[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The space flight environment is known to induce bone loss and, subsequently, calcium loss. The longer the mission, generally the more bone and calcium are lost. This review provides a history of bone and calcium studies related to space flight and highlights issues related to calcium excretion that the space program must consider so that urine can be recycled. It also discusses a novel technique using natural stable isotopes of calcium that will be helpful in the future to determine calcium and bone balance during space flight.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water is recovered aboard the International Space Station (ISS) from humidity condensate and treated urine. The product water is monitored for total organic carbon (TOC). In 2010 the TOC readings indicated that a new contaminant had entered the potable water and was steadily increasing toward the TOC screening limit of 3 mg x L(-1). In a ground-based laboratory, chemists discovered that dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) was the principal new contaminant. As no standard existed for safe levels of DMSD in water, the Toxicology Office at Johnson Space Center was asked to set such a standard.
The Toxicology Office used methods developed over the past decade, in collaboration with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology, for setting Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEGs). These methods require a thorough literature search and development of an acceptable concentration (AC) for each potential toxic effect, keeping in mind that the adverse effects that accompany spaceflight could increase toxicity for certain end points. Benchmark dose modeling was encouraged if sufficient data were available. The most sensitive AC becomes the driver for the SWEG.
Hematotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and possibly neurotoxicity were the most sensitive toxicological endpoints for DMSD.
The SWEG for DMSD for 100 d of ingestion was set at 35 mg x L(-1), which is equivalent to 9 mg x L(-1) as TOC. This is well above the TOC SWEG of 3 mg x L(-1) and the peak DMSD level of processed water observed on orbit, which was 2.2 mg x L(-1) asTOC (8.5 mg x L(-10 of DMSD).
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine