Richard G. Bower

Durham University, Durham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (304)1186.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present first results from the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) Redshift One Spectroscopic Survey, an ongoing large kinematical survey of a thousand, z ∼ 1 star-forming galaxies, with VLT KMOS. Out of the targeted galaxies (∼500 so far), we detect and spatially resolve Hα emission in ∼90 and 77 per cent of the sample, respectively. Based on the integrated Hα flux measurements and the spatially resolved maps, we derive a median star formation rate (SFR) of ∼7.0 M⊙ yr−1 and a median physical size of 〈$r^{\prime }_{\rm 1/2}$〉 = 5.1 kpc. We combine the inferred SFRs and effective radii measurements to derive the star formation surface densities (ΣSFR) and present a ‘resolved’ version of the star formation main sequence (MS) that appears to hold at subgalactic scales, with similar slope and scatter as the one inferred from galaxy-integrated properties. Our data also yield a trend between ΣSFR and Δ(sSFR) (distance from the MS) suggesting that galaxies with higher sSFR are characterized by denser star formation activity. Similarly, we find evidence for an anticorrelation between the gas phase metallicity (Z) and the Δ(sSFR), suggesting a 0.2 dex variation in the metal content of galaxies within the MS and significantly lower metallicities for galaxies above it. The origin of the observed trends between ΣSFR–Δ(sSFR) and Z–Δ(sSFR) could be driven by an interplay between variations of the gas fraction or the star formation efficiency of the galaxies along and off the MS. To address this, follow-up observations of our sample that will allow gas mass estimates are necessary.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The KMOS Redshift One Spectroscopic Survey (KROSS) is an ESO-guaranteed time survey of 795 typical star-forming galaxies in the redshift range z = 0.8–1.0 with the KMOS instrument on the Very Large Telescope. In this paper, we present resolved kinematics and star formation rates for 584 z ∼ 1 galaxies. This constitutes the largest near-infrared Integral Field Unit survey of galaxies at z ∼ 1 to date. We demonstrate the success of our selection criteria with 90 per cent of our targets found to be H α emitters, of which 81 per cent are spatially resolved. The fraction of the resolved KROSS sample with dynamics dominated by ordered rotation is found to be 83 ± 5 per cent. However, when compared with local samples these are turbulent discs with high gas to baryonic mass fractions, ∼35 per cent, and the majority are consistent with being marginally unstable (Toomre Q ∼ 1). There is no strong correlation between galaxy averaged velocity dispersion and the total star formation rate, suggesting that feedback from star formation is not the origin of the elevated turbulence. We postulate that it is the ubiquity of high (likely molecular) gas fractions and the associated gravitational instabilities that drive the elevated star formation rates in these typical z ∼ 1 galaxies, leading to the 10-fold enhanced star formation rate density. Finally, by comparing the gas masses obtained from inverting the star formation law with the dynamical and stellar masses, we infer an average dark matter to total mass fraction within 2.2re (9.5 kpc) of 65 ± 12 per cent, in agreement with the results from hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen in the Universe was (re)ionised between redshifts $z \approx 10$ and $z \approx 6$. The nature of the sources of the ionising radiation is hotly debated, with faint galaxies currently below the detection limit regarded as prime candidates. Here we consider a scenario in which ionising photons escape through channels punctured in the interstellar medium by outflows powered by starbursts. We take account of the observation that strong outflows occur only when the star formation density is sufficiently high, and estimate the galaxy-averaged escape fraction as a function of redshift and luminosity from the resolved star formation surface densities in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. We find that the fraction of ionising photons that escape from galaxies increases rapidly with redshift, reaching values of 5-20 percent at $z > 6$, with the brighter galaxies having higher escape fractions. Combining the dependence of escape fraction on luminosity and redshift with the observed luminosity function, we demonstrate that galaxies emit enough ionising photons to match the existing constraints on reionisation while also matching the observed UV-background post-reionisation. Our findings suggest that galaxies above the current Hubble Space Telescope detection limit emit half of the ionising radiation required to reionise the Universe.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the co-evolution of the specific angular momentum of dark matter haloes and the cold baryons that comprise the galaxies within. We study over two thousand central galaxies within the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) project. We employ a methodology within which the evolutionary history of a system is specified by the time-evolving properties of the Lagrangian particles that define it at z=0. We find a strong correlation between the evolution of the specific angular momentum of today's stars (cold gas) and that of the inner (whole) dark matter halo they are associated with. This link is particularly strong for the stars formed before the epoch of maximum expansion and subsequent collapse of the central dark matter halo (turnaround). Spheroids are typically assembled primarily from stars formed prior to turnaround, and are therefore destined to suffer a net loss of angular momentum associated with the strong merging activity during the assembly of the inner dark matter halo. Stellar discs retain their specific angular momentum since they are comprised of stars formed mainly after turnaround, from gas that mostly preserves the high specific angular momentum it acquired by tidal torques during the linear growth of the halo. Since the specific angular momentum loss of the stars is tied to the galaxy's morphology today, it may be possible to use our results to predict, statistically, the assembly history of a halo given the morphology of the galaxy it hosts.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We compare global predictions from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation, and two semi-analytic (SA) models of galaxy formation, L-GALAXIES and GALFORM. All three models include the key physical processes considered to be essential for the formation and evolution of galaxies and their parameters are calibrated against a small number of observables at $z\approx 0$. The two SA models have been applied to merger trees constructed from the EAGLE dark matter only simulation. GALFORM has been run with two prescriptions for the ram pressure stripping of hot gas from satellites: instantaneous or gradual stripping. We find that at $z\leq 2$, both the galaxy stellar mass functions for stellar masses $M_{*} < 10^{10.5} {\rm M}_{\odot}$ and the median specific star formation rates (sSFRs) in the three models agree to better than 0.4 dex. The evolution of the sSFR predicted by the three models closely follows the mass assembly history of dark matter haloes. Where we do find interesting differences we vary model parameters or select subsets of galaxies to determine the main cause of the difference. In both EAGLE and L-GALAXIES there are more central passive galaxies with $M_{*} < 10^{9.5} {\rm M}_{\odot}$ than in GALFORM. This difference is related to galaxies that have entered and then left a larger halo and which are treated as satellites in GALFORM. In the range 0<z<1, the slope of the evolution of the star formation rate density in EAGLE is a factor of $\approx 1.5$ steeper than for the two SA models. The median sizes for galaxies with $M_{*} > 10^{9.5} {\rm M}_{\odot}$ differ in some instances by an order of magnitude, while the stellar mass-size relation in EAGLE is a factor of $\approx 2$ tighter than for the two SA models. Our results suggest the need for a revision of the galactic wind treatment in SA models and of the effect that the baryonic self-gravity has on the underlying dark matter.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of galaxies in groups and clusters at 0.8 < z < 1.2, from the GCLASS and GEEC2 spectroscopic surveys. We compute a ‘conversion fraction’ fconvert that represents the fraction of galaxies that were prematurely quenched by their environment. For massive galaxies, Mstar > 1010.3 M⊙, we find fconvert ∼ 0.4 in the groups and ∼0.6 in the clusters, similar to comparable measurements at z = 0. This means the time between first accretion into a more massive halo and final star formation quenching is tp ∼ 2 Gyr. This is substantially longer than the estimated time required for a galaxy's star formation rate to become zero once it starts to decline, suggesting there is a long delay time during which little differential evolution occurs. In contrast with local observations we find evidence that this delay time-scale may depend on stellar mass, with tp approaching tHubble for Mstar ∼ 109.5 M⊙. The result suggests that the delay time must not only be much shorter than it is today, but may also depend on stellar mass in a way that is not consistent with a simple evolution in proportion to the dynamical time. Instead, we find the data are well-matched by a model in which the decline in star formation is due to ‘overconsumption’, the exhaustion of a gas reservoir through star formation and expulsion via modest outflows in the absence of cosmological accretion. Dynamical gas removal processes, which are likely dominant in quenching newly accreted satellites today, may play only a secondary role at z = 1.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We compare the mass and internal distribution of atomic hydrogen (H i) in 2200 present-day central galaxies with Mstar > 1010 M⊙ from the 100 Mpc EAGLE ‘Reference’ simulation to observational data. Atomic hydrogen fractions are corrected for self-shielding using a fitting formula from radiative transfer simulations and for the presence of molecular hydrogen using an empirical or a theoretical prescription from the literature. The resulting neutral hydrogen fractions, $M_{\rm H\,{\small I}+H_2} / M_{\rm star}$, agree with observations to better than 0.1 dex for galaxies with Mstar between 1010 and 1011 M⊙. Our fiducial, empirical H2 model based on gas pressure results in galactic H i mass fractions, $M_{\rm H\,\small {i}}/ M_{\rm star}$, that agree with observations from the GASS survey to better than 0.3 dex, but the alternative theoretical H2 formula from high-resolution simulations leads to a negative offset in $M_{\rm H\,\small {i}}/ M_{\rm star}$ of up to 0.5 dex. Visual inspection of mock H i images reveals that most H i discs in simulated H i-rich galaxies are vertically disturbed, plausibly due to recent accretion events. Many galaxies (up to 80 per cent) contain spuriously large H i holes, which are likely formed as a consequence of the feedback implementation in EAGLE. The H i mass–size relation of all simulated galaxies is close to (but 16 per cent steeper than) observed, and when only galaxies without large holes in the H i disc are considered, the agreement becomes excellent (better than 0.1 dex). The presence of large H i holes also makes the radial H i surface density profiles somewhat too low in the centre, at $\Sigma _{\rm H\,\small {i}} \gt 1 \,\mathrm{M}_{\odot }\, {\rm pc}^{-2}$ (by a factor of ≲ 2 compared to data from the Bluedisk survey). In the outer region ($\Sigma _{\rm H\,\small {i}} < 1 \,\mathrm{M}_{\odot }\, {\rm pc}^{-2}$), the simulated profiles agree quantitatively with observations. Scaled by H i size, the simulated profiles of H i-rich ($M_{\rm H\,\small {i}}> 10^{9.8} \,\mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) and control galaxies ($10^{9.1}\, \,\mathrm{M}_{\odot }> M_{\rm H\,\small {i}}> 10^{9.8}\, \,\mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) follow each other closely, as observed.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The Local Group of galaxies offer some of the most discriminating tests of models of cosmic structure formation. For example, observations of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda satellite populations appear to be in disagreement with N-body simulations of the "Lambda Cold Dark Matter" ({\Lambda}CDM) model: there are far fewer satellite galaxies than substructures in cold dark matter halos (the "missing satellites" problem); dwarf galaxies seem to avoid the most massive substructures (the "too-big-to-fail" problem); and the brightest satellites appear to orbit their host galaxies on a thin plane (the "planes of satellites" problem). Here we present results from APOSTLE (A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment), a suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of twelve volumes selected to match the kinematics of the Local Group (LG) members. Applying the Eagle code to the LG environment, we find that our simulations match the observed abundance of LG galaxies, including the satellite galaxies of the MW and Andromeda. Due to changes to the structure of halos and the evolution in the LG environment, the simulations reproduce the observed relation between stellar mass and velocity dispersion of individual dwarf spheroidal galaxies without necessitating the formation of cores in their dark matter profiles. Satellite systems form with a range of spatial anisotropies, including one similar to that of the MW, confirming that such a configuration is not unexpected in {\Lambda}CDM. Finally, based on the observed velocity dispersion, size, and stellar mass, we provide new estimates of the maximum circular velocity for the halos of nine MW dwarf spheroidals.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first results from the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) AGN (active galactic nuclei) Survey at High redshift (KASHz), a VLT/KMOS integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) survey of z ≳ 0.6 AGN. We present galaxy-integrated spectra of 89 X-ray AGN (L2–10 keV = 1042–1045 erg s−1), for which we observed [O iii] (z ≈ 1.1–1.7) or Hα emission (z ≈ 0.6–1.1). The targets have X-ray luminosities representative of the parent AGN population and we explore the emission-line luminosities as a function of X-ray luminosity. For the [O iii] targets, ≈50 per cent have ionized gas velocities indicative of gas that is dominated by outflows and/or highly turbulent material (i.e. overall line widths ≳600 km s−1). The most luminous half (i.e. LX > 6 × 1043 erg s−1) have a ≳2 times higher incidence of such velocities. On the basis of our results, we find no evidence that X-ray obscured AGN are more likely to host extreme kinematics than unobscured AGN. Our KASHz sample has a distribution of gas velocities that is consistent with a luminosity-matched sample of z < 0.4 AGN. This implies little evolution in the prevalence of ionized outflows, for a fixed AGN luminosity, despite an order-of-magnitude decrease in average star formation rates over this redshift range. Furthermore, we compare our Hα targets to a redshift-matched sample of star-forming galaxies and despite a similar distribution of Hα luminosities and likely star formation rates, we find extreme ionized gas velocities are up to ≈10 times more prevalent in the AGN-host galaxies. Our results reveal a high prevalence of extreme ionized gas velocities in high-luminosity X-ray AGN and imply that the most powerful ionized outflows in high-redshift galaxies are driven by AGN activity.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate correlations between different physical properties of star-forming galaxies in the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulation suite over the redshift range $0\le z\le 4.5$. A principal component analysis reveals that neutral gas fraction ($f_{\rm gas, neutral}$), stellar mass ($M_{\rm stellar}$) and star formation rate (SFR) account for most of the variance seen in the population, with galaxies tracing a two-dimensional, nearly flat, surface in the three-dimensional space of $f_{\rm gas, neutral}-M_{\rm stellar}-\rm SFR$ with little scatter. The location of this plane varies little with redshift, whereas galaxies themselves move along the plane as their $f_{\rm gas, neutral}$ and SFR drop with redshift. The positions of galaxies along the plane are highly correlated with gas metallicity. The metallicity can therefore be robustly predicted from $f_{\rm gas, neutral}$, or from the $M_{\rm stellar}$ and SFR. We argue that the appearance of this "fundamental plane of star formation" is a consequence of self-regulation, with the plane's curvature set by the dependence of the SFR on gas density and metallicity. We analyse a large compilation of observations spanning the redshift range $0\lesssim \rm z\lesssim 2.5$, and find that such a plane is also present in the data. The properties of the observed fundamental plane of star formation are in good agreement with EAGLE's predictions.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the evolution of galaxy sizes, from redshift 2 to 0, for actively star forming and passive galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamical 1003 cMpc3 simulation of the EAGLE project. We find that the sizes increase with stellar mass , but that the relation weakens with increasing redshift. Separating galaxies by their star formation activity, we find that passive galaxies are typically smaller than active galaxies at fixed stellar mass. These trends are consistent with those found in observations and the level of agreement between the predicted and observed size - mass relation is of order 0.1 dex for z < 1 and 0.2-0.3 dex from redshift 1 to 2. We use the simulation to compare the evolution of individual galaxies to that of the population as a whole. While the evolution of the size-stellar mass relation for active galaxies provides a good proxy for the evolution of individual galaxies, the evolution of individual passive galaxies is not well represented by the observed size - mass relation due to the evolving number density of passive galaxies. Observations of z \approx 2 galaxies have revealed an abundance of massive red compact galaxies, that depletes below z \approx 1. We find that a similar population forms naturally in the simulation. Comparing these galaxies to their z = 0 descendants, we find that all compact galaxies grow in size due to the high-redshift stars migrating outwards. Approximately 60% of the compact galaxies increase in size further due to renewed star formation and/or mergers.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the public data release of halo and galaxy catalogues extracted from the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation. These simulations were performed with an enhanced version of the GADGET code that includes a modified hydrodynamics solver, time-step limiter and subgrid treatments of baryonic physics, such as stellar mass loss, element-by-element radiative cooling, star formation and feedback from star formation and black hole accretion. The simulation suite includes runs performed in volumes ranging from 25 to 100 comoving megaparsecs per side, with numerical resolution chosen to marginally resolve the Jeans mass of the gas at the star formation threshold. The free parameters of the subgrid models for feedback are calibrated to the redshift z=0 galaxy stellar mass function, galaxy sizes and black hole mass - stellar mass relation. The simulations have been shown to match a wide range of observations for present-day and higher-redshift galaxies. The raw particle data have been used to link galaxies across redshifts by creating merger trees. The indexing of the tree produces a simple way to connect a galaxy at one redshift to its progenitors at higher redshift and to identify its descendants at lower redshift. In this paper we present a relational database which we are making available for general use. A large number of properties of haloes and galaxies and their merger trees are stored in the database, including stellar masses, star formation rates, metallicities, photometric measurements and mock gri images. Complex queries can be created to explore the evolution of more than 10^5 galaxies, examples of which are provided in appendix. (abridged)
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new version of the GALFORM semi-analytical model of galaxy formation. This brings together several previous developments of GALFORM into a single unified model, including a different initial mass function (IMF) in quiescent star formation and in starbursts, feedback from active galactic nuclei supressing gas cooling in massive halos, and a new empirical star formation law in galaxy disks based on their molecular gas content. In addition, we have updated the cosmology, introduced a more accurate treatment of dynamical friction acting on satellite galaxies, and updated the stellar population model. The new model is able to simultaneously explain both the observed evolution of the K-band luminosity function and stellar mass function, and the number counts and redshift distribution of sub-mm galaxies selected at 850 mu. This was not previously achieved by a single physical model within the LambdaCDM framework, but requires having an IMF in starbursts that is somewhat top-heavy. The new model is tested against a wide variety of observational data covering wavelengths from the far-UV to sub-mm, and redshifts from z=0 to z=6, and is found to be generally successful. These observations include the optical and near-IR luminosity functions, HI mass function, Tully-Fisher relation, fraction of early type galaxies, metallicity-luminosity relation and size-luminosity relation at z=0, as well as far-IR number counts, and far-UV luminosity functions at z ~ 3-6. [abridged]
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a subset of simulations from the ‘Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments’ (eagle) suite in which the formulation of the hydrodynamics scheme is varied. We compare simulations that use the same subgrid models without recalibration of the parameters but employing the standard gadget flavour of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) instead of the more recent state-of-the-art anarchy formulation of SPH that was used in the fiducial eagle runs. We find that the properties of most galaxies, including their masses and sizes, are not significantly affected by the details of the hydrodynamics solver. However, the star formation rates of the most massive objects are affected by the lack of phase mixing due to spurious surface tension in the simulation using standard SPH. This affects the efficiency with which AGN activity can quench star formation in these galaxies and it also leads to differences in the intragroup medium that affect the X-ray emission from these objects. The differences that can be attributed to the hydrodynamics solver are, however, likely to be less important at lower resolution. We also find that the use of a time-step limiter is important for achieving the feedback efficiency required to match observations of the low-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We use cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations from the EAGLE and OWLS projects to assess the significance of recycled stellar ejecta as fuel for star formation. The fractional contributions of stellar mass loss to the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass densities increase with time, reaching $35 \%$ and $19 \%$, respectively, at $z=0$. The importance of recycling increases steeply with galaxy stellar mass for $M_{\ast} < 10^{10.5}$ M$_{\odot}$, and decreases mildly at higher mass. This trend arises from the mass dependence of feedback associated with star formation and AGN, which preferentially suppresses star formation fuelled by recycling. Recycling is more important for satellites than centrals and its contribution decreases with galactocentric radius. The relative contribution of AGB stars increases with time and towards galaxy centers. This is a consequence of the more gradual release of AGB ejecta compared to that of massive stars, and the preferential removal of the latter by outflows and by lock up in stellar remnants. Recycling-fuelled star formation exhibits a tight, positive correlation with galaxy metallicity, with a secondary dependence on the relative abundance of alpha elements (which are predominantly synthesized in massive stars), that is insensitive to the subgrid models for feedback. Hence, our conclusions are directly relevant for the origin of the mass-metallicity relation and metallicity gradients. Applying the relation between recycling and metallicity to the observed mass-metallicity relation yields our best estimate of the mass-dependent contribution of recycling. For centrals with a mass similar to that of the Milky Way, we infer the contributions of recycled stellar ejecta to the SFR and stellar mass to be $35 \%$ and $20 \%$, respectively.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We report results for the alignments of galaxies in the EAGLE and cosmo-OWLS hydrodynamical cosmological simulations as a function of galaxy separation (−1 ≤ log10(r/[ h−1 Mpc]) ≤ 2) and halo mass (10.7 ≤ log10(M200/[h−1 M⊙]) ≤ 15). We focus on two classes of alignments: the orientations of galaxies with respect to either the directions to, or the orientations of, surrounding galaxies. We find that the strength of the alignment is a strongly decreasing function of the distance between galaxies. For galaxies hosted by the most massive haloes in our simulations the alignment can remain significant up to ∼100 Mpc. Galaxies hosted by more massive haloes show stronger alignment. At a fixed halo mass, more aspherical or prolate galaxies exhibit stronger alignments. The spatial distribution of satellites is anisotropic and significantly aligned with the major axis of the main host halo. The major axes of satellite galaxies, when all stars are considered, are preferentially aligned towards the centre of the main host halo. The predicted projected direction–orientation alignment, ϵg+(rp), is in broad agreement with recent observations. We find that the orientation–orientation alignment is weaker than the orientation–direction alignment on all scales. Overall, the strength of galaxy alignments depends strongly on the subset of stars that are used to measure the orientations of galaxies and it is always weaker than the alignment of dark matter haloes. Thus, alignment models that use halo orientation as a direct proxy for galaxy orientation overestimate the impact of intrinsic galaxy alignments.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the internal structure and density profiles of haloes of mass 1010-1014 M⊙ in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These follow the formation of galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter Universe and include a treatment of the baryon physics thought to be relevant. The EAGLE simulations reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function, as well as many other properties of the galaxy population as a function of time. We find significant differences between the masses of haloes in the EAGLE simulations and in simulations that follow only the dark matter component. Nevertheless, haloes are well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White density profile at radii larger than ∼5 per cent of the virial radius but, closer to the centre, the presence of stars can produce cuspier profiles. Central enhancements in the total mass profile are most important in haloes of mass 1012-1013 M⊙, where the stellar fraction peaks. Over the radial range where they are well resolved, the resulting galaxy rotation curves are in very good agreement with observational data for galaxies with stellar mass M* < 5 × 1010 M⊙. We present an empirical fitting function that describes the total mass profiles and show that its parameters are strongly correlated with halo mass.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We use the ‘Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments’ (eagle) suite of hydrodynamical cosmological simulations to measure offsets between the centres of stellar and dark matter components of galaxies. We find that the vast majority (>95 per cent) of the simulated galaxies display an offset smaller than the gravitational softening length of the simulations (Plummer-equivalent ϵ = 700 pc), both for field galaxies and satellites in clusters and groups. We also find no systematic trailing or leading of the dark matter along a galaxy's direction of motion. The offsets are consistent with being randomly drawn from a Maxwellian distribution with σ ≤ 196 pc. Since astrophysical effects produce no feasible analogues for the $1.62^{+0.47}_{-0.49}$ kpc offset recently observed in Abell 3827, the observational result is in tension with the collisionless cold dark matter model assumed in our simulations.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We present a comparison of 14 galaxy formation models: 12 different semi-analytical models and 2 halo occupation distribution models for galaxy formation based upon the same cosmological simulation and merger tree information derived from it. The participating codes have proven to be very successful in their own right but they have all been calibrated independently using various observational data sets, stellar models, and merger trees. In this paper, we apply them without recalibration and this leads to a wide variety of predictions for the stellar mass function, specific star formation rates, stellar-to-halo mass ratios, and the abundance of orphan galaxies. The scatter is much larger than seen in previous comparison studies primarily because the codes have been used outside of their native environment within which they are well tested and calibrated. The purpose of the ‘nIFTy comparison of galaxy formation models’ is to bring together as many different galaxy formation modellers as possible and to investigate a common approach to model calibration. This paper provides a unified description for all participating models and presents the initial, uncalibrated comparison as a baseline for our future studies where we will develop a common calibration framework and address the extent to which that reduces the scatter in the model predictions seen here.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We estimate the rate of dark matter scattering in collapsed structures throughout the history of the Universe. If the scattering cross-section is velocity-independent, then the canonical picture is correct that scatterings occur mainly at late times. The scattering rate peaks slightly at redshift z~6, and remains significant today. Half the scatterings occur after z~1, in structures more massive than 10^12 M_sun. Within a factor of two, these numbers are robust to changes in the assumed astrophysics, and the scatterings would be captured in cosmological simulations. However, for particle physics models with a velocity-dependent cross-section (as for Yukawa potential interactions via a massive mediator), the scattering rate peaks before z~20, in objects with mass less than 10^4 M_sun. These precise values are sensitive to the redshift-dependent mass-concentration relation and the small-scale cutoff in the matter power spectrum. In extreme cases, the qualitative effect of early interactions may be reminiscent of warm dark matter and strongly affect the subsequent growth of structure. However, these scatterings are being missed in existing cosmological simulations with limited mass resolution.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,186.70 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970-2015
    • Durham University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • WWF United Kingdom
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • University of Waterloo
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Università degli Studi di Trieste
      • Department of Physics
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 1999
    • University of Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1990
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      North Carolina, United States