[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of salivary stimulation therapy on the salivary flow, quality of saliva, and symptoms in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS).
BMS is a chronic disorder characterized by a burning sensation. Some reports have proposed a role for saliva in the pathogenesis of BMS.
Twenty-six BMS patients underwent treatment with salivary mechanical stimulation. Resting and stimulated saliva were collected before and after therapy. Salivary levels of total protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and nerve growth factor were assessed before and 90 days after therapy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
A significant reduction in the burning sensation and number of burning sites as well as an improvement of taste disturbances and xerostomia were observed after therapy. The salivary flow was not significantly modified. However, the therapy resulted in a significant decrease in salivary levels of total protein and an increase of tumor necrosis factor-α.
Salivary mechanical stimulation therapy is effective in reducing clinical symptoms of BMS.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is high, but their role in the pathogenesis of BMS remains unclear.
The authors aimed to assess the frequency of psychiatric disorders and the severity of psychopathology in BMS.
Thirty BMS patients and thirty-one controls underwent a psychiatric evaluation which included a structured interview (MINI-Plus) and five psychometric scales. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure the intensity of burning sensation.
Patients with BMS showed a higher frequency of current major depressive disorder, past major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, hypochondria and cancerophobia (p<0.05). In BMS patients, generalized anxiety disorder was significantly associated with current major depression and social phobia (p<0.05). As expected, cancerophobia was significantly associated with hypochondria (p<0.05). Patients with BMS had higher scores in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS) (p<0.05).
BMS patients may have a particular psychological and/or psychiatric profile. Psychometric scales might be useful in screening psychiatric disorders, as well as for assessment of treatment outcomes. In the presence of clinical relevant psychiatric symptoms, patients must be treated appropriately.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of psychosomatic research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic and painful syndrome, characterized by a continuous burning sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of physical abnormalities. It is considered a multifactorial disorder with involvement of systemic, local and psychological factors but unclear aetiology. It has been reported an association of BMS with salivary dysfunction. Reports in the literature suggest that only 3% of patients will have a complete remission of symptoms over a period of 5 years. Aims: To verify the effect of salivary stimulation in patients with BMS. Methods: Nineteen patients with BMS used mechanical sialogogue (hyperboloid) therapy three times a day for 15 minutes during 90 days. Two salivary samples (resting and stimulated) were collected in the beginning and in the end of the therapy to evaluate the salivary flow rate. In addition, an evaluation of the symptoms of BMS was carried out using a self report scale (none, mild, moderate and severe) in both moments. Results: All patients were women with age average of 65.8 (SD=13.1) years. The mean salivary flow rate was 0.30 ml/min in resting and 1.17 ml/min in stimulated saliva in the beginning and 0.30 ml/min in resting and 1.06 ml/min (after therapy). Regarding the symptoms, patients reporting severe pain in the beginning of the study (78.9%), reported moderate (26.7%), mild (33.3%) and absence of symptoms (40%) at end of therapy. Similar reduction on BMS symptoms was found among those patients reporting moderated pain in the begging of the study (20.8%), half reported mild and the other half did not report any symptom. Conclusions: Despite no significant difference in the mean salivary flow was observed, an overall reduction in the BMS symptoms was reported by patients under mechanic stimulatory therapy.