V. Tatischeff

Université Paris-Sud 11, Orsay, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (177)328.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: 26Al was the first cosmic radioactivity ever detected in the galaxy as well as one of the first extinct radioactivity observed in refractory phases of meteorites. Its nucleosynthesis in massive stars is still uncertain mainly due to the lack of nuclear information concerning the 26Al(n,p)26Mg and 26 Al(n,α)23Na reactions. We report on a single and coincidence measurement of the 27Al(p,p')27Al(p)26Mg and 27Al(p,p')27Al(α)23Na reactions performed at the Orsay TANDEM facility aiming at the spectroscopy study of 27Al above the neutron threshold. Fourteen states are observed for the first time within 350 keV above the 26Al+n threshold.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Physics Conference Series
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    ABSTRACT: The radiative capture reaction 12C(α,γ)16O plays an important role in helium burning in massive stars and their subsequent evolution [1]. However, despite various experimental studies, the cross section of this reaction at stellar energies remains highly uncertain. The extrapolation down to stellar energy (Ecm~300 keV) of the measured cross sections at higher energies is made difficult by the overlap of various contributions of which some are badly known such as that of the 2+ (Ex=6.92 MeV) and 1− (Ex=7.12 MeV) sub-threshold states of 16O. Hence, to further investigate the contribution of these two-subthreshold resonances to the 12C(α,γ)16O cross section, a new determination of their a-reduced widths and so their a- spectroscopic-factors was performed using 12C(7Li,t)16O transfer reaction measurements at two incident energies and a detailed DWBA analysis of the data [2]. The measured and calculated differential cross sections are presented as well as the obtained spectroscopic factors and the a- reduced widths as well as the assymptotic normalization constants (ANC) for the 2+ and 1− subthreshold states. Finally, the results obtained from the R-matrix calculations of the 12C(α,γ)16O cross section using our obtained a-reduced widths for the two sub-threshold resonances are presented and discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Physics Conference Series
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    ABSTRACT: The response of a scintillation detector with a cylindrical 1.5-inch LaBr3:Ce crystal to incident neutrons has been measured in the energy range En = 2-12 MeV. Neutrons were produced by proton irradiation of a Li target at Ep = 5-14.6 MeV with pulsed proton beams. Using the time-of-flight information between target and detector, energy spectra of the LaBr3:Ce detector resulting from fast neutron interactions have been obtained at 4 different neutron energies. Neutron-induced gamma rays emitted by the LaBr3:Ce crystal were also measured in a nearby Ge detector at the lowest proton beam energy. In addition, we obtained data for neutron irradiation of a large-volume high-purity Ge detector and of a NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, both serving as monitor detectors in the experiment. Monte-Carlo type simulations for neutron interactions in the liquid scintillator, the Ge and LaBr3:Ce crystals have been performed and compared with measured data. Good agreement being obtained with the data, we present the results of simulations to predict the response of LaBr3:Ce detectors for a range of crystal sizes to neutron irradiation in the energy range En = 0.5-10 MeV
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
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    Vikram V. Dwarkadas · M. Renaud · A. Marcowith · V. Tatischeff
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of a core collapse supernovae (SNe) results in a fast (but non- or mildly-relativistic) shock wave expanding outwards into the surrounding medium. The medium itself is likely modified due to the stellar mass-loss from the massive star progenitor, which may be Wolf-Rayet stars (for Type Ib/c SNe), red supergiant stars (for type IIP and perhaps IIb and IIL SNe), or some other stellar type. The wind mass-loss parameters determine the density structure of the surrounding medium. Combined with the velocity of the SN shock wave, this regulates the shock acceleration process. In this article we discuss the essential parameters that control the particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission in SNe, with particular reference to the Type IIb SN 1993J. The shock wave expanding into the high density medium leads to fast particle acceleration, giving rise to rapidly-growing plasma instabilities driven by the acceleration process itself. The instabilities grow over intraday timescales. This growth, combined with the interplay of non-linear processes, results in the amplification of the magnetic field at the shock front, which can adequately account for the magnetic field strengths deduced from radio monitoring of the source. The maximum particle energy can reach, and perhaps exceed, 1 PeV, depending on the dominant instability. The gamma-ray signal is found to be heavily absorbed by pair production process during the first week after the outburst. We derive the time dependent particle spectra and associated hadronic signatures of secondary particles (gamma-ray, leptons and neutrinos) arising from proton proton interactions. We find that the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) should be able to detect objects like SN 1993J above 1 TeV. We predict a low neutrino flux above 10 TeV, implying a detectability horizon with current or planned neutrino telescopes of 1 Mpc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The deepest XMM-Newton mosaic map of the central 1.5 • of the Galaxy is presented, including a total of about 1.5 Ms of EPIC-pn cleaned exposures in the central 15 " and about 200 ks outside. This compendium presents broad-band X-ray continuum maps, soft X-ray intensity maps, a decomposition into spectral components and a comparison of the X-ray maps with emission at other wavelengths. Newly-discovered extended features, such as supernova remnants (SNRs), superbubbles and X-ray filaments are reported. We provide an atlas of extended features within ±1 degree of Sgr A ⋆. We discover the presence of a coherent X-ray emitting region peaking around G0.1-0.1 and surrounded by the ring of cold, mid-IR-emitting material known from previous work as the " Radio Arc Bubble " and with the addition of the X-ray data now appears to be a candidate superbubble. Sgr A's bipolar lobes show sharp edges, suggesting that they could be the remnant, collimated by the circumnuclear disc, of a SN explosion that created the recently discovered magnetar, SGR J1745-2900. Soft X-ray features, most probably from SNRs, are observed to fill holes in the dust distribution, and to indicate a direct interaction between SN explosions and Galactic center (GC) molecular clouds. We also discover warm plasma at high Galactic latitude, showing a sharp edge to its distribution that correlates with the location of known radio/mid-IR features such as the " GC Lobe ". These features might be associated with an inhomogeneous hot " atmosphere " over the GC, perhaps fed by continuous or episodic outflows of mass and energy from the GC region.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • J. Duprat · V. Tatischeff · N. de Sereville

    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-ray excitation functions have been measured for 30, 42, 54 and 66 MeV proton beams accelerated onto C + O (Mylar), Mg, Si, and Fe targets of astrophysical interest at the separate-sector cyclotron of iThemba LABS in Somerset West (Cape Town, South Africa). A large solid angle, high energy resolution detection system of the Eurogam type was used to record Gamma-ray energy spectra. Derived preliminary results of Gamma-ray line production cross sections for the Mg, Si and Fe target nuclei are reported and discussed. The current cross section data for known, intense Gamma-ray lines from these nuclei consistently extend to higher proton energies previous experimental data measured up to Ep ~ 25 MeV at the Orsay and Washington tandem accelerators. Data for new Gamma-ray lines observed for the first time in this work are also reported.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: New laboratory experimental data for highly accelerated charged particles with velocity E> 25 MeV/amu in interaction with astrophysically relevant target nuclei are essential for modeling the g-ray emission in various astrophysical sites and supporting gamma astronomy studies. Such nuclear data are especially needed for simulating the violent nuclear collisions taking place, e.g., in solar flares and in the interaction of low energy cosmic rays with constituent nuclei of the interstellar medium. In this context, we have measured nuclear g - ray line production cross sections for swift protons inelastically scattered off various target nuclei abundant on the solar surface and corona and in the ISM. The experiment has been carried out at the separate-sector cyclotron of iThemba LABS in Somerset West (Cape Town, South Africa) over the proton energy range E = (30 – 66) MeV using the line of the AFRODITE reaction chamber and associated large solid angle array of Ge-clover γ- ray detectors. Partial results for the 24Mg, 28Si and 56Fe target nuclei are reported herein and discussed. They are compared to scarce previous experimental data and to the predictions of the Talys computer code for modern nuclear reactions. In particular, our data consistently extend to higher proton energies those measured at the Orsay and Washington tandem accelerators.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · May 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A new experiment to determine the thermonuclear cross section of the 12C(alpha,gamma_0)16O reaction has been performed in regular kinematics using an intense alpha-particle beam of up to 340 muA from the Stuttgart DYNAMITRON. For the first time a 4pi-Germanium-detector setup has been used to measure the angular distribution of the gamma rays at all angles simultaneously. It consisted of an array of 9 EUROGAM HPGe detectors in close geometry, actively shielded individually with BGO crystals. The 12C targets were isotopically enriched by magnetic separation during implantation. The depth profiles of the implanted carbon in the 12C targets have been determined by Rutherford backscattering for purposes of cross section normalization and absolute determination of the E1 and E2 S factors. Angular distributions of the gamma decay to the 16O ground state have been measured in the energy range E_c.m.= 1.30-2.78 MeV and in the angular range (lab.) 30-130 degre. From these distributions, astrophysical E1 and E2 S-factor functions vs. energy have been calculated, both of which are indispensable for the modeling of this reaction and the extrapolation towards lower energies. The separation of the E1 and E2 capture channels has been done both by taking the phase value phi_12 as a free parameter and by fixing it using the results of elastic alpha-particle scattering on 12C in the same energy range. http://hal.in2p3.fr/in2p3-00067806
    No preview · Dataset · May 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We study a possible connection between processes of gamma-ray emission and hydrogen ionization in a few pc of central region around Sgr A*. Previous investigations showed there is a discrepancy between interpretation of gamma-ray and ionization data if gamma-rays are generated by proton-proton collisions. Here we provided analysis of processes of ionization and emission basing on analytical and numerical calculations of kinetic equations which describe processes of particle propagation and their energy losses. The origin of gamma rays could be either due to collisions of relativistic protons with the dense gas of the surrounding circumnuclear disk (CND) or bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering of relativistic electrons. The hydrogen ionization in this case is produced by a low energy component of the CR spectrum. We found that if ionization is produced by protons the expected ionization rate of hydrogen in the CND is of the same order as derived from IR observations. So we do not see any discrepancy between the gamma-ray and ionization data for the hadronic model. In the case of ionization by electrons we obtained the ionization rate one order of magnitude higher than follows from the IR data. In principle, a selection between the leptonic and hadronic interpretations can be performed basing on measurements of radio and X-ray fluxes from this region because the leptonic and hadronic models give different values of the fluxes from there. We do not exclude that gamma-ray production and hydrogen ionization in the CND are due to a past activity of Sgr A* which occurred about 100 year ago. Then we hypothesize that there may be connection between a past proton eruption and a flux of hard X-rays emitted by Sgr A* hundred years ago as follows from the observed time variability of the iron line seen in the direction of GC molecular clouds.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    Vincent Tatischeff · Jean Duprat · Nicolas de Séréville
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system provides important information about the astrophysical environment in which the solar system formed. The discovery of now extinct $^{10}$Be in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope anomalies (FUN-CAIs) suggests that a baseline concentration of $^{10}$Be in the early solar system was inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud. In this paper, we first show that the $^{10}$Be recorded in FUN-CAIs cannot have been produced in situ by cosmic-ray (CR) irradiation of the FUN-CAIs themselves. We then show that trapping of Galactic CRs (GCRs) in the collapsing presolar cloud core induced a negligible $^{10}$Be contamination of the protosolar nebula. Irradiation of the presolar molecular cloud by background GCRs produced a steady-state $^{10}$Be/$^9$Be ratio ~2.3 times lower than the ratio recorded in FUN-CAIs, which suggests that the presolar cloud was irradiated by an additional source of CRs. Considering a detailed model for CR acceleration in a supernova remnant (SNR), we find that the $^{10}$Be abundance recorded in FUN-CAIs can be explained within two alternative scenarios: (i) the irradiation of a giant molecular cloud by CRs produced by >50 supernovae exploding in a superbubble of hot gas generated by a large star cluster of at least 20,000 members and (ii) the irradiation of the presolar molecular cloud by freshly accelerated CRs escaped from an isolated SNR at the end of the Sedov-Taylor phase. The second model naturally provides an explanation for the injection of other short-lived radionuclides of stellar origin into the cold presolar molecular cloud ($^{26}$Al, $^{41}$Ca and $^{36}$Cl) and is in agreement with the solar system originating from the collapse of a molecular cloud shocked by a supernova blast wave.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    A. Marcowith · M. Renaud · V. Dwarkadas · V. Tatischeff
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    ABSTRACT: In this work the efficiency of particle acceleration at the forward shock right after the SN outburst for the particular case of the well-known SN 1993J is analyzed. Plasma instabilities driven by the energetic particles accelerated at the shock front grow over intraday timescales and drive a fast amplification of the magnetic field at the shock, that can explain the magnetic field strengths deduced from the radio monitoring of the source. The maximum particle energy is found to reach 1-10 PeV depending on the instability dominating the amplification process. We derive the time dependent particle spectra and the associated hadronic signatures of secondary particles arising from proton proton interactions. We find that the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) should easily detect objects like SN 1993J in particular above 1 TeV, while current generation of Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S. could only marginally detect such events. The gamma-ray signal is found to be heavily absorbed by pair production process during the first week after the outburst. We predict a low neutrino flux above 10 TeV, implying a detectability horizon with a KM3NeT-type telescope of 1 Mpc only. We finally discuss the essential parameters that control the particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission in other type of SNe.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements
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    ABSTRACT: PACT is a Pair And Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It will be devoted to the detection of radioactivity lines from present and past supernova explosions, the observation of thousands of new blazars, and the study of polarized radiations from gamma-ray bursts, pulsars and accreting black holes. It will reach a sensitivity of one to two orders of magnitude lower than COMPTEL/CGRO (e.g. about 50 times lower for the broad-band, survey sensitivity at 1 MeV after 5 years). The concept of PACT will be proposed for the AstroMeV mission in the framework of the M4 ESA Call. It is based upon three main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker, a crystal-based calorimeter (e.g. CeBr3:Sr), and an anticoincidence detector made of plastic scintillator panels. Prototypes of these detector planes are currently tested in the laboratories.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 0.1 up to 100 MeV holds many understudied questions connected with e.g. stellar nucleosynthesis, the active Sun, neutron stars and black holes. To access the physics behind, a significant improvement in detection sensitivity is needed compared to previous missions, e.g. CGRO and INTEGRAL. One of the promising concepts for a future gamma-ray mission is an Advanced Compton Telescope. Under the project of creating a prototype of such instrument, we study the perspectives of using a novel inorganic scintillator as a calorimeter part. Modern inorganic crystal or ceramics scintillators are constantly improving on qualities such as energy resolution and radiation hardness, and this makes them a smart choice for a new space-borne telescope. At CSNSM Orsay, we have assembled a detection module from a 5 x 5 cm(2) area and 1 cm thick, cerium-doped lanthanum (III) bromide (LaBr3:Ce) inorganic scintillator coupled to a 64 channel multi-anode photomultiplier. The readout of the PMT signals is carried out with the ASIC MAROC, used previously for the luminometer of the ATLAS detector (CERN). Characterization, thorough measurements with various radioactive sources, as well as, single photoelectron detection have been done. Furthermore, we made a comparison of measurements with a detailed GEANT4-based simulation which includes tracking of the optical photons. Finally, we have studied the 3D reconstruction of the first interaction point of incident gamma rays, utilizing a neural network algorithm. This spatial position resolution plays a crucial part in the future implementations and, together with the other measured properties, it makes our detector module very interesting for the next generation of space telescopes operating in the MeV range. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the iron fluorescent line at 6.4 keV from an extended region surrounding the Arches cluster is debated and the non-variability of this emission up to 2009 has favoured the low-energy cosmic ray origin over a possible irradiation by hard X-rays. By probing the variability of the Arches cloud non-thermal emission in the most recent years, including a deep observation in 2012, we intend to discriminate between the two competing scenarios. We perform a spectral fit of XMM–Newton observations collected from 2000 to 2013 in order to build the Arches cloud light curve corresponding to both the neutral Fe Kα line and the X-ray continuum emissions. We reveal a 30 per cent flux drop in 2012, detected with more than 4σ significance for both components. This implies that a large fraction of the studied non-thermal emission is due to the reflection of an X-ray transient source.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We will present new soft and hard X-ray mosaics, including over 100 XMM-Newton observations pointed within 1degree of SgrA*. Both soft X-ray continuum and emission lines (Sixiii, Sxv, Arxvii and Caxix) maps will be described. We will discuss the nature of several extended features in the vicinity of SgrA*. This includes the 20-pc scale bipolar lobes, a super bubble candidate and the soft emission peaking around G0.11-0.11. The data reveal several features having considerable extents in Galactic latitude, suggesting the presence of hot plasma overlying the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). We will discuss the spatial relationship of this plasma to known radio/mid-IR features as well as the question of whether this hot gas is an inhomogeneous "atmosphere" over the CMZ or whether it is a reservoir for much larger-scale-features that represent continuous/episodic outflows of mass and energy from the Galactic center. We will also present the FeKalpha, Fexxv and hard X-ray continuum maps. By examining X-ray reflecting clouds of the CMZ and their fluorescent FeKalpha emission, we can place constraints on SgrA*'s X-ray activity during the past millennium. The comparison between surveys performed between 2000 and 2012 shows a general decay of the reflected emission over the past decade.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Radioactive beams of $^{14}$O and $^{15}$O were used to populate the resonant states 1/2$^+$, 5/2$^+$ and $0^-,1^-,2^-$ in the unbound $^{15}$F and $^{16}$F nuclei respectively by means of proton elastic scattering reactions in inverse kinematics. Based on their large proton spectroscopic factor values, the resonant states in $^{16}$F can be viewed as a core of $^{14}$O plus a proton in the 2s$_{1/2}$ or 1d$_{5/2}$ shell and a neutron in 1p$_{1/2}$. Experimental energies were used to derive the strength of the 2s$_{1/2}$-1p$_{1/2}$ and 1d$_{5/2}$-1p$_{1/2}$ proton-neutron interactions. It is found that the former changes by 40% compared with the mirror nucleus $^{16}$N, and the second by 10%. This apparent symmetry breaking of the nuclear force between mirror nuclei finds explanation in the role of the large coupling to the continuum for the states built on an $\ell=0$ proton configuration.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Physical Review C

Publication Stats

1k Citations
328.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2016
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • • Institut de Physique Nucléaire (IPN)
      • • Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse - (CSNSM)
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003-2015
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008-2009
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Institut de Ciències de l'Espai
      Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2000
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Astronomy
      Maryland, United States