Hnin Hnin Aung

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (35)95.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Studies have suggested a link between the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) signaling cascade and the stress-inducible activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). We have demonstrated that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) lipolysis products activate MAP kinase stress associated JNK/c-Jun pathways resulting in up-regulation of ATF3, pro-inflammatory genes and induction of apoptosis in human aortic endothelial cells. Here we demonstrate increased release of active TGF-β at 15 min, phosphorylation of Smad2 and translocation of co-Smad4 from cytosol to nucleus after a 1.5 h treatment with lipolysis products. Activation and translocation of Smad2 and 4 was blocked by addition of SB431542 (10 μM), a specific inhibitor of TGF-β-activin receptor ALKs 4, 5, 7. Both ALK receptor inhibition and anti TGF-β1 antibody prevented lipolysis product induced up-regulation of ATF3 mRNA and protein. ALK inhibition prevented lipolysis product-induced nuclear accumulation of ATF3. ALKs 4, 5, 7 inhibition also prevented phosphorylation of c-Jun and TGRL lipolysis product-induced p53 and caspase-3 protein expression. These findings demonstrate that TGRL lipolysis products cause release of active TGF-β and lipolysis product-induced apoptosis is dependent on TGF-β signaling. Furthermore, signaling through the stress associated JNK/c-Jun pathway is dependent on TGF-β signaling suggesting that TGF-β signaling is necessary for nuclear accumulation of the ATF3/cJun transcription complex and induction of pro-inflammatory responses.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Previous studies indicated hyperlipidemia may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, but the contributions of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) are not known. In this study, changes in blood-brain barrier diffusional transport following exposure to human TGRL lipolysis products were studied using MRI in a rat model. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼180-250 g) received an i.v. injection of lipoprotein lipase (LpL)-hydrolyzed TGRL (n = 8, plasma concentration ≈ 150 mg human TGRL/dL). Controls received i.v. injection of either saline (n = 6) or LpL only (n = 6). The (1) H longitudinal relaxation rate R1 = 1/T1 was measured over 18 min using a rapid-acquired refocus-echo (RARE) sequence after each of three injections of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA. Patlak plots were generated for each pixel yielding blood-to-brain transfer coefficients, Ki , chosen for best fit to impermeable, uni-directional influx or bi-directional flux models using the F-test. Results: Analysis from a 2-mm slice, 2-mm rostral to the bregma showed a 275% increase of mean Ki during the first 20 min after infusion of human TGRL lipolysis product that differed significantly compared with saline and LpL controls. This difference disappeared by 40 min mark. Conclusion: These results suggest human TGRL lipolysis products can lead to a transient increase in rat BBB permeability. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP, physiologically important in the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory target genes. We compared the induction of ATF3 protein as measured by Western blot analysis with single-molecule localization microscopy dSTORM to quantify the dynamics of accumulation of intranuclear ATF3 of triglyceride-rich (TGRL) lipolysis product-treated HAEC(Human Aortic Endothelial Cells). The ATF3 expression rate within the first three hours after treatment with TGRL lipolysis products is about 3500/h. After three hours we detected 33,090 ± 3,491 single-molecule localizations of ATF3. This was accompanied by significant structural changes in the F-actin network of the cells at ~7-fold increased resolution compared to widefield microscopy after treatment. Additionally, we discovered a cluster size of approximately 384 nanometers of ATF3 molecules. We show for the first time the time course of ATF3 accumulation in the nucleus undergoing lipotoxic injury. Furthermore, we demonstrate ATF3 accumulation associated with increased concentrations of TGRL lipolysis products occurs in large aggregates.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
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    ABSTRACT: Background Neurovascular inflammation is associated with a number of neurological diseases including vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, which are increasingly important causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. Lipotoxicity is a metabolic disorder that results from accumulation of lipids, particularly fatty acids, in non-adipose tissue leading to cellular dysfunction, lipid droplet formation, and cell death. Results Our studies indicate for the first time that the neurovascular circulation also can manifest lipotoxicity, which could have major effects on cognitive function. The penetration of integrative systems biology approaches is limited in this area of research, which reduces our capacity to gain an objective insight into the signal transduction and regulation dynamics at a systems level. To address this question, we treated human microvascular endothelial cells with triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) lipolysis products and then we used genome-wide transcriptional profiling to obtain transcript abundances over four conditions. We then identified regulatory genes and their targets that have been differentially expressed through analysis of the datasets with various statistical methods. We created a functional gene network by exploiting co-expression observations through a guilt-by-association assumption. Concomitantly, we used various network inference algorithms to identify putative regulatory interactions and we integrated all predictions to construct a consensus gene regulatory network that is TGRL lipolysis product specific. Conclusion System biology analysis has led to the validation of putative lipid-related targets and the discovery of several genes that may be implicated in lipotoxic-related brain microvascular endothelial cell responses. Here, we report that activating transcription factors 3 (ATF3) is a principal regulator of TGRL lipolysis products-induced gene expression in human brain microvascular endothelial cell.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Systems Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) contributes to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Our work has shown that TGRL lipolysis products in high physiological to pathophysiological concentrations cause endothelial cell injury; however, the mechanisms remain to be delineated. We analyzed the transcriptional signaling networks in arterial endothelial cells exposed to TGRL lipolysis products. When human aortic endothelial cells in culture were exposed to TGRL lipolysis products, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was identified as a principal response gene. Induction of ATF3 mRNA and protein was confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that ATF3 accumulated in the nuclei of cells treated with lipolysis products. Nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), previously shown to be an initiator of the ATF3 signaling cascade, also was demonstrated. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibition of ATF3 blocked lipolysis products-induced transcription of E-selectin and interleukin-8, but not interleukin-6 or nuclear factor-κB. c-Jun, a downstream protein in the JNK pathway, was phosphorylated, whereas expression of nuclear factor-κB-dependent JunB was downregulated. Additionally, JNK siRNA suppressed ATF3 and p-c-Jun protein expression, suggesting that JNK is upstream of the ATF3 signaling pathway. In vivo studies demonstrated that infusion of TGRL lipolysis products into wild-type mice induced nuclear ATF3 accumulation in carotid artery endothelium. ATF3(-/-) mice were resistant to vascular apoptosis precipitated by treatment with TGRL lipolysis products. Also peripheral blood monocytes isolated from postprandial humans had increased ATF3 expression as compared with fasting monocytes. This study demonstrates that TGRL lipolysis products activate ATF3-JNK transcription factor networks and induce endothelial cells inflammatory response.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests a role for a systemic pro-coagulant state in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction subsequent to inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM). We evaluated platelet activation, systemic cytokines and pulmonary gene expression in mice exposed to concentrated ambient particulate matter (CAPs) in the summer of 2008 (S08) and winter of 2009 (W09) from the San Joaquin Valley of California, a region with severe PM pollution episodes. Additionally, we characterized the PM from both exposures including organic compounds, metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Mice were exposed to an average of 39.01 μg/m(3) of CAPs in the winter and 21.7 μg/m3 CAPs in the summer, in a size range less than 2.5 μm for 6 h/day for 5 days per week for 2 weeks. Platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry for relative size, shape, CD41, P-selectin and lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) expression. Platelets from W09 CAPs-exposed animals had a greater response to thrombin stimulation than platelets from S08 CAPs-exposed animals. Serum cytokines were analyzed by bead based immunologic assays. W09 CAPs-exposed mice had elevations in IL-2, MIP-1α, and TNFα. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) of pulmonary vasculature, parenchyma and airways all showed increases in CYP1a1 gene expression. Pulmonary vasculature showed increased expression of ICAM-1 and Nox-2. Our findings demonstrate that W09 CAPs exposure generated a greater systemic pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant response to inhalation of environmentally derived fine and ultrafine PM. Changes in platelet responsiveness to agonists, seen in both exposures, strongly suggests a role for platelet activation in the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of particulate air pollution.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Inhalation Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental particulate matter (PM) exposure has been correlated with pathogenesis of acute airway inflammatory disease such as asthma and COPD. PM size and concentration have been studied extensively, but the additional effects of particulate components such as biological material, transition metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could also impact initial disease pathogenesis. In this study, we compared urban ambient particulate matter (APM) collected from Fresno, California with wildfire (WF) particulate matter collected from Escalon, California on early transcriptional responses in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE). Global gene expression profiling of APM treated HBE activated genes related to xenobiotic metabolism (CYP 1B1), endogenous ROS generation and response genes (DUOX1, SOD2, PTGS2) and pro-inflammatory responses associated with asthma or COPD such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, and CCL20. WF PM treatments also induced a pro-inflammatory gene response, but elicited a more robust xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress response. Inhibitor studies targeting endotoxin, ROS, and trace metals, found endotoxin inhibition had modest selective inhibition of inflammation while inhibition of hydrogen peroxide and transition metals had broad effects suggesting additional interactions with xenobiotic metabolism pathways. APM induced a greater inflammatory response while WF PM had more marked metabolism and ROS related responses.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Toxicology in Vitro
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies associate exposure to ambient particulate matter (APM) with increased cardiovascular mortality. Since both pulmonary inflammation and systemic circulation of ultrafine particles are hypothesized as initiating cardiovascular effects, we examined responses of potential target cells in vitro. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to 10 μg/ml fine and ultrafine APM collected in an urban setting in summer 2006 or winter 2007 in the San Joaquin Valley, California. RNA isolated after 3 h was analyzed with high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Summer APM treatment affected genes involved in xenobiotic and oxidoreductase activity, transcription factors, and inflammatory responses in HAEC, while winter APM had a robust xenobiotic but lesser inflammatory response. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that particulate matter (PM)-treated HAEC increased mRNA levels of xenobiotic response enzymes CYP1A1, ALDH1A3, and TIPARP and cellular stress response transcription factor ATF3. Inflammatory response genes included E-selectin, PTGS2, CXCL-2 (MIP-2α), and CCL-2 (MCP-1). Multiplex protein assays showed secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 by HAEC. Since induction of CYP1A1 is mediated through the ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), we demonstrated APM induced AhR nuclear translocation by immunofluorescence and Western blotting and activation of the AhR response element using a luciferase reporter construct. Inhibitor studies suggest differential influences of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon signaling, ROS-mediated responses and endotoxin alter stress and proinflammatory endothelial cell responses. Our findings demonstrate gene responses correlated with current concepts that systemic inflammation drives cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution. We also demonstrate a unique pattern of gene responses related to xenobiotic metabolism in PM-exposed HAEC.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Physiological Genomics
  • Kit Fai Ng · Hnin Hnin Aung · John C Rutledge
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    ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia is implicated as a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Specifically triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their lipolysis products are shown to be proinflammatory and proapoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro studies with endothelium. However, the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the progression of kidney diseases is not clear. Epidemiology studies demonstrated a correlation between renal disease and blood lipids. Recent evidence suggests that the mechanism may involve cellular uptake of lipid and de novo lipogenesis. Further studies are needed to establish the relevance of these mechanistic studies in human pathophysiology.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Contributions to nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 2-aminofluorenes N-alkylated with nitroxides or their precursors were synthesized. The new compounds were tested on hydroxyl radical and peroxyl radical scavenging ability and inflammatory assay on the endothelial brain cells. In agreement with ROS scavenging ability the same compound 7-bromo-N -[(1-Oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-4yl)methyl]-9H-fluoren-2-amine (3b) and its hydroxylamine salt (3b/OH/HCl) showed the anti-inflammatory property on the endothelial brain cells.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A large body of evidence suggests that dyslipidemia has an important role in the progression of kidney disease in patients with diabetes. Lipids may induce renal injury by stimulating TGF-beta, thereby inducing the production of reactive oxygen species and causing damage to the glomeruli and glomerular glycocalyx. Findings from basic and clinical studies strongly suggest that excess amounts of a variety of lipoproteins and lipids worsens diabetes-associated microvascular and macrovascular disease, increases glomerular injury, increases tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and accelerates the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The increasing prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and diabetic nephropathy means that interventions that can interrupt the pathophysiological cascade of events induced by lipoproteins and lipids could enable major life and cost savings. This Review discusses the structural, cellular, and microscopic findings associated with diabetic nephropathy and the influence of lipoproteins, specifically triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs), on the development and perpetuation of diabetic nephropathy. Some of the accepted and hypothesized mechanisms of renal injury relating to TGRLs are also described.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Nature Reviews Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly, evidence suggests a role for a systemic procoagulant state in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction subsequent to inhalation of airborne particulate matter. The authors evaluated blood cell parameters and markers of platelet activation in mice exposed to concentrated ambient particulate matter (CAPs) from the San Joaquin Valley of California, a region with severe particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes. The authors exposed mice to an average of 88.5 microg/m(3) of CAPs in a size range less than 2.5 microm for 6 h/day for 5 days per week for 2 weeks. Platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry for relative size, shape, aggregation, fibrinogen binding, P-selectin, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) expression. Serum cytokines were analyzed by bead-based immunologic assays. CAPs-exposed mice had elevations in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-bb, and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normally T-expressed, and presumably secreted). Platelets were the only peripheral blood cells that were significantly elevated in number in CAPs-exposed mice. Flow cytometric analysis of unstimulated platelets from CAPs-exposed mice indicated size and shape changes, and platelets from CAPs-exposed animals had a 54% increase in fibrinogen binding indicative of platelet priming. Stimulation of platelets by thrombin resulted in up-regulation of LAMP-1 expression in CAPs-exposed animals and an increased microparticle population relative to control animals. These findings demonstrate a systemic proinflammatory and procoagulant response to inhalation of environmentally derived fine and ultrafine PM and suggests a role for platelet activation in the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of particulate air pollution.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Inhalation Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages are activated by IFN-gamma, a proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokine that mediates its downstream effects primarily through STAT1. IFN-gamma signaling induces phosphorylation of two STAT1 residues: Tyr(701) (Y701), which facilitates dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding; and Ser(727) (S727), which enables maximal STAT1 transcription activity. Immunosuppressive molecules such as adenosine in the cellular microenvironment can reduce macrophage inflammatory and atherogenic functions through receptor-mediated signaling pathways. We hypothesized that adenosine achieves these protective effects by interrupting IFN-gamma signaling in activated macrophages. This investigation demonstrates that adding adenosine to IFN-gamma-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 and human THP-1 macrophages results in unique modulation of STAT1 serine and tyrosine phosphorylation events. We show that adenosine inhibits IFN-gamma-induced STAT1 S727 phosphorylation by >30% and phosphoserine-mediated transcriptional activity by 58% but has no effect on phosphorylation of Y701 or receptor-associated JAK tyrosine kinases. Inhibition of the adenosine A(3) receptor with a subtype-specific antagonist (MRS 1191 in RAW 264.7 cells and MRS 1220 in THP-1 cells) reverses this adenosine suppressive effect on STAT1 phosphoserine status by 25-50%. Further, RAW 264.7 A(3) receptor stimulation with Cl-IB-MECA reduces IFN-gamma-induced STAT1 transcriptional activity by 45% and STAT1-dependent gene expression by up to 80%. These data suggest that A(3) receptor signaling is key to adenosine-mediated STAT1 modulation and anti-inflammatory action in IFN-gamma-activated mouse and human macrophages. Because STAT1 plays a key role in IFN-gamma-induced inflammation and foam cell transformation, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying STAT1 deactivation by adenosine may improve preventative and therapeutic approaches to vascular disease.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2009 · The Journal of Immunology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2009
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    ABSTRACT: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with either β-carotene (BC) or lycopene (LY) that were formulated for human consumption. Four weeks of dietary supplementations results in plasma and lung carotenoid (CAR) concentrations that approximated the levels detected in humans. Bioactivity of the CARs was determined by assaying their effects on the activity of the lung transcriptome (~8,500 mRNAs). Both CARs activated the cytochrome P450 1A1 gene but only BC induced the retinol dehydrogenase gene. The contrasting effects of the two CARs on the lung transcriptome were further uncovered in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 3days; only LY activated ~50 genes detected in the lungs of CS-exposed mice. These genes encoded inflammatory-immune proteins. Our data suggest that mice offer a viable in vivo model for studying bioactivities of dietary CARs and their modulatory effects on lung genomic expression in both health and after exposure to CS toxicants.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Genes & Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) lipolysis may provide a proinflammatory stimulus to endothelium. Detergent-resistant plasma membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) have a number of functions in endothelial cell inflammation. The mechanisms of TGRL lipolysis-induced endothelial cell injury were investigated by examining endothelial cell lipid rafts and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lipid raft microdomains in human aortic endothelial cells were visualized by confocal microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled cholera toxin B as a lipid raft marker. Incubation of Atto565-labeled TGRL with lipid raft-labeled endothelial cells showed that TGRL colocalized with the lipid rafts, TGRL lipolysis caused clustering and aggregation of lipid rafts, and colocalization of TGRL remnant particles on the endothelial cells aggregated lipid rafts. Furthermore, TGRL lipolysis caused translocation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and caveolin-1 from raft regions to nonraft regions of the membrane 3 h after treatment with TGRL lipolysis. TGRL lipolysis significantly increased the production of ROS in endothelial cells, and both NADPH oxidase and cytochrome P-450 inhibitors reduced production of ROS. Our studies suggest that alteration of lipid raft morphology and composition and ROS production could contribute to TGRL lipolysis-mediated endothelial cell injury.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic asthma is a complex immunologically mediated disease associated with increased oxidative stress and altered antioxidant defenses. It was hypothesized that alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) decreases oxidative stress and therefore its absence may influence allergic inflammatory process, a pathobiology known to be accompanied by oxidative stress. Therefore, selected parameters of allergic asthma sensitization and inflammation were evaluated following ovalbumin sensitization and re-challenge of alpha-T transfer protein (TTP) knock-out mice (TTP(-/-)) that have greatly reduced lung alpha-T levels (e.g.<5%) compared to their litter mate controls (TTP(+/+)). Results showed that severe alpha-T deficiency result in a blunted lung expression of IL-5 mRNA and IL-5 protein and plasma IgE levels compared with TTP(+/+) mice following immune sensitization and rechallenge, although lung lavage eosinophil levels were comparable in both genomic strains. It is concluded that the initial stimulation of immune responses by the TTP(-/-) mice were generally blunted compared to the TTP(+/+) mice, thus diminishing some aspects of subsequent allergic inflammatory processes.
    Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Free Radical Research
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    ABSTRACT: While tomato product supplementation, containing antioxidant carotenoids, including lycopene, decreases oxidative stress, the role of purified lycopene as an antioxidant remains unclear. Thus, we tested the effects of different doses of purified lycopene supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress in healthy volunteers. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, examining the effects of 8-week supplementation of purified lycopene, on plasma lycopene levels, biomarkers of lipid peroxidation {LDL oxidizability, malondialdehyde & hydroxynonenals (MDA & HNE), urinary F(2)-isoprostanes}, and markers of DNA damage in urine and lymphocytes. Healthy adults (n = 77, age > or = 40 years), consumed a lycopene-restricted diet for 2 weeks, and were then randomized to receive 0, 6.5, 15, or 30 mg lycopene/day for 8 weeks, while on the lycopene-restricted diet. Blood and urine samples were collected at the beginning and end of Week 2 of lycopene-restricted diet, and at end of Week 10 of the study. Independent of the dose, plasma lycopene levels significantly increased in all lycopene supplemented groups versus placebo (p < 0.05). ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in DNA damage by the comet assay (p = 0.007), and a significant decrease in urinary 8-hydroxy deoxoguanosine (8-OHdG) at 8 weeks versus baseline (p = 0.0002), with 30 mg lycopene/day. No significant inter- or intra-group differences were noted for glucose, lipid profile, or other biomarkers of lipid peroxidation at any dose/time point. Thus, purified lycopene was bioavailable and was shown to decrease DNA oxidative damage and urinary 8-OHdG at the high dose.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (angII) is known to promote atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. To determine whether angII stimulates proteoglycan production and LDL retention, LDL receptor-deficient mice were infused with angII (1,000 ng/kg/min) or saline via osmotic minipumps. To control for the hypertensive effect of angII, a parallel group received norepinephrine (NE; 5.6 mg/kg/day). Arterial lipid accumulation was evaluated by measuring the retention rate of LDL in isolated carotid arteries perfused ex vivo. Mice infused with angII had increased vascular content of biglycan and perlecan and retained twice as much LDL as saline- or NE-infused mice, although no group developed atherosclerosis at this time. To determine whether this increase in biglycan and perlecan content predisposed to atherosclerosis development, mice were infused with angII, saline, or NE for 4 weeks, then pumps were removed and mice received an atherogenic Western diet for another 6 weeks. Mice that had received angII infusions had 3-fold increased atherosclerosis compared with mice that had received saline or NE, and apolipoprotein B colocalized with both proteoglycans. Thus, one mechanism by which angII promotes atherosclerosis is increased proteoglycan synthesis and increased arterial LDL retention, which precedes and contributes to atherosclerosis development.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · The Journal of Lipid Research
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    ABSTRACT: Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is caused by mutations in alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) gene and it can be experimentally generated in mice by alpha-TTP gene inactivation (alpha-TTP-KO). This study compared alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) concentrations of five brain regions and of four peripheral organs from 5 months old, male and female, wild-type (WT) and alpha-TTP-KO mice. All brain regions of female WT mice contained significantly higher alpha-T than those from WT males. alpha-T concentration in the cerebellum was significantly lower than that in other brain regions of WT mice. These sex and regional differences in brain alpha-T concentrations do not appear to be determined by alpha-TTP expression which was undetectable in all brain regions. All the brain regions of alpha-TTP-KO mice were severely depleted in alpha-T. The concentration of another endogenous antioxidant, total glutathione, was unaffected by gender but was decreased slightly but significantly in most brain regions of alpha-TTP-KO mice. The results show that both gender and the hepatic alpha-TTP, but not brain alpha-TTP gene expression are important in determining alpha-T concentrations within the brain. Interestingly, functional abnormality (ataxia) develops only very late in alpha-TTP-KO mice in spite of the severe alpha-tocopherol deficiency in the brain starting at an early age.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Brain Research