[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The zebra guidewire is widely used in endoscopic surgery. Because of its central mental core, it is not easy to break or shear off within the urinary tract. We report a case about the breakage of zebra guidewire in ureteroscopy (URS) with Holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy. It is easily to be managed by percutaneous access or open surgery. For the purpose of minimal invasiveness and risk, we performed a retrograde flexible ureteroscopy and extracted it successfully without any complication. To our knowledge, this is the first case report on flexible ureteroscopy to remove the residual tip of damaged guidewire in renal.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a soft-tissue tumor with a unique t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) chromosomal translocation that can be identified by polymerase chain reaction in tissue homogenates. Generally, the tumor occurs in the proximity of the joints. The current study presents the case of a 54-year-old female with primary SS (PSS) of the right kidney; this is an extremely rare tumor accounting for <2% of malignant renal carcinomas. The patient presented with an interrupted right flank pain of 20 years duration, with a precipitating factor of a hematuria of 8 days. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a heterogeneous, unclear-marginated soft tissue arising in the upper pole of the right kidney with solid, necrotic components and heterogeneous enhancement. Renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed pre-operatively. A right nephrectomy was performed, and the patient is currently free of metastasis 12 months after the surgery. The current treatment for renal SS includes surgical resection and ifosfamide-based chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, <50 cases have been reported in the English literature. Urologists should be aware of the possibility of malignancy in cystic renal masses and consider a diagnosis of SS. Along with the case report, the current study presents a literature review on the diagnosis and treatment of PSS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which is a highly conserved and evolutionarily non-histone nuclear protein, has been shown to associate with a variety of biological important processes, such as transcription, DNA repair, differentiation, and extracellular signalling. High HMGB1 expression has been reported in many cancers, such as prostate, kidney, ovarian, and gastric cancer. However, there have been few studies of the function of HMGB1 in the malignant biological behaviour of bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC), and the potential mechanism of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of BUC remains unclear. Thus, in this study, we constructed plasmid vectors that are capable of synthesizing specific shRNAs targeting HMGB1 and transfected them into BUC cells to persistently suppress the endogenous gene expression of HMGB1. The expression of HMGB1, the bioactivity of BUC cells, including proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, migration and invasion, and the effects of HMGB1 knockdown on downstream signalling pathways were investigated. Our data suggest that HMGB1 promotes the malignant biological behaviour of BUC, and that this effect may be partially mediated by the NF-κB signalling pathway. HMGB1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for BUC in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal artery aneurysms (RAAs) are a rare condition; however, the coexistence of an RAA with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is extremely rare. The present study reports the case of a patient found to simultaneously have an operable RAA and RCC. The patient was treated by radical nephrectomy. Surgical intervention for RAA is controversial, and the appropriate treatment for RCC with RAA has not been well characterized and requires further study. The present study reports the examination of a patient with coexisting RAA and RCC and suggests possible treatments for this condition. In addition, a review of the English literature investigating the association of RCC with RAA is presented.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Experimental and therapeutic medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the relationship between the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and tumor hypoxia, which is caused by chronic hypoxemic hypoxia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the prognostic value of COPD in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC).
The clinicopathological variables of 80 patients with BUC who underwent surgery were analyzed by retrospective methods. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed with clinicopathological variables including concomitant COPD, pulmonary function test (PFT), serum hemoglobin level and smoking history, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The localization of HIF-1α expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
Both the median OS and PFS of patients with COPD were shorter than the patients without COPD (P < 0.001). High levels of HIF-1α expression were associated with BUC of higher clinicopathological stage and histological grade (P < 0.001). COPD was an independent prognostic variable for OS, PFS and DSS. The clinicopathological stage was an independent prognostic variable for OS and DSS. The level of HIF-1α expression was an independent prognostic variable for PFS.
COPD is an independent prognostic variable for BUC, and contributes to poor prognosis.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between prostate volume (PV) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in geriatric benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients.
One hundred and seventeen geriatric patients with BPH were retrospectively studied between 2008 and 2009. Patients were divided into two groups: BPH and BPH with DM group. The effects of indexes of DM, including fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-h postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance (IR) index, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were evaluated.
The values of PV (P = 0.005), PSA (P = 0.013), and IPSS (P = 0.01) in the BPH patients with DM group were significantly higher than in the BPH group. The values of PV (P = 0.002) and PSA (P = 0.006) in the BPH patients with elevated FBG were significantly higher than in the BPH patients with normal FBG. BPH patients with elevated HbA1c had significantly higher PV than BPH patients with normal HbA1c (P = 0.046). BPH with hyperinsulinemia group showed significantly higher PV (P = 0.017) and longer duration of LUTS (P = 0.031) than BPH patients with normal FINS. Similarly, BPH patients with IR had higher PV (P = 0.004) and longer duration of LUTS (P = 0.036) than BPH patients without IR. The logistic regression analysis showed that FBG and FINS were the risk factors for BPH.
Our study demonstrates that PV is closely correlated with diabetes and diabetes has a direct effect on the occurrence and development of BPH.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · International Urology and Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in managing residual stones after ureterolithotripsy and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
A retrospective study was carried out of 71 patients with proximal urinary tract stones (greater than 10 mm) who underwent ureterolithotripsy or mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy at a single institution from 2009 to 2011. The 71 patients were divided into two groups: group I (n = 37) comprised patients who underwent ureterolithotripsy, and group II (n = 34) comprised patients who underwent mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Clinical characteristics, stone-free rates, stone demographics, and complications were evaluated.
The overall stone-free rate was 90.1%. The stone-free rates in groups I and II were 97.3% and 82.4%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the stone-free rates between groups I and II (P = 0.035). Neither serious intraoperative nor postoperative complications were observed. No significant difference in complications was observed between the two groups (P = 0.472).
The results of our study suggest that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is an effective and safe auxiliary procedure for managing residual stones after primary endoscopic surgery. This procedure is associated with a satisfactory stone-free rate and a low complication rate, particularly for residual stones after ureteroscopic procedures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report our experience with Chinese minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (Chinese MPCNL) to manage patients with intrarenal stones in solitary kidney, and evaluate the safety, efficiency and feasibility of this technique.
Forty-one patients with intrarenal stones in solitary kidney underwent Chinese MPCNL in our department from March 2009 to February 2011. Demographic characteristics, operative parameters, number of tracts, stone-free rates (SFRs), stone analyses, hemoglobin levels, nephrostomy tube removal time, hospitalization time, and complications were evaluated. Serum creatinine (Scr) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured preoperatively, postoperatively at 1 month, and each follow-up visit. The 5-stage classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was used according to the National Kidney Foundation guidelines.
The initial stone-free status was achieved in 35 (85.4%) patients after Chinese MPCNL. The mean follow-up time was 16.9 ± 4.7 months (range: 12-24), and the final SFR improved to 97.6% after auxiliary procedures. Among all patients, complex stones were detected in 26 (63.4%) patients, and 9 (22.0%) required multiple tracts. The mean operative time and mean hospitalization time were 71.3 ± 23.5 min (range: 40-139) and 6.1 ± 0.5 days (range: 5-11), respectively. During preoperative period and postoperative period (1 month), Scr were 132.1 ± 41.3 umol/L (range: 78.2-231.4) and 108.9 ± 30.7 umol/L (range: 71.6-136.9), respectively (P<0.05), while GFR were 74.9 ± 24.2 ml/min (range: 35-110) and 83.9 ± 27.4 ml/min (range: 65-110), respectively (P<0.05). According to CKD classification, the renal function was stable, improved, and worse in 29 (70.7%), 11 (26.8%), and 1 (2.5%) patients, compared with the preoperative levels. No patient progressed to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis.
Our experience with Chinese MPCNL demonstrates that it is safe, feasible and efficient for managing the intrarenal calculi in solitary kidney with a low complication rate. At long-term follow-up, renal function stabilized or even improved in the majority of patients with solitary kidney.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of flexible ureteroscopy (FURS) and holmium laser lithotripsy as a valuable treatment of bilateral multiple intrarenal stones and stratify the efficacy by stone burdens ≤20 and >20 mm.
Twenty-five patients with bilateral multiple intrarenal stones were treated with FURS and holmium lithotripsy at a single clinic. The operative time, stone-free rates (SFRs) per renal unit, stone compositions, number of procedures, serum creatinine, and complications were evaluated. The SFRs were evaluated with computed tomography and plain X-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Renal ultrasound was performed 30 days after double-J stent removal to identify hydronephrosis and absence of stones. We defined a stone-free status as the absence of fragments in the kidney or fragments of <1 mm.
The total stone number was 128 with a mean stone burden per patient of 24 ± 5 (range 17-37 mm). The overall SFRs per renal unit after 1, 2, and 3 procedures were 70.0%, 92.0%, and 92.0%, respectively. The overall SFRs per renal unit for patients with a preoperative stone burden ≤20 and >20 mm were 100% and 85.7%, respectively. No major intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. There were only 4 minor postoperative complications (16%).
Our study results firmly suggest that FURS with holmium laser lithotripsy represents a favorable alternative to external shock wave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy for select patients with bilateral multiple intrarenal stones, which have a satisfactory efficacy and low morbidity.