Xuesong Li

Beijing Medical University, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (57)166.44 Total impact

  • Kunlin Yang · Xuesong Li · Lucine M Gao

    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Translational Andrology and Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its oxidized form 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) have been proposed to be in- volved in tumorigenesis. Because the readout of the broadly used 5mC mapping method, bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq), is the sum of 5mC and 5hmC levels, the 5mC/5hmC patterns and relationship of these two modifications remain poor- ly understood. By profiling real 5mC (BS-seq corrected by Tet-assisted BS-seq, TAB-seq) and 5hmC (TAB-seq) levels simultaneously at single-nucleotide resolution, we here demonstrate that there is no global loss of 5mC in kidney tu- mors compared with matched normal tissues. Conversely, 5hmC was globally lost in virtually all kidney tumor tissues. The 5hmC level in tumor tissues is an independent prognostic marker for kidney cancer, with lower levels of 5hmC as- sociated with shorter overall survival. Furthermore, we demonstrated that loss of 5hmC is linked to hypermethylation in tumors compared with matched normal tissues, particularly in gene body regions. Strikingly, gene body hypermeth- ylation was significantly associated with silencing of the tumor-related genes. Downregulation of IDH1 was identified as a mechanism underlying 5hmC loss in kidney cancer. Restoring 5hmC levels attenuated the invasion capacity of tu- mor cells and suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model. Collectively, our results demonstrate that loss of 5hmC is both a prognostic marker and an oncogenic event in kidney cancer by remodeling the DNA methylation pattern.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its oxidized form 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) have been proposed to be involved in tumorigenesis. Because the readout of the broadly used 5mC mapping method, bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq), is the sum of 5mC and 5hmC levels, the 5mC/5hmC patterns and relationship of these two modifications remain poorly understood. By profiling real 5mC (BS-seq corrected by Tet-assisted BS-seq, TAB-seq) and 5hmC (TAB-seq) levels simultaneously at single-nucleotide resolution, we here demonstrate that there is no global loss of 5mC in kidney tumors compared with matched normal tissues. Conversely, 5hmC was globally lost in virtually all kidney tumor tissues. The 5hmC level in tumor tissues is an independent prognostic marker for kidney cancer, with lower levels of 5hmC associated with shorter overall survival. Furthermore, we demonstrated that loss of 5hmC is linked to hypermethylation in tumors compared with matched normal tissues, particularly in gene body regions. Strikingly, gene body hypermethylation was significantly associated with silencing of the tumor-related genes. Downregulation of IDH1 was identified as a mechanism underlying 5hmC loss in kidney cancer. Restoring 5hmC levels attenuated the invasion capacity of tumor cells and suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model. Collectively, our results demonstrate that loss of 5hmC is both a prognostic marker and an oncogenic event in kidney cancer by remodeling the DNA methylation pattern.Cell Research advance online publication 18 December 2015; doi: 10.1038/cr.2015.150.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the efficacy of brachytherapy for patients with localized prostate cancer and the influence factors. Methods: There were 61 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with brachytherapy between April 2001 and March 2011 in Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, including 11 patients who received combined external beam radiotherapy. The mean age was 75.2 years (range 57-84 years). Clinical stage was T1c in 12 patients, T2a in 18 patients, T2b in 17 patients, and T2c in 14 patients. Long-term follow-up was carried on all patients for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and adverse effects. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, Log-rank test and univariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with the treatment efficacy. Results: The median follow-up was 49 months (range 9-126 months). The mean PSA before treatment and the mean nadir PSA after operation were (17.80 ± 14.44) µg/L and (1.16 ± 1.15) µg/L, respectively. The PSA of 58 patients (95.1%) reached a nadir < 4.0 µg/L, which was even < 1.0 µg/L in 37 patients (60.7%). The mean time to reach the nadir PSA was 11.6 months after operation. The short-term adverse events after operation included fever in 4 patients, hematuria in 7 patients, and hematochezia in 4 patients. The most common long-term adverse event was urinary irritation (31.1%); other long-term adverse events were rare, including hematochezia, hematuria, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, mild diarrhea and radiation enteritis. The estimated mean biochemical recurrence-free survival after brachytherapy was 41.0 months (95% CI: 31.05-50.94 months). The mean nadir PSA after operation were 1.32 µg/L in the 11 patients who received combined external beam radiotherapy, and their estimated mean biochemical recurrence-free survival was 38 months. Patients with nadir PSA < 1.0 µg/L had a significant longer biochemical recurrence-free survival than those with nadir PSA between 1.0 µg/L and 4.0 µg/L (42.9 vs. 32.0 months, χ(2) = 4.445, P = 0.035). Conclusions: Brachytherapy is an effective treatment strategy for localized prostate cancer, with relatively low rate of severe adverse events. After brachytherapy, a nadir PSA < 1.0 µg/L might indicate a better prognosis.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of pan-urothelial cell carcinoma (panUCC), which refers to the presence of both bilateral (UTUC) and bladder tumor (BT), is relatively low. However, the profile of a panUCC cohort of patients remains to be elucidated. We reviewed the data of consecutive UTUC patients who received treatment at our center from 1999 to 2012. Overall, 45 patients were included in this study, with a median age of 64.5 years. Fourteen patients initially presented with unilateral UTUC, 11 initially with BT, and the remainder with multiple tumors. Patients with UTUC were more likely to manifest higher rates of muscle invasion and larger-sized tumors. Five patients were treated with complete urinary tract exenteration (CUTE), and most patients (73.3%) received combined management with conservative and radical surgery. After a median follow-up of 77 months, 18 patients (40%) died including 15 (33.3%) due to cancer. Higher tumor stage was the only risk factor predictive of worse survival. Nineteen patients experienced local recurrence after conservative surgery. This study indicated that PanUCC involves either synchronous or metachronous presentation of tumors with a high risk of tumor recurrence, progression, and dissemination after conservative surgery.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Previous reports about laparoscopic total pelvic exenteration (LTPE) are still limited. In the present study, we described our single-center experience of the initial 11 cases. Between April 2011 and September 2015, eight males and three females diagnosed as pelvic malignancies underwent LTPE by the same operation team. We retrospectively collected all cases’ parameters about surgical technique. Thirty-seven patients who received open surgery were also retrospectively collected. A comparison between LTPE and open surgery was performed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of LTPE. Eleven cases successfully underwent the LTPE without any intraoperative complication. No open conversion was required. Eight patients underwent Bricker’s procedure. Three patients were performed with the cutaneous ureterostomy. Anus preservation operation was performed in three patients. Compared with open surgery, LTPE had longer mean operative time (565.2 vs 468.2 min, p = 0.004) but less mean blood loss (547.3 vs 1033.0 ml, p < 0.001) and shorter postoperative hospitalization time (15.3 vs 22.4 days, p = 0.004). One patient died of pulmonary embolism in the 7th month of follow-up time. One patient died of recurrence in the 12th month of follow-up time. Nine patients are still alive without recurrence and metastasis. The mean follow-up time was 11.1 months. The technique of LTPE seems to be feasible and safe in the treatment of carefully selected patients of pelvic malignancies. LTPE can also decrease the blood loss, the recovery time, and the hospital stay. But the oncological safety and long-term outcome of LTPE still need to be explored.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · World Journal of Surgical Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a ring suture technique during retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RLPN) for management of renal cell carcinoma in the renal hilum. Patients and methods: Data for patients with renal hilar cancer who underwent RLPN from January 2010 to March 2015 were collected. All surgeries involved the ring suture technique, following the same procedure: the renal artery was dissected and clamped, the tumor was enucleated from the kidney, defects of the vascular and collecting system were repaired, then the edge of the renal parenchyma was sutured continuously along the border. Finally, the renal artery clamp was removed, and any injury of the vascular system was repaired if necessary. We retrospectively analyzed renal ischemic time, blood loss and postoperative complications. Results: Among the 17 patients, 11 were male (median age 61 years, range 42-71 years). Mean tumor diameter was 3.4±0.9 cm and median R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score was 8 (range 6-10). The mean warm ischemic time was 23.0±9.2 min and median blood loss during surgery 110 ml (range 70-350 ml); we had no case of uncontrollable massive bleeding. Radical nephrectomy was used in 1 case because of tumor embolus in a branch of the renal vein. All patients recovered well after surgery. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma in all cases, with the main subtype clear-cell carcinomas (88.2%). Conclusions: The ring suture technique is safe and effective for management of renal hilar cancer during RLPN for selected patients.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To investigate the efficacy of surgery in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and to identify prognostic factors. Methods. A single center retrospective study of 96 patients with mRCC from December 2004 to August 2013. Results. The median follow-up time was 45 months. Thirty-one (32.3%) of the patients received complete resection of metastatic sites, 11 (11.5%) of the patients underwent incomplete resection of metastatic sites, and 54 (56.3%) of the patients received no surgery. In the univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis, the median overall survival times of the three groups were 52 months, 16 months, and 22 months, respectively ( p < 0.001 ). The difference in the overall survival time was statistically significant between complete resection and no surgery groups (HR = 0.43, p = 0.009 ), while there was no significant difference between the incomplete metastasectomy and no surgery groups (HR = 1.80, p = 0.102 ). According to the multivariate Cox regression analysis, complete metastasectomy (HR = 0.49, p = 0.033 ), T stage > 3 (HR = 1.88, p = 0.015 ), disease free interval 3, disease free interval
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. To elucidate the characteristics and risk factors for positive biopsy outcomes in Chinese patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) 4–10 ng/mL and develop a risk-stratification score model. Methods. The data of 345 patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy between 2011 and 2013 was retrospectively analyzed. Digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate volume (PV), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and smoking status were also collected. Positive biopsy outcomes were defined as prostate cancer (PCa) and high grade PCa (HGPCa, Gleason Score ≥ 7). Results. The median PSA was 7.15 (IQR 5.91–8.45) ng/mL. Overall 138 patients (40.0%) were shown to have PCa, including 100 patients (29.0%) with HGPCa. Smaller PV, elder age, MRI results, and positive DRE were proved to be predictive factors for positive biopsy outcomes in both univariate and multivariate analysis. We developed a “PAMD” score which combined the four factors to categorize patients into three risk groups, and the model performed good predictive sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion. The prevalence of prostate cancer in Chinese patients with PSA 4–10 ng/mL was 40%, including 29% patients with high grade disease. DRE, age, MRI, and PV were predictive factors for positive biopsy outcomes, and the PAMD score model could be utilized for risk-stratification and decision-making.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the association between tumor squamous and/or glandular differentiation and tumor biological characteristics and to validate the impact of these histologic variants on oncologic outcomes of UTUC patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 687 UTUC patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy in our institute, from Aug 1, 1999, to Dec 31, 2011. All pathologic sections were reevaluated for histologic differentiation variations (squamous and glandular). The clinicopathological variables of patients were reviewed. Results: Among the 687 UTUC patients in our study, 53 (7.7 %) had squamous differentiation, 20 (2.9 %) had glandular differentiation and 8 (1.2 %) had both histologic variants. Patients with mixed histologic variant tended to have significant larger percentage of sessile tumor architecture (58.0 vs 18.2 %), presence of CIS (7.4 vs 2.3 %), advanced T stage, advanced tumor grade and lymph node metastasis (17.3 vs 6.6 %; all p < 0.05). Patients with squamous and/or glandular differentiation had significant worse cancer-specific survival than pure UTUC patients (p < 0.001), while significant difference of recurrence-free survival between two groups was not observed (p = 0.126). Patients with both squamous and glandular differentiation did not show significantly worse CSS than those with single histologic variant. Univariate analyses revealed that tumor squamous and/or glandular differentiation was a significant factor on survival (p < 0.001). However, the influence did not remain significant after adjusted for other factors in the multivariate analyses (p = 0.076, HR 1.42). Conclusions: UTUC patients with squamous and/or glandular differentiation are more likely to have aggressive tumor biological features and tend to have worse postoperative outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · World Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: To describe a novel and pure laparoscopic approach using a custom-made bulldog clamp with modified port placement for management of distal ureter during laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU). Patients and methods: Between October 2013 and December 2014, 31 patients diagnosed with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) were treated using this technique. After finishing a standard laparoscopic transperitoneal nephrectomy in a 45-60° recumbent position, an additional 12-mm trocar was inserted at the lower abdomen to allow the surgeon to continue dissecting the ureter caudally towards the bladder wall without repositioning the patient. The intramural ureter was separated from the surrounding detrusor muscle and down to the bladder mucosa, until a tent-shaped bladder cuff and intramural ureter could be formed by retraction in the superior and lateral directions. Then, a custom-made laparoscopic bulldog clamp was placed at the bottom of the tent-shaped structure to prevent urine spillage, and the bladder was closed by two-layer running closure using a barbed suture. Results: All surgeries were completed uneventfully. The mean operative time and estimated blood loss were 146.6 minutes and 47.3 ml, respectively. The median duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 6 days. No complications were noted. There were no positive margins in any specimen. No patients experienced stone formation or local or bladder recurrence during the 10.5-month follow-up period. Conclusions: Our novel technique fully replicates the open excision technique and conforms to the strictest oncological principles while avoiding patient repositioning and the use of staplers (EndoGIA or Hemolock) to prevent stone formation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Endourology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Previous studies revealed an unclear correlation between the growth rate of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and tumor grade and did not focus on certain histological subtype. This report investigated the correlation between the growth rate and tumor grade in clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Methods . We reviewed 60 patients with 61 ccRCC confirmed by delayed surgeries after at least 12 months of active surveillance. The linear growth rate (LGR), volumetric growth rate (VGR), and volume doubling time (VDT) were calculated, and their correlations with clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. Results . The mean LGR, VGR, and VDT were 0.86 (range 0–4.74) cm/year, 20.96 (range 0.31–211.93) cm 3 /year, and 667 (range 33–3321) days, respectively. ccRCCs with high grade had greater LGR ( P < 0.001 ) and VGR ( P = 0.001 ) and lower VDT ( P = 0.017 ) than ccRCCs with low grade. Grade (OR = 5.185, P = 0.004 ) was the only independent risk factor of LGR >0.5 cm/year, and grade (OR = 3.006, P = 0.046 ) and initial size (OR = 0.392, P = 0.004 ) were independent risk factors of VDT 0.5 cm/yr altogether; of them, four had cancer-related death by the last follow-up. Conclusions . Fast growth rate of ccRCC is significantly correlated with high tumor grade and may result in poor prognosis, especially for those with LGR >0.5 cm/yr.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: . To evaluate the prognostic outcomes and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with venous tumor thrombus in China. Materials and Methods . We reviewed the clinical information of 169 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy. Overall and cancer-specific survival rates were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the potential prognostic factors. Results . The median survival time was 63 months. The five-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rate were 53.6% and 54.4% for all patients. For all patients, significant survival difference was only observed between early (below hepatic vein) and advanced (above hepatic vein) tumor thrombus. However, significant differences existed between both RV/IVC and early/advanced tumor thrombus groups in N0M0 patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher tumor thrombus level ( p = 0.016 , RR = 1.58 ), N ( p = 0.013 , RR = 2.60 ), and M ( p < 0.001 , RR = 4.14 ) stages and adrenal gland invasion ( p = 0.001 , RR = 4.91 ) were the most significant negative prognostic predictors. Conclusions . In this study, we reported most cases of RCC patients with venous extension in China. We proved that patients with RCC and venous tumor thrombus may have relative promising long-term survival rate, especially those with early tumor thrombus.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To validate the predictive value of preoperative hydronephrosis (HN) with regard to clinicopathological outcome and prognosis in a large cohort of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients, a retrospective analysis was conducted using the clinicopathological data of 520 consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2010 at a nationwide high-volume center in China. Preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated for the presence of ipsilateral HN, and the associations between HN and pathological outcomes, patient survival and urinary tract recurrences were assessed. Ipsilateral HN was present in 271 patients (52.1%). Preoperative HN was associated with advanced age (P=0.007), sessile tumor architecture (P<0.001), ureteral location (P<0.001), higher tumor stage (P<0.001) and higher histological grade (P=0.002). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that poorer cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) times were correlated with preoperative HN (P=0.004 and P=0.009, respectively). The 5-year CSS and OS rates for patients with HN were 86.9 and 86.2%, respectively, compared to 93.3 and 91.9% for patients without HN. For patients with muscle-invasive disease, HN remained a risk factor for poor CSS and OS (P=0.009 and P=0.012, respectively). No association was identified between HN and bladder recurrence (P=0.552) or the development of contralateral upper tract carcinoma (P=0.164). The findings indicated that preoperative HN is prevalent in UTUC. The presence of preoperative HN predicted poorer pathological outcomes and was a significant risk factor affecting survival. The evaluation of HN may be informative for decisions concerning surgical options, and the presence of HN should raise the possibility of employing an aggressive treatment approach.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Oncology letters
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    ABSTRACT: Sorafenib has been recommended as first- or second-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) by several guidelines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of sorafenib monotherapy in Chinese patients with mRCC and determine the prognostic clinicopathologic factors associated with survival in these patients. This is a single-arm retrospective study conducted in 2 tertiary medical centers; 140 mRCC patients were enrolled between January 2007 and June 2014. Sorafenib was administered at a dose of 400 mg twice daily, and continued until disease progression, at which point the dose was increased to 600 or 800 mg twice daily, or the onset of an intolerable adverse drug event (ADE) that required dose reduction or temporary suspension of treatment. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety. The median follow-up time was 32 months. The median OS and PFS were 24 months (range, 3–88 months) and 16 months (range, 0–88 months), respectively. Patients with clear cell carcinoma had a greater OS (P = 0.001) whereas sarcomatoid differentiation (P = 0.045) and disease progression (P = 0.010) negatively impacted OS; time from kidney surgery or biopsy to initiation of sorafenib treatment was associated with PFS (P = 0.027). Efficacy analysis revealed that 3 (2.1%) patients achieved complete responses, 28 (20.0%) patients experienced partial responses, 88 (62.9%) patients had stable disease, and 21 (15.0%) patients developed progressive disease. Moreover, the ORR was 22.1%, and the DCR was 85.0%. Most ADEs were classified as grades 1 or 2 with only 14 (10.0%) patients experiencing a severe ADE (grade 3). Sorafenib monotherapy can achieve promising OS and PFS for Chinese patients with mRCC, especially in those with clear cell carcinoma, with manageable adverse events.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The coiled coil is a superhelical structural protein motif involved in a diverse array of biological functions, and the abnormal expression of the coiled-coil domain containing proteins has a direct link with the phenotype of tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the critical role of Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 34 (CCDC34) in bladder carcinogenesis, which has never been reported to date. Here, we found CCDC34 expression was elevated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. The knockdown of CCDC34 via lentivirus-mediated siRNA significantly suppressed bladder cancer cells proliferation and migration, and induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and increased apoptosis in vitro. In addition, CCDC34 knockdown suppressed bladder tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, CCDC34 silencing decreased the phosphorylation of MEK, ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and Akt, and the expressions of c-Raf and c-Jun, indicating MAPK and AKT pathways (ERK/MAPK, p38/MAPK, JNK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt) might be involved in CCDC34 regulation of bladder cancer cell proliferation and migration. Our findings revealed for the first time a potential oncogenic role for CCDC34 in bladder carcinoma pathogenesis and it may serve as a biomarker or even a therapeutic target for bladder cancer.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the natural history of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with delayed treatment and to immunohistochemically analyze the correlation between some biomarkers and the growth rate of RCC. We reviewed our institutional databases to identify renal tumors which were confirmed to be RCC by delayed surgical treatment after at least 12 months of active surveillance (AS). Growth rate was defined as the average growth rate of the maximal diameter on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The clinicopathological characteristics and immunohistochemical biomarkers (Ki-67, p53, bcl-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor) were analyzed the correlation with the growth rate of RCC. We identified 45 RCCs from 45 patients. The mean patient age was 54 years (range, 26-78 years). The mean tumor size increased from 2.39 cm (range, 0.10-6.70 cm) at presentation to 4.54 cm (range, 1.40-11.80 cm) after a mean time of 45.4 months (range, 12-155 months) of AS. The mean growth rate was 0.79 cm/y (range, 0.10-4.74 cm), and 36 (80.0%) tumors presented a growth rate ≤ 1.00 cm/y. Clear cell RCC had a trend of growing faster than other histological subtypes. Pathological grade was significantly correlated with the growth rate of RCC (p = 0.043). High positive ratio of Ki-67 (r = 0.351, p = 0.018) and being p53 positive (p = 0.019) were significantly correlated to the fast growth rate of RCC. In general, RCCs under AS are slow growing with a wide variation of growth rate, with a portion of RCCs presenting rapid growth kinetics. RCC with rapid growth during AS is characterized by a high histological grade, high positive ratio of Ki-67, and being p53 positive. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: A controllable Am–Be neutron source was designed based on a hamburger structure including two Be pallets and a composite polymeric membrane carrying 241Am. The composite polymeric membrane was made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVDF polymeric membrane was used as the base film to load the mixed Am(NO3)3-PVA solution, which was coated on the PVDF polymeric membrane. The thickness of two layers was both about 5 μm. The correlative calculations were performed using the Geant4 code. A piece of composite membrane loading 241Am of 2.13 × 106 Bq was placed in the middle of two Be pallets just like a hamburger. Neutrons were produced continuously until the composite membrane was separated from Be pallets. The neutron yield of the controllable hamburger neutron source was measured as 54 n/(106α), which was 15.6 % lower than the calculation value.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Background To analyze the expression of karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and to investigate whether the KPNA2 expression provides additional prognostic information following radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Methods A tissue microarray (TMA) containing samples from 176 patients with UTUC who underwent RNU at our institute was analyzed for KPNA2 expression using immunohistochemistry. KPNA2 expression in normal urothelial cell line and urothelial carcinoma cell lines was evaluated by western blot analysis. Using RNA interference in vitro, the effects of KPNA2 inhibition on cellular viability, migration and apoptosis were determined. Results KPNA2 expression was significantly upregulated in the UTUC samples compared with the adjacent normal urothelial tissues. High KPNA2 immunoreactivity was identified as a predictor of bladder recurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.017, 95% CI 1.13-3.61, p = 0.018), poor disease-free survival (DFS, HR: 2.754, 95% CI 1.68-4.51, p = 0.001) and poor overall survival (OS, HR: 4.480, 95% CI 1.84-10.89, p = 0.001) for patients with UTUC after RNU. Furthermore, high KPNA2 immunoreactivity was independent of the conventional predictive factors in a multivariate analysis. Additional in vitro experiments revealed that KPNA2 expression was higher in urothelial carcinoma cell lines than in normal urothelial cell line. KPNA2 inhibition with a specific siRNA decreased cell viability and migration and increased apoptosis in urothelial carcinoma cell lines. Conclusions KPNA2 is a novel independent prognostic marker for bladder recurrence, DFS and OS of UTUC patients who have undergone RNU. Moreover, these data suggest that KPNA2 may be a promising therapeutic target for UTUC.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · BMC Cancer

Publication Stats

117 Citations
166.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2015
    • Beijing Medical University
      • Institute of Urology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2011-2015
    • Peking University
      • Institute of Urology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2013
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Government of the People's Republic of China
      Peping, Beijing, China