[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European and African contribution to the pre-existing Native American background has influenced the complex genetic pool of Colombia. Because colonisation was not homogeneous in this country, current populations are, therefore, expected to have different proportions of Native American, European and African ancestral contributions. The aim of this work was to examine 11 urban admixed populations and a Native American group, called Pastos, for 32 X chromosome indel markers to expand the current knowledge concerning the genetic background of Colombia. The results revealed a highly diverse genetic background comprising all admixed populations, harbouring important X chromosome contributions from all continental source populations. In addition, Colombia is genetically sub-structured, with different proportions of European and African influxes depending on the regions. The samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts have a high African ancestry, showing the highest levels of diversity. The sample from the South Andean region showed the lowest diversity and significantly higher proportion of Native American ancestry than the other samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts, Central-West and Central-East Andean regions, and the Orinoquian region. The results of admixture analysis using X-chromosomal markers suggest that the high proportion of African ancestry in the North Pacific coast was primarily male driven. These men have joined to females with higher Native American and European ancestry (likely resulting from a classic colonial asymmetric mating type: European male x Amerindian female). This high proportion of male-mediated African contributions is atypical of colonial settings, suggesting that the admixture occurred during a period when African people were no longer enslaved. In the remaining regions, the African contribution was primarily female-mediated, whereas the European counterpart was primarily male driven and the Native American ancestry contribution was not gender biased.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various strategies for analysing SNP markers and genotyping have been published with the goal of obtaining informative profiles from biological samples that contain only small amounts of template and/or degraded DNA. In this study, a multiplex assay of 52 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to analyse 438 individuals from urban populations from different regions of Colombia, as well as a sample of 50 Native American individuals of the Pastos ethnic group from Nariño. To determine if significant differences in these 52 SNPs exist between the distinct regions of Colombia, genetic distance and admixture analyses were performed based on the available data for 17 different Colombian population groups and for population groups from Africa, Europe and America. The results demonstrate significant differences between the populations from the Southwest Andean, Central-West Andean, Central-East Andean, Orinoquian and northern Colombian Pacific Coast regions. Most of the regions exhibited a European and Native American admixture. One exception is the population from the region of Chocó (on the northern Pacific Coast), which exhibits a high proportion of African admixture (54 %). From the observed genetic backgrounds, it is possible to conclude that a single reference database for the entire country would not be suitable for forensic purposes. The allele frequencies and the forensically relevant parameters were calculated for all of the markers in each Colombian region with significant values for the combined matching probability (power of discrimination ≥0.99999999999999990) and the combined probability of exclusion (≥0.9990) in trios that were obtained from all of the population groups.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orofacial clefts are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans, with the majority of orofacial clefts occurring as nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP). We previously demonstrated associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IRF6 gene and NSCLP in the Honduran population. Here we investigated other candidate genes and chromosomal regions associated with NSCLP identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including MAFB, ABCA4, 8q24, 9q22, 10q25, and 17q22 in two independent Hispanic populations.
Case-control and family-based association testing.
Honduran families with two or more members with NSCLP (multiplex) were identified. DNA was collected from affected and unaffected family members (488) and 99 gender-matched controls. NSCLP Colombian families were identified; DNA was collected from 26 proband-parent trios. All participants were genotyped for 17 SNPs in six chromosomal regions. Case-control association and family-based association testing (FBAT) analyses were conducted.
Seven SNPs demonstrated association in at least one model in the Honduran population. In the Colombian families, five SNPs demonstrated significance in FBAT when patients with isolated cleft palate (CP) were included; four overlapped with SNPs demonstrating significance in the Honduran population, two with the same allele. One SNP retained significance with CP excluded.
This study supports the previous GWAS findings and is the first to suggest a role for FOXE1, ABCA4, and MAFB in orofacial clefting in two separate Hispanic populations.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · The Laryngoscope