silica anti-reflection coating attached to previously-characterized, 20-element prototype arrays of LEKIDs fabricated from thin-film aluminum on silicon substrates. To test the TiN crosstalk absorber, we compared the measured response and noise properties of LEKID arrays with and without the TiN mesh. For this test, the LEKIDs were illuminated with an adjustable, incoherent electronic millimeter-wave source. Our measurements show that the optical crosstalk in the LEKID array with the TiN absorber is reduced by 66\% on average, so the approach is effective and a viable candidate for future kilo-pixel arrays.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
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    ABSTRACT: SuperSpec is a novel on-chip spectrometer we are developing for multi-object, moderate resolution (R = 100 - 500), large bandwidth (~1.65:1) submillimeter and millimeter survey spectroscopy of high-redshift galaxies. The spectrometer employs a filter bank architecture, and consists of a series of half-wave resonators formed by lithographically-patterned superconducting transmission lines. The signal power admitted by each resonator is detected by a lumped element titanium nitride (TiN) kinetic inductance detector (KID) operating at 100 - 200 MHz. We have tested a new prototype device that achieves the targeted R = 100 resolving power, and has better detector sensitivity and optical efficiency than previous devices. We employ a new method for measuring photon noise using both coherent and thermal sources of radiation to cleanly separate the contributions of shot and wave noise. We report an upper limit to the detector NEP of $1.4\times10^{-17}$ W Hz$^{-1/2}$, within 10% of the photon noise limited NEP for a ground-based R=100 spectrometer.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
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    ABSTRACT: NIKA, the prototype of the NIKA2 camera, is an instrument operating at the IRAM 30m telescope that can observe the sky simultaneously at 150 and 260GHz. One of the main goals of NIKA is to measure the pressure distribution in galaxy clusters at high angular resolution using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Such observations have already proved to be an excellent probe of cluster pressure distributions even at high redshifts. However, an important fraction of clusters host submm and/or radio point sources that can significantly affect the reconstructed signal. Here we report <20arcsec angular resolution observations at 150 and 260GHz of the cluster MACSJ1424, which hosts both radio and submm point sources. We examine the morphological distribution of the SZ signal and compare it to other datasets. The NIKA data are combined with Herschel satellite data to study the SED of the submm point source contaminants. We then perform a joint reconstruction of the ICM electronic pressure and density by combining NIKA, Planck, XMM-Newton and Chandra data, focussing on the impact of the radio and submm sources on the reconstructed pressure profile. We find that the large-scale pressure distribution is unaffected by the point sources due to the resolved nature of the NIKA observations. The reconstructed pressure in the inner region is slightly higher when the contribution of point sources are removed. We show that it is not possible to set strong constraints on the central pressure distribution without removing accurately these contaminants. The comparison with Xray only data shows good agreement for the pressure, temperature and entropy profiles, all indicating that MACSJ1424 is a dynamically relaxed cool core system. The present observations illustrate the possibility of measuring these quantities with a relatively small integration time, even at high redshift and without Xray spectroscopy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: NIKA is a dual-band camera operating with 315 frequency multiplexed LEKIDs cooled at 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the sky in intensity and polarisation at 150 and 260 GHz from the IRAM 30-m telescope. It is a test-bench for the final NIKA2 camera. The incoming linear polarisation is modulated at four times the mechanical rotation frequency by a warm rotating multi-layer Half Wave Plate. Then, the signal is analysed by a wire grid and finally absorbed by the LEKIDs. The small time constant (< 1ms ) of the LEKID detectors combined with the modulation of the HWP enables the quasi-simultaneous measurement of the three Stokes parameters I, Q, U, representing linear polarisation. In this pa- per we present results of recent observational campaigns demonstrating the good performance of NIKA in detecting polarisation at mm wavelength.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of almost 2000 exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? What causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) has been designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large and diverse planet sample within its four-year mission lifetime. EChO can target the atmospheres of super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300K-3000K) of F to M-type host stars. Over the next ten years, several new ground- and space-based transit surveys will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO's launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment, as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. A 1m class telescope is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision. The spectral coverage (0.5-11 micron, goal 16 micron) and SNR to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would enable a very accurate measurement of the atmospheric composition and structure of hundreds of exoplanets.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Experimental Astronomy
  • Conference Paper: The OLIMPO Experiment
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    ABSTRACT: The OLIMPO experiment is a balloon borne millimetric wavelengths telescope, built to measure the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect (SZ) in clusters of galaxies during a long duration flight. The measurements are carried out, during the approximate two weeks flight in the stratosphere in four frequency bands centered respectively at 150, 220, 350 and 480GHz, coupled to the 2.6 meters Cassegrain telescope with a resolution respectively of 4.2', 2.9', 1.8' and 1.8'. In order to better disentangle the extragalactic signal from always possible foregrounds contaminations, we added to photometric measurements planned also the spectroscopic ability, which is achieved by means of a differential Fourier transform spectrometer. The experiment is ready to be flown from Svalbard islands in a circumpolar summer season long duration flight at about 40km of altitude. Here we describe the instrument, focusing on the low frequency detection chain. Science OLIMPO will produce an SZ spectroscopic survey of about 40 clusters and high resolution maps of CMB anisotropy in selected areas, to measure the damping tail of the power spectrum of CMB anisotropy at multipoles up to l ~ 4000. High galactic latitude sky regions feature mainly primary anisotropy (CMB), SZ in clusters of galaxies, and the far infrared background from distant galaxies (CIB) and unresolved AGNs. These measurements will complement at higher frequency and similar resolution the measurements carried out by ground based telescopes at 150 GHz, thus investigating better the nature of the detected aniso-tropy at small angular scales. Above 200 GHz, cirrus clouds in the interstellar medium are present even in the cleanest parts of the sky at high galactic latitudes. The bands of OLIMPO were optimized for optimal separation of the different components, and the Differential Fourier Transform Spectrometer (DFTS) allows us to extract efficiently the SZ and CMB anisotropy from contaminating foregrounds.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Dec 2014
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    Conference Paper: The OLIMPO Experiment
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The OLIMPO experiment is a balloon borne millimetric wavelengths telescope, built to measure the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect (SZ) in clusters of galaxies during a long duration flight. The measurements are carried out, during the approximate two weeks flight in the stratosphere in four frequency bands centered respectively at 150, 220, 350 and 480GHz, coupled to the 2.6 meters Cassegrain telescope with a resolution respectively of 4.2', 2.9', 1.8' and 1.8'. In order to better disentangle the extragalactic signal from always possible foregrounds contaminations, we added to photometric measurements planned also the spectroscopic ability, which is achieved by means of a differential Fourier transform spectrometer. The experiment is ready to be flown from Svalbard islands in a circumpolar summer season long duration flight at about 40km of altitude. Here we describe the instrument, focusing on the low frequency detection chain. Science OLIMPO will produce an SZ spectroscopic survey of about 40 clusters and high resolution maps of CMB anisotropy in selected areas, to measure the damping tail of the power spectrum of CMB anisotropy at multipoles up to l ~ 4000. High galactic latitude sky regions feature mainly primary anisotropy (CMB), SZ in clusters of galaxies, and the far infrared background from distant galaxies (CIB) and unresolved AGNs. These measurements will complement at higher frequency and similar resolution the measurements carried out by ground based telescopes at 150 GHz, thus investigating better the nature of the detected aniso-tropy at small angular scales. Above 200 GHz, cirrus clouds in the interstellar medium are present even in the cleanest parts of the sky at high galactic latitudes. The bands of OLIMPO were optimized for optimal separation of the different components, and the Differential Fourier Transform Spectrometer (DFTS) allows us to extract efficiently the SZ and CMB anisotropy from contaminating foregrounds.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Dec 2014
  • G. Che · S. Bryan · P. Mauskopf · M. Underhill · H. Mani · C. Groppi
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    ABSTRACT: We present the design concept and our latest simulation results for a novel low (R∼100) to moderate (R∼1000) resolution multi-pixel direct detection spectrometer operating at millimeter (mm) and submillimeter (submm) wavelengths. This design implements a transmission line filter bank using rectangular waveguide resonant cavities as a series of frequency filters, each terminated by a lumped-element kinetic inductance detector (LEKID).
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich (tSZ) effect is expected to provide a low scatter mass proxy for galaxy clusters since it is directly proportional to the cluster thermal energy. tSZ observations have proven to be a powerful tool to detect and study them but high angular resolution observations are now necessary to push their investigation at higher redshift. In this paper, we report high angular (< 20 arcsec) resolution tSZ observations of the high-redshift cluster CLJ1226.9+3332 (z=0.89). It was imaged at 150 and 260 GHz using the NIKA camera at the IRAM 30-meter telescope. The 150 GHz map shows that CLJ1226.9+3332 is morphologically relaxed on large scales with evidence of a disturbed core, while the 260 GHz channel is used mostly to identify point source contamination. NIKA data are combined with those of Planck and X-ray from Chandra to infer the cluster radial pressure, density, temperature and entropy distributions. The total mass profile of the cluster is derived, and we find $M_{500} = 5.96^{+1.02}_{-0.79} $ x $10^{14} M_{\odot}$ within the radius $R_{500} = 930^{+50}_{-43}$ kpc, at 68% confidence level ($R_{500}$ is the radius within which the average density is 500 times the critical density at the cluster's redshift). NIKA is the prototype camera of NIKA2, a KIDs (Kinetic Inductance Detectors) based instrument to be installed at the end of 2015. This work is, therefore, part of a pilot study aiming at optimizing tSZ NIKA2 large programs.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: High resolution observations of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect are necessary to allow the use of clusters of galaxies as a probe for large scale structures at high redshifts. With its high resolution and dual-band capability at millimeter wavelengths, the NIKA camera can play a significant role in this context. NIKA is based on newly developed Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) and operates at the IRAM 30m telescope, Pico Veleta, Spain. In this paper, we give the status of the NIKA camera, focussing on the KID technology. We then present observations of three galaxy clusters: RX J1347.5-1145 as a demonstrator of the NIKA capabilities and the recent observations of CL J1226.9+3332 (z = 0.89) and MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55). We also discuss prospects for the final NIKA2 camera, which will have a 6.5 arcminute field of view with about 5000 detectors in two bands at 150 and 260 GHz.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The New IRAM KID Array (NIKA) is a dual-band camera operating with frequency multiplexed arrays of Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKIDs) cooled to 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the intensity and polarisation of the sky at 1.25 and 2.14 mm from the IRAM 30 m telescope. We present the improvements on the control of systematic effects and astrophysical results made during the last observation campaigns between 2012 and 2014.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: SuperSpec is a novel on-chip spectrometer we are developing for multi-object, moderate resolution (R = 100 − 500), large bandwidth (~1.65:1) submillimeter and millimeter survey spectroscopy of high-redshift galaxies. The spectrometer employs a filter bank architecture, and consists of a series of half-wave resonators formed by lithographically-patterned superconducting transmission lines. The signal power admitted by each resonator is detected by a lumped element titanium nitride (TiN) kinetic inductance detector (KID) operating at 100 – 200 MHz. We have tested a new prototype device that is more sensitive than previous devices, and easier to fabricate. We present a characterization of a representative R = 282 channel at f = 236 GHz, including measurements of the spectrometer detection efficiency, the detector responsivity over a large range of optical loading, and the full system optical efficiency. We outline future improvements to the current system that we expect will enable construction of a photon-noise-limited R = 100 filter bank, appropriate for a line intensity mapping experiment targeting the [CII] 158 μm transition during the Epoch of Reionization.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We are developing arrays of kinetic inductance detectors for sub-millimeter polarimetry that will be deployed on the BLAST balloon-borne instrument. The array is feedhorn-coupled, and each pixel contains two lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) made of TiN. The absorbing, inductive sections of the LEKID-pair are orthogonal, which allows simultaneous measurement of both horizontal and vertical polarizations within one spatial pixel. In this paper, we show efficient absorption in TiN films when coupled to waveguide at room temperature and present dark measurements of single polarization devices with varying capacitor geometries. We show that it will be difficult to achieve background-limited performance in BLAST with stoichiometric TiN films with T \(_{c}=4.5\) K, and that non-stoichiometric films with lower T \(_{c}\) will be required.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background (CMB) studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated twenty-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the noise-equivalent temperatures (NET) for a 4 K optical load are in the range 26$\thinspace\pm6 \thinspace \mu \mbox{K} \sqrt{\mbox{s}}$.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Review of Scientific Instruments
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a feasibility study, which examined deployment of a ground-based millimeter-wave polarimeter, tailored for observing the cosmic microwave background (CMB), to Isi Station in Greenland. The instrument for this study is based on lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) and an F/2.4 catoptric, crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture. The telescope is mounted inside the receiver and cooled to $<\,4$ K by a closed-cycle $^4$He refrigerator to reduce background loading on the detectors. Linearly polarized signals from the sky are modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is rotated at the aperture stop of the telescope with a hollow-shaft motor based on a superconducting magnetic bearing. The modular detector array design includes at least 2300 LEKIDs, and it can be configured for spectral bands centered on 150~GHz or greater. Our study considered configurations for observing in spectral bands centered on 150, 210 and 267~GHz. The entire polarimeter is mounted on a commercial precision rotary air bearing, which allows fast azimuth scan speeds with negligible vibration and mechanical wear over time. A slip ring provides power to the instrument, enabling circular scans (360 degrees of continuous rotation). This mount, when combined with sky rotation and the latitude of the observation site, produces a hypotrochoid scan pattern, which yields excellent cross-linking and enables 34\% of the sky to be observed using a range of constant elevation scans. This scan pattern and sky coverage combined with the beam size (15~arcmin at 150~GHz) makes the instrument sensitive to $5 < \ell < 1000$ in the angular power spectra.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The New IRAM KID Array (NIKA) instrument is a dual-band imaging camera operating with Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) cooled at 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the sky at wavelengths of 1.25 and 2.14 mm from the IRAM 30m telescope at Pico Veleta with an estimated resolution of 13 arcsec and 18 arcsec respectively. This work presents the performance of the NIKA camera prior to its opening to the astrophysical community as an IRAM common user facility in early 2014. NIKA is a test-bench for the final NIKA2 instrument to be installed at the end of 2015. The last NIKA observation campaigns on November 2012 and June 2013 have been used to evaluate this performance and to improve the control of systematic effects. We discuss here the dynamical tuning of the readout electronics to optimize the KID working point with respect to background changes and the new technique of atmospheric absorption correction. These modifications improve significantly the overall linearity, sensitivity and absolute calibration performance of NIKA. This is proved on observations of point-like sources for which we obtain a best sensitivity (averaged over all valid detectors) of 40 and 14 mJy.s^1/2 for optimal weather conditions for the 1.25 and 2.14 mm arrays, respectively. NIKA observations of well known extended sources (DR21 complex and the Horsehead nebula) are presented. This performance makes the NIKA camera a competitive astrophysical instrument.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: SuperSpec is an ultra-compact spectrometer-on-a-chip for mm and submm wavelength astronomy. Its very small size, wide spectral bandwidth, and highly multiplexed detector readout will enable construction of powerful multi-object spectrometers for observations of galaxies at high redshift. SuperSpec is a filter bank with planar, lithographed, superconducting transmission line resonator filters and lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors made from Titanium Nitride. We have built an 81 detector prototype that operates in the 195-310 GHz band. The prototype has a wide-band metal feed horn with a transition to microstrip that feeds the filter bank. The prototype has demonstrated optical filter bank channels with a range of resolving powers from 300 to 700, measured fractional frequency noise of 10^{-17} Hz^{-1} at 1 Hz.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Low Temperature Physics

Publication Stats

1k Citations
169.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • The University of Arizona
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2013-2015
    • Arizona State University
      • Department of Physics
      Tempe, Arizona, United States
  • 2002-2014
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2010-2012
    • University of South Wales
      Понтиприте, Wales, United Kingdom
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Physics and Astronomy
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      • Facultad de Física
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2001
    • University of Wales
      • Department of Physics
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1992
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, CA, United States