Xian-Yong Lan

Northwest A & F University, Yang-ling-chen, Shaanxi, China

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Publications (50)77.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of single stranded, small (~22 nucleotides), non-coding RNAs, play an important role in muscle development. We focused on the role of the miR-30-5p family during bovine muscle development from previous high-throughput sequencing results and analyzed their expression profiles. MHC and MyoG mRNAs expression as well as their proteins were suppressed in differentiated C2C12 cells, suggesting the importance of miR-30-5p in muscle development. MBNL, the candidate target of miR-30-5p, is an alternative splicing regulation factor. MBNL1 and MBNL3 have opposite effects on muscle differentiation. Our results confirmed that miR-30a-5p and miR-30e-5p repress the expression of MBNL1, MBNL2 and MBNL3, whereas miR-30b-5p inhibits MBNL1 and MBNL2 expression. This provides direct evidence that MBNL expression can be flexibly regulated by miR-30-5p. Previous studies showed that MBNL1 promotes exon inclusion of two muscle-related genes (Trim55 and INSR). Through RNA splicing studies, we found that miR-30-5p had an effect on their alternative splicing, which means miR-30-5p via MBNL1 could be integrated into muscle signaling pathways in which INSR or Trim55 are located. In conclusion, miR-30-5p could inhibit muscle cell differentiation and regulate the alternative splicing of Trim55 and INSR by targeting MBNL. These results promote the understanding of the function of miRNAs in muscle development.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Myocyte enhancer factor 2 C (MEF2C) gene was annotated for its potential phenotypic effects on bovine stature including body dimensions and body weight. The aim of this study was the analysis of MEF2C as a candidate for bovine stature. Four SNPs including two novel SNPs were identified and the polymorphisms were genotyped by (forced) PCR-RFLP. Using a population of 805 cows from two Chinese native breeds, we report confirmation of this effect, demonstrating strong association of different components of bovine stature with MEF2C genotypes. Six combined haplotypes were constructed as well and diplotype H1H6/H3H5 (CTGGTCAA) affected bovine stature negatively, including body weight, hucklebone widt, and withers height (P<0.05). Our results suggest that the four variants within bovine MEF2C can be used as candidate SNP markers for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programmes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3), a member of the patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA) family, plays an important role in energy balance, fat metabolism regulation, glucose metabolism and fatty liver disease. Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (T-ARMS-PCR) is a new method offering fast detection and extreme simplicity at a negligible cost for SNP genotyping. In this paper, we investigated the genetic variations at different ages of 660 Chinese indigenous cattle belonging to three breeds (QC, NY, JX) and applied T-ARMS-PCR and PCR-RFLP methods to genotype four SNPs, SNP1: g.A2980G, SNP2: g.A2996T, SNP3: g.A36718G, SNP4: g.G36850A. The statistical analyses indicated that these 4 SNPs affected growth traits markedly (P<0.05) in QC population, whereas combined haplotypes were not (P>0.05). The qPCR (quantitative PCR) indicated that bovine PNPLA3 gene was exclusively expressed in fat tissues. Besides, the analysis between SNP and mRNA expression revealed that, in SNP1, the expression of AG was much higher than AA and GG (P<0.05), which was in accordance with the results of growth traits association analysis, while the results of SNP4 was not. These results supported high potential that SNPs of bovine PNPLA3 gene might be utilized as genetic markers in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for Chinese cattle breeding programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: The LIM-homeobox gene 3 (LHX3) plays an essential role in pituitary gland and nervous system development. Sequence variants (SVs) in coding and non-coding regions of LHX3 gene are likely impact on LHX3 transcription and growth traits in cattle. Previously, we have identified 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-3) in all exons and intron 2 regions of the LHX3 gene in cattle. Here, 7 novel SNPs (SNPs: 4-10) were identified by DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. In the present study, a total of 10 SNPs were assessed linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 802 cows representing four main cattle breeds from China (Nanyang, Qinchuan, Jiaxian, and Chinese Holstein). The assessment results demonstrated that 17 haplotypes and 18 diplotypes were revealed in these cattle populations. Moreover, association analysis indicated that the genotypes of SNPs 1-6 are associated with the body weight at 6, 12 and 18months of age in Nanyang cattle (P<0.01 or P<0.05), whereas no significant association was found between the 18 diplotypes and growth traits. Our results provide evidence that some SNPs in LHX3 gene may be associated with body weight at certain age, and LHX3 gene may be used as candidate gene for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in beef cattle breeding. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals and plays important roles in muscle development. We sampled longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) from a well-known elite native breed of Chinese Qinchuan cattle living within the same environment but displaying distinct skeletal muscle at the fetal and adult stages. We generated and provided a genome-wide landscape of DNA methylomes and their relationship with mRNA and miRNA for fetal and adult muscle studies. Integration analysis revealed a total of 77 and 1,054 negatively correlated genes with methylation in the promoter and gene body regions, respectively, in both the fetal and adult bovine libraries. Furthermore, we identified expression patterns of high-read genes that exhibit a negative correlation between methylation and expression from nine different tissues at multiple developmental stages of bovine muscle-related tissue or organs. In addition, we validated the MeDIP-Seq results by bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) in some of the differentially methylated promoters. Together, these results provide valuable data for future biomedical research and genomic and epigenomic studies of bovine skeletal muscle that may help uncover the molecular basis underlying economically valuable traits in cattle. This comprehensive map also provides a solid basis for exploring the epigenetic mechanisms of muscle growth and development.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Scientific Reports
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    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: LIM homeobox transcription factor 4 (LHX4) is a LIM homeodomain transcription factor involved in pituitary gland and nervous system development. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the LHX4 polymorphisms with growth traits in beef cattle breed. A total of 7 single nucleotide polymorphyisms (SNPs) have been identified in the coding region and noncoding region of the bovine LHX4 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) and PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. The linkage disequilibrium was assessed in 871 individuals representing four main cattle breeds from China. The SNPs 2-5 and 7-8 were found to be in complete linkage disequilibrium, respectively. The result of haplotype analysis of 13 SNPs showed that 31 haplotypes were found in four Chinese cattle breeds, and 20 genotypes were only found in Nanyang cattle. The statistical analyses indicated that the SNP1-5, and 6 are associated with the body weight at 18, and 6 months of age in Nanyang cattle population (P<0.05), but no significant associations between their twenty combined genotypes. Our results provide evidence that some polymorphisms in LHX4 are associated with growth traits at certain ages, and may be used as candidates for marker-assisted selection and management in cattle.
    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α), a member of the hepatocyte nuclear factor family, plays an important role in regulating the expression of genes involved in the development, differentiation and normal function of liver and pancreatic β cells, as well as the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (T-ARMS-PCR) is a new method offering fast detection and extreme simplicity at a negligible cost for SNP genotyping. In this paper, we characterize the polymorphisms of the bovine HNF-4α gene in three Chinese indigenous cattle breeds (n=660). Six novel SNPs were identified including 1 mutation in the coding region and others in introns. The statistical analyses indicated that 4 SNPs (g.T53729C, g.A53861G, g.A65188C and g.T65444C) affected growth traits markedly (P<0.05) in Qinchuan cattle (2years after birth). Besides, haplotypes involving these 4 SNP sites in the bovine HNF-4α gene were identified and their effects on growth traits were also analyzed. The results showed that haplotypes 2, 7, 9 and 11 were predominant and accounted for 73.2%, 59.6%, and 67.1% in Qinchuan, Nanyang and Jiaxian cattle breeds, respectively. Hap9 (TAAT) was extremely predominant in all test populations, which suggested that individuals with Hap9 were more adapted to the environment. Furthermore, 4 combined haplotypes were constructed to guarantee the reliability of analysis results in Qinchuan cattle. There were also significant differences in body length (P<0.05). These findings will benefit for the application of DNA marker related to the growth traits on marker-assisted selection (MAS), and improve the performance of beef cattle.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we found that the expression of the ZBED6 and IGF2 were upregulated during C2C12 differentiation. The IGF2 expression levels were negatively associated with the methylation status in beef cattle (P < 0.05). A luciferase assay for the IGF2 intron 3 and P3 promoter showed that the mutant-type 439 A-SNP-pGL3 in driving reporter gene transcription is significantly higher than that of the wild-type 439 G-SNP-pGL3 construct (P < 0.05). An over-expression assay revealed that ZBED6 regulate IGF2 expression and promote myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of ZBED6 led to IGF2 expression change in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that ZBED6 inhibits IGF2 activity and expression via a G to A transition disrupts the interaction. Thus, we propose that ZBED6 plays a critical role in myogenic differentiation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP) is important for regulation of lipid metabolism and insulin secretion in beta-cells. In this study, we investigated polymorphisms within the caprine ADFP gene and determined its relationship with production traits. As there was no sequence information available for the caprine ADFP gene, we generated DNA sequence data and examined the genomic organisation. The caprine ADFP gene is organised into 7 exons and 6 introns that span approximately 8.7kbp and is transcribed into mRNA containing 1353bp of sequence coding for a protein of 450 amino acids. The protein sequences showed substantial similarity (71-99%) to orthologues from cattle, human and mouse. We identified polymorphisms in the sequences using DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and forced PCR-RFLP methods. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified using samples from 4 different goat populations consisting of 1408 healthy and unrelated individuals. Six haplotypes involving the 7 SNPs from the caprine ADFP gene were identified and their effects on production traits were analysed. Haplotype 6 had the highest haplotype frequency and was highly significantly associated with chest circumference and milk yield in the analysed populations. The results of this study suggest that the ADFP gene is a strong candidate gene affecting production traits and may be used for marker-assisted selection and management in Chinese dairy goat breeding programmes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: LIM homeobox transcription factor 4 (LHX4) is a LIM homeodomain transcription factor involved in pituitary gland and nervous system development. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the LHX4 polymorphisms with growth traits in beef cattle breed. A total of 7 single nucleotide polymorphyisms (SNPs) have been identified in the coding region and noncoding region of the bovine LHX4 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) and PCR - single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. The linkage disequilibrium was assessed in 871 individuals representing four main cattle breeds from China. The SNPs 2-5 and 7-8 were found to be in complete linkage disequilibrium, respectively. The result of haplotype analysis of 13 SNPs showed that 31 haplotypes were found in four Chinese cattle breeds, and 20 genotypes were only found in Nanyang cattle. The statistical analyses indicated that the SNP1-5, and 6 are associated with the body weight at 18, and 6 months of age in Nanyang cattle population (P<0.05), but no significant associations between their twenty combined genotypes. Our results provide evidence that some polymorphisms in LHX4 are associated with growth traits at certain ages, and may be used as candidates for marker-assisted selection and management in cattle.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is a novel transcription factor that was identified and shown to act as a repressor of IGF2 transcription in skeletal muscle myogenesis and development. The aims of this study were to determine ZBED6 expression level and examine the association of the ZBED6 polymorphism with growth traits in Qinchuan beef cattle. The bovine ZBED6 mRNA was detected in eight tissues by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), being highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified the bovine ZBED6 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (forced PCR-RFLP) methods. In this study, we reported one mutation in the promoter and two missense mutations in the coding regions within the bovine ZBED6 gene, and the haplotype variability and extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 817 individuals from the Qinchuan (QC) and Chinese Holstein (CH). We also investigated haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium coefficients for three SNPs of ZBED6 in the study populations. The result of haplotype analysis of three SNPs showed that eight different haplotypes were identified in two breeds. The wild-type haplotype (Hap 1: GCA) and mutant-type haplotype (Hap 8: AGG) shared by two populations accounted for 29.8%, 57.5%, and 8.6%, 0% of all haplotypes observed in QC and CH, respectively. The statistical analyses indicated that three SNPs, 23 combined genotypes, and 8 haplotypes were significantly associated with different growth traits in the QC cattle population (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The mutant-type variants and mutant haplotype were superior for growth traits; the heterozygote diplotype was associated with higher growth traits compared to the wild-type homozygote. The results of this study suggest that the ZBED6 gene possibly is a strong candidate gene that affects growth traits in QC beef cattle breeding program.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Animal Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a potent cell growth and differentiation factor and is implicated in mammals' growth and development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the mutations in the bovine IGF2 with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected of the bovine IGF2 by DNA pool sequencing and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (forced PCR-RFLP) methods. We also investigated haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) coefficients for four SNPs in 817 individuals representing two main cattle breeds from China. The result of haplotype analysis showed eight different haplotypes and 27 combined genotypes within the study population. The statistical analyses indicated that the four SNPs, combined genotypes and haplotypes are associated with the withers height, body length, chest breadth, chest depth and body weight in Qinchuan cattle population (P < 0.05 or <0.01). The mutant-type variants and mutant haplotype (Hap 8: ATGG; likely to be the beneficial QTN allele) was superior for growth traits; the heterozygote diplotype was associated with higher growth traits compared to wild-type homozygote. Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms in the IGF2 gene are associated with growth traits, and may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Molecular Biology Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The myostatin gene (MSTN) is a genetic determinant of skeletal muscle growth. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in MSTN are of importance due to their strong associations with horse racing performances. In this study, we screened the SNPs in MSTN gene in 514 horses from 15 Chinese horse breeds. Six SNPs (g.26T>C, g.156T>C, g.587A>G, g.598C>T, g.1485C>T, g.2115A>G) in MSTN gene were detected by sequencing and genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. The g.587A>G and g.598C>T residing in the 5'UTR region were novel SNPs identified by this study. The g.2115A>G which have previously been associated with racing performances were present in Chinese horse breeds, providing valuable genetic information for evaluating the potential racing performances in Chinese domestic breeds. The six SNPs together defined thirteen haplotypes, demonstrating abundant haplotype diversities in Chinese horses. Most of the haplotypes were shared among different breeds with no haplotype restricted to a specific region or a single horse breed. AMOVA analysis indicated that most of the genetic variance was attributable to differences among individuals without any significant contribution by the four geographical groups. This study will provide fundamental and instrumental genetic information for evaluating the potential racing performances of Chinese horse breeds.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation and growth. Polymorphisms in its promoter and coding regions are likely to impact ZBED6 transcription and growth traits. In this study, rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends (5'-RACE) analysis revealed two transcription start sites (TSS) for the bovine ZBED6 starting within exon 1 of the ZC3H11A gene (TSS-1) and upstream of the translation start codon of the ZBED6 gene (TSS-2). There was one SNP in the promoter and two missense mutations in the coding region of the bovine ZBED6 by sequencing of the pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq, n = 100). The promoter and coding region are the key regions for gene function; polymorphisms in these regions can alter gene expression. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ZBED6 has a broad tissue distribution in cattle and is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Eleven promoter-detection vectors were constructed, which enabled the cloning of putative promoter sequences and analysis of ZBED6 transcriptional activity by luciferase reporter gene assays. The core region of the basal promoter of bovine ZBED6 is located within region -866 to -556. The activity of WT-826G-pGL3 in driving reporter gene transcription is significantly higher than that of the M-826A-pGL3 construct (P < 0.01). Analysis of gene expression patterns in homozygous full-sibling Chinese Qinchuan cattle showed that the mutant-type Hap-AGG exhibited a lower mRNA level than the wild-type Hap-GCA (P < 0.05) in longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM). Moreover, ZBED6 mRNA expression was low in C2C12 cells overexpressing the mutant-type ZBED6 (pcDNA3.1(+)-Hap-GG) (P < 0.01). Our results suggest that the polymorphisms in the promoter and coding regions may modulate the promoter activity and gene expression of bovine ZBED6 in the skeletal muscles of these cattle breeds.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals, have essential and important roles in muscle development. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a fetal growth and differentiation factor that plays an important role in muscle growth and in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of IGF2 and the methylation pattern on the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the last exon of IGF2 in six tissues with two different developmental stages. The DNA methylation pattern was compared using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA). The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis indicated that IGF2 has a broad tissue distribution and the adult bovine group showed significant lower mRNA expression levels than that in the fetal bovine group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); Moreover, the DNA methylation level analysis showed that the adult bovine group exhibited a significantly higher DNA methylation levels than that in the fetal bovine group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These results indicate that IGF2 expression levels were negatively associated with the methylation status of the IGF2 DMR during the two developmental stages. Our results suggest that the methylation pattern in this DMR may be a useful parameter to investigate as a marker-assisted selection for muscle developmental in beef cattle breeding program and as a model for studies in other species.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor paired box 6 gene (PAX6) plays a key role during the early development of various organs. In this study, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the introns 2, 8 and 11 of the bovine PAX6 gene. 8 haplotypes and 13 diplotypes were revealed and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) was assessed in 817 cows representing four main cattle breeds from China (Nanyang, NY; Qinchuan, QC; Jiaxian, JX; Chinese Holstein, CH). The LD analysis revealed that the additional three SNPs were not in strong LD, the wild haplotype (Hap 1: CTT) and mutant haplotype (Hap 8: TCC) have a frequency of 9.36, 35.61, 18.32, 57.15 % and 15.60, 14.19, 0.83, 0 % in the four cattle populations. The statistical analyses indicated that the SNP2 and 3 are associated with the body weight at birth, 6 and 12 months in NY and JX cattle population (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05); and significant association was detected between 19 (NY) or 13 (JX) diplotype (combined genotypes) and body weight at different ages (birth, 6 and 12 months). Our results provide evidence that some polymorphisms in PAX6 are associated with growth traits at some ages, and may be used as candidates for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Molecular Biology Reports
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the Y chromosome genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 369 bulls from 17 Chinese native cattle breeds and 30 bulls from Holstein and four bulls from Burma were analyzed using a recently discovered USP9Y marker that could distinguish between taurine and indicine cattle more efficiently. In total, the taurine Y1, Y2 haplogroup and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in 7 (1.9 %), 193 (52.3 %) and 169 (45.8 %) individuals of 17 Chinese native breeds, respectively, although these frequencies varied amongst the Chinese native cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4 %), while Y3 dominates in southern China (81.2 %). Central China is an admixture zone with Y2 predominating overall (72.0 %). Our results demonstrate that Chinese cattle have two paternal origins, one from B. taurus (Y2) and the other from B. indicus (Y3). The Y1 haplogroup may originate from the imported beef cattle breeds in western countries. The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies reveal a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China, and male taurine introgression from north to south China.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Molecular Biology Reports
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    ABSTRACT: As a signaling molecule, bone morphogenetic protein 8B (BMP8B) plays an essential role in bone metabolism and is able to regulate thermogenesis and energy balance, which suggests that BMP8B gene may be a new candidate for growth traits. Here, to characterize the effects of BMP8B gene on growth traits, we first used three Chinese indigenous cattle breeds (n=845) to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Five novel SNPs of BMP8B gene (g.-242C>T, g.2164C>T, g.2639T>C, g.2900C>G and g.10817C>T) were identified by DNA pool sequencing and forced PCR-RFLP. And then we associated the five SNPs with four growth traits (body weight, body length, heart girth, and hucklebone width). Results from association analysis showed that the SNPs 1, 2, and 3 affected growth trait(s) markedly (P<0.05). Further, 6 combined haplotypes were constructed to guarantee the reliability of analysis results. There were also significant differences in body length, heart girth and body weight between the 6 combined haplotypes (P<0.05), but not in hucklebone width (P>0.05). Collectively, our results suggest a modulatory role of BMP8B gene in cattle growth and development, and 3 SNPs could be used as molecular markers in early marker assisted selection (MAS) in beef cattle breeding program.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Gene
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a fetal growth and differentiation factor that plays an important role in muscle growth and in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the IGF2 polymorphism with growth traits in beef cattle breed. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-4) were identified in the bovine IGF2 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) and forced polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (Forced PCR-RFLP) methods. The result of haplotype analysis of four SNPs showed that eight haplotypes and eighteen combined genotypes were revealed, and the linkage disequilibrium and evolutionary relationship were assessed in 1522 individuals representing four purebred cattle breeds from China. The statistical analyses indicated that the 4 SNPs and 18 combined genotypes or haplotypes are associated with the body weight at 18 and 24 months in Jiaxian cattle population (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms in the IGF2 gene are associated with growth traits, and may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Gene