Heather J Cordell

Newcastle University, Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (198)1404.67 Total impact

  • Rita M. Cantor · Heather J. Cordell
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    ABSTRACT: We currently have the ability to quantify transcript abundance of messenger RNA (mRNA), genome-wide, using microarray technologies. Analyzing genotype, phenotype and expression data from 20 pedigrees, the members of our Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 19 gene expression group published 9 papers, tackling some timely and important problems and questions. To study the complexity and interrelationships of genetics and gene expression, we used established statistical tools, developed newer statistical tools, and developed and applied extensions to these tools. To study gene expression correlations in the pedigree members (without incorporating genotype or trait data into the analysis), 2 papers used principal components analysis, weighted gene coexpression network analysis, meta-analyses, gene enrichment analyses, and linear mixed models. To explore the relationship between genetics and gene expression, 2 papers studied expression quantitative trait locus allelic heterogeneity through conditional association analyses, and epistasis through interaction analyses. A third paper assessed the feasibility of applying allele-specific binding to filter potential regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Analytic approaches included linear mixed models based on measured genotypes in pedigrees, permutation tests, and covariance kernels. To incorporate both genotype and phenotype data with gene expression, 4 groups employed linear mixed models, nonparametric weighted U statistics, structural equation modeling, Bayesian unified frameworks, and multiple regression. Results and discussion Regarding the analysis of pedigree data, we found that gene expression is familial, indicating that at least 1 factor for pedigree membership or multiple factors for the degree of relationship should be included in analyses, and we developed a method to adjust for familiality prior to conducting weighted co-expression gene network analysis. For SNP association and conditional analyses, we found FaST-LMM (Factored Spectrally Transformed Linear Mixed Model) and SOLAR-MGA (Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines –Major Gene Analysis) have similar type 1 and type 2 errors and can be used almost interchangeably. To improve the power and precision of association tests, prior knowledge of DNase-I hypersensitivity sites or other relevant biological annotations can be incorporated into the analyses. On a biological level, eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci) are genetically complex, exhibiting both allelic heterogeneity and epistasis. Including both genotype and phenotype data together with measurements of gene expression was found to be generally advantageous in terms of generating improved levels of significance and in providing more interpretable biological models. Pedigrees can be used to conduct analyses of and enhance gene expression studies.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · BMC Genetics
  • Holly F. Ainsworth · So-Youn Shin · Heather J. Cordell

    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common, painful and debilitating disease of articulating joints resulting from the age-associated loss of cartilage. Well-powered genetic studies have identified a number of DNA polymorphisms that are associated with OA susceptibility. Like most complex trait loci, these OA loci are thought to influence disease susceptibility through regulation of gene expression, so called expression quantitative loci, or eQTLs. One mechanism through which eQTLs act is epigenetically, by modulating DNA methylation. In such cases, there are quantitative differences in DNA methylation between the two alleles of the causal polymorphism, with the association signal referred to as a methylation quantitative trait locus, or meQTL. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the OA susceptibility loci identified to date are functioning as meQTLs by integrating genotype data with whole genome methylation data of cartilage DNA. We investigated potential genotype-methylation correlations within a 1.0-1.5 Mb region surrounding each of 16 OA associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 99 cartilage samples, and identified four that function as meQTLs. Three of these replicated in an additional cohort of up to 62 OA patients. These observations suggest that OA susceptibility loci regulate the level of DNA methylation in cis and provide a mechanistic explanation as to how these loci impact upon OA susceptibility, further increasing our understanding of the role of genetics and epigenetics in this common disease.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Human Molecular Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a classical autoimmune liver disease for which effective immunomodulatory therapy is lacking. Here we perform meta-analyses of discovery data sets from genome-wide association studies of European subjects (n=2,764 cases and 10,475 controls) followed by validation genotyping in an independent cohort (n=3,716 cases and 4,261 controls). We discover and validate six previously unknown risk loci for PBC (Pcombined<5 × 10(-8)) and used pathway analysis to identify JAK-STAT/IL12/IL27 signalling and cytokine-cytokine pathways, for which relevant therapies exist.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Diseases often cooccur in individuals more often than expected by chance, and may be explained by shared underlying genetic etiology. A common approach to genetic overlap analyses is to use summary genome-wide association study data to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with multiple traits at a selected P-value threshold. However, P-values do not account for differences in power, whereas Bayes’ factors (BFs) do, and may be approximated using summary statistics. We use simulation studies to compare the power of frequentist and Bayesian approaches with overlap analyses, and to decide on appropriate thresholds for comparison between the two methods. It is empirically illustrated that BFs have the advantage over P-values of a decreasing type I error rate as study size increases for single-disease associations. Consequently, the overlap analysis of traits from different-sized studies encounters issues in fair P-value threshold selection, whereas BFs are adjusted automatically. Extensive simulations show that Bayesian overlap analyses tend to have higher power than those that assess association strength with P-values, particularly in low-power scenarios. Calibration tables between BFs and P-values are provided for a range of sample sizes, as well as an approximation approach for sample sizes that are not in the calibration table. Although P-values are sometimes thought more intuitive, these tables assist in removing the opaqueness of Bayesian thresholds and may also be used in the selection of a BF threshold to meet a certain type I error rate. An application of our methods is used to identify variants associated with both obesity and osteoarthritis.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Genetic Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Parent-of-origin (or imprinting) effects relate to the situation in which traits are influenced by the allele inherited from only one parent and the allele from the other parent has little or no effect. Given SNP genotype data from case-parent trios, the parent of origin of each allele in the offspring can often be deduced unambiguously; however, this is not true when all three individuals are heterozygous. Most existing methods for investigating parent-of-origin effects operate on a SNP-by-SNP basis and either perform some sort of averaging over the possible parental transmissions or else discard ambiguous trios. If the correct parent of origin at a SNP could be determined, this would provide extra information and increase the power for detecting the effects of imprinting. We propose making use of the surrounding SNP information, via haplotype estimation, to improve estimation of parent of origin at a test SNP for case-parent trios, case-mother duos, and case-father duos. This extra information is then used in a multinomial modeling approach for estimating parent-of-origin effects at the test SNP. We show through computer simulations that our approach has increased power over previous approaches, particularly when the data consist only of duos. We apply our method to two real datasets and find a decrease in significance of p values in genomic regions previously thought to possibly harbor imprinting effects, thus weakening the evidence that such effects actually exist in these regions, although some regions retain evidence of significant effects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified two susceptibility loci for congenital heart disease (CHD) in Han Chinese. Here we identify additional loci by testing promising associations in an extended 3-stage validation consisting of 6,053 CHD cases and 7,410 controls. We find GW significant (P<5.0 × 10(-8)) evidence of 4 additional CHD susceptibility loci at 4q31.22 (rs1400558, upstream of EDNRA, Pall=1.63 × 10(-9)), 9p24.2 (rs7863990, close to SMARCA2, Pall=3.71 × 10(-14)), 12q24.13 (rs2433752, upstream of TBX3 and TBX5, Pall=1.04 × 10(-10)) and 20q12 (rs490514, in PTPRT, Pall=1.20 × 10(-13)). Moreover, the data from previous European GWAS supports that rs490514 is associated with the risk of CHD (P=3.40 × 10(-3)). These results enhance our understanding of CHD susceptibility.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: The biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) - so-called 'treatment response' - strongly predicts long-term outcome in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Several long-term prognostic models based solely on the treatment response have been developed that are widely used to risk-stratify PBC patients and guide their management. However, they do not take other prognostic variables into account, such as the stage of the liver disease. We sought to improve existing long-term prognostic models of PBC using data from the UK-PBC Research Cohort. We performed Cox proportional hazards regression analysis of diverse explanatory variables in a derivation cohort of 1,916 UDCA-treated participants. We used non-automatic backward selection to derive the best-fitting Cox model, from which we derived a multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) model. We combined linear predictors and baseline survivor functions in equations to score the risk of a liver transplant or liver-related death occurring within 5, 10 or 15 years. We validated these risk scores in an independent cohort of 1,249 UDCA-treated participants. The best-fitting model consisted of the baseline albumin and platelet count, as well as the bilirubin, transaminases and alkaline phosphatase after 12 months of UDCA. In the validation cohort, the 5, 10 and 15-year risk scores were highly accurate (AUCs > 0.90). The prognosis of PBC patients can be accurately evaluated using the UK-PBC risk scores. They may be used to identify high-risk patients for closer monitoring and second-line therapies, as well as low-risk patients who could potentially be followed-up in primary care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: In common with several other autoimmune diseases, autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is thought to be caused by a combination of deleterious susceptibility polymorphisms in several genes, together with undefined environmental factors and stochastic events. To date, the strongest genomic association with AAD has been with alleles at the HLA locus, DR3-DQ2 and DR4. The contribution of other genetic variants has been inconsistent. We have studied the association of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CD28-CTLA-4-ICOS genomic locus, in a cohort comprising 691 AAD patients of Norwegian and UK origin with matched controls. We have also performed a meta-analysis including 1002 patients from European countries. The G-allele of SNP rs231775 in CTLA-4 is associated with AAD in Norwegian patients (odds ratio (OR)=1.35 (confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.66), P=0.004), but not in UK patients. The same allele is associated with AAD in the total European population (OR=1.37 (CI 1.13-1.66), P=0.002). A three-marker haplotype, comprising PROMOTER_1661, rs231726 and rs1896286 was found to be associated with AAD in the Norwegian cohort only (OR 2.43 (CI 1.68-3.51), P=0.00013). This study points to the CTLA-4 gene as a susceptibility locus for the development of AAD, and refines its mapping within the wider genomic locus.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 23 July 2015; doi:10.1038/gene.2015.27.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Genes and immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a rare, highly heritable autoimmune endocrinopathy. It is possible that there may be some highly penetrant variants which confer disease susceptibility that have yet to be discovered. Methods: DNA samples from 23 multiplex AAD pedigrees from the UK and Norway (50 cases, 67 controls) were genotyped on the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array. Linkage analysis was performed using Merlin. EMMAX was used to carry out a genome-wide association analysis comparing the familial AAD cases to 2706 UK WTCCC controls. To explore some of the linkage findings further, a replication study was performed by genotyping 64 SNPs in two of the four linked regions (chromosomes 7 and 18), on the Sequenom iPlex platform in three European AAD case-control cohorts (1097 cases, 1117 controls). The data were analysed using a meta-analysis approach. Results: In a parametric analysis, applying a rare dominant model, loci on chromosomes 7, 9 and 18 had LOD scores >2.8. In a non-parametric analysis, a locus corresponding to the HLA region on chromosome 6, known to be associated with AAD, had a LOD score >3.0. In the genome-wide association analysis, a SNP cluster on chromosome 2 and a pair of SNPs on chromosome 6 were associated with AAD (P <5x10-7). A meta-analysis of the replication study data demonstrated that three chromosome 18 SNPs were associated with AAD, including a non-synonymous variant in the NFATC1 gene. Conclusion: This linkage study has implicated a number of novel chromosomal regions in the pathogenesis of AAD in multiplex AAD families and adds further support to the role of HLA in AAD. The genome-wide association analysis has also identified a region of interest on chromosome 2. A replication study has demonstrated that the NFATC1 gene is worthy of future investigation, however each of the regions identified require further, systematic analysis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background The risk of alcohol-related liver cirrhosis increases with increasing alcohol consumption, but many people with very high intake escape from liver disease. We postulate that susceptibility to alcoholic cirrhosis has a complex genetic component and propose that this can be dissected through a large and sufficiently powered genomewide association study (GWAS).Methods The GenomALC Consortium comprises researchers from Australia, France, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States, with a joint aim of exploring the genetic and genomic basis of alcoholic cirrhosis. For this National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism funded study, we are recruiting high-risk drinkers who are either cases (with alcoholic cirrhosis) or controls (drinking comparable amounts over similar time, but free of significant liver disease). Extensive phenotypic data are obtained using semistructured interviews and patient records, and blood samples are collected.ResultsWe have successfully recruited 859 participants including 538 matched case–control samples as of September 2014, using study-specific inclusion–exclusion criteria and data collection protocols. Of these, 580 are cases (442 men and 138 women) and 279 are controls (205 men and 74 women). Duration of excessive drinking was slightly greater in cases than controls and was significantly less in women than men. Cases had significantly lower lifetime alcohol intake than controls. Both cases and controls had a high prevalence of reported parental alcohol problems, but cases were significantly more likely to report that a father with alcohol problems had died from liver disease (odds ratio 2.53, 95% confidence interval 1.31 to 4.87, p = 0.0055).Conclusions Recruitment of participants for a GWAS of alcoholic cirrhosis has proved feasible across countries with multiple sites. Affected patients often consume less alcohol than unaffected ones, emphasizing the existence of individual vulnerability factors. Cases are more likely to report liver disease in a father with alcohol problems than controls, consistent with a potential genetic component to the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased insulin sensitivity, also referred to as insulin resistance (IR), is a fundamental abnormality in patients with type 2 diabetes and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While IR predisposition is heritable, the genetic basis remains largely unknown. The GENEticS of Insulin Sensitivity consortium conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for direct measures of insulin sensitivity, such as euglycemic clamp or insulin suppression test, in 2,764 European individuals, with replication in an additional 2,860 individuals. The presence of a nonsynonymous variant of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) [rs1208 (803A>G, K268R)] was strongly associated with decreased insulin sensitivity that was independent of BMI. The rs1208 "A" allele was nominally associated with IR-related traits, including increased fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C, total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and coronary artery disease. NAT2 acetylates arylamine and hydrazine drugs and carcinogens, but predicted acetylator NAT2 phenotypes were not associated with insulin sensitivity. In a murine adipocyte cell line, silencing of NAT2 ortholog Nat1 decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake, increased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis, and decreased adipocyte differentiation, while Nat1 overexpression produced opposite effects. Nat1-deficient mice had elevations in fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides and decreased insulin sensitivity, as measured by glucose and insulin tolerance tests, with intermediate effects in Nat1 heterozygote mice. Our results support a role for NAT2 in insulin sensitivity.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
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    ABSTRACT: A body mass index (BMI) >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip) in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G) reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as P<5x10-8. Nevertheless, genes/pathways in common with other ethnicities were identified despite the arrival of Aboriginal people in Australia >45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7) for BMI lies 5' of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7) was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5), previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6) for T2D lies 5' of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin's transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1) and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1) functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4) for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6) for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that allergy risk is preferentially transmitted through mothers. This can be due to genomic imprinting, where the phenotype effect of an allele depends on its parental origin, or due to maternal effects reflecting the maternal genome's influence on the child during prenatal development. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) cause skin barrier deficiency and strongly predispose to atopic dermatitis (AD). We investigated the 4 most prevalent European FLG mutations (c.2282del4, p.R501X, p.R2447X, and p.S3247X) in two samples including 759 and 450 AD families. We used the multinomial and maximum-likelihood approach implemented in the PREMIM/EMIM tool to model parent of origin effects. Beyond the known role of FLG inheritance in AD (R1 meta-analysis = 2.4, P = 1.0 x 10 −36), we observed a strong maternal FLG genotype effect that was consistent in
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that allergy risk is preferentially transmitted through mothers. This can be due to genomic imprinting, where the phenotype effect of an allele depends on its parental origin, or due to maternal effects reflecting the maternal genome's influence on the child during prenatal development. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) cause skin barrier deficiency and strongly predispose to atopic dermatitis (AD). We investigated the 4 most prevalent European FLG mutations (c.2282del4, p.R501X, p.R2447X, and p.S3247X) in two samples including 759 and 450 AD families. We used the multinomial and maximum-likelihood approach implemented in the PREMIM/EMIM tool to model parent-of-origin effects. Beyond the known role of FLG inheritance in AD (R1meta-analysis = 2.4, P = 1.0 x 10-36), we observed a strong maternal FLG genotype effect that was consistent in both independent family sets and for all 4 mutations analysed. Overall, children of FLG-carrier mothers had a 1.5-fold increased AD risk (S1 = 1.50, Pmeta-analysis = 8.4 x 10-8). Our data point to two independent and additive effects of FLG mutations: i) carrying a mutation and ii) having a mutation carrier mother. The maternal genotype effect was independent of mutation inheritance and can be seen as a non-genetic transmission of a genetic effect. The FLG maternal effect was observed only when mothers had allergic sensitization (elevated allergen-specific IgE antibody plasma levels), suggesting that FLG mutation-induced systemic immune responses in the mother may influence AD risk in the child. Notably, the maternal effect reported here was stronger than most common genetic risk factors for AD recently identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our study highlights the power of family-based studies in the identification of new etiological mechanisms and reveals, for the first time, a direct influence of the maternal genotype on the offspring's susceptibility to a common human disease.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS Genetics

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Digestive and Liver Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are the two most common immune-mediated inflammatory disorders affecting the skin. Genome-wide studies demonstrate a high degree of genetic overlap, but these diseases have mutually exclusive clinical phenotypes and opposing immune mechanisms. Despite their prevalence, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis very rarely co-occur within one individual. By utilizing genome-wide association study and ImmunoChip data from >19,000 individuals and methodologies developed from meta-analysis, we have identified opposing risk alleles at shared loci as well as independent disease-specific loci within the epidermal differentiation complex (chromosome 1q21.3), the Th2 locus control region (chromosome 5q31.1), and the major histocompatibility complex (chromosome 6p21-22). We further identified previously unreported pleiotropic alleles with opposing effects on atopic dermatitis and psoriasis risk in PRKRA and ANXA6/TNIP1. In contrast, there was no evidence for shared loci with effects operating in the same direction on both diseases. Our results show that atopic dermatitis and psoriasis have distinct genetic mechanisms with opposing effects in shared pathways influencing epidermal differentiation and immune response. The statistical analysis methods developed in the conduct of this study have produced additional insight from previously published data sets. The approach is likely to be applicable to the investigation of the genetic basis of other complex traits with overlapping and distinct clinical features. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background Inherited abnormalities of complement are found in ∼60% of patients with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). Such abnormalities are not fully penetrant. In this study, we have estimated the penetrance of the disease in three families with a CFH mutation (c.3643C>G; p. Arg1215Gly) in whom a common lineage is probable. 25 individuals have been affected with aHUS with three peaks of incidence—early childhood (n=6), early adulthood (n=11) and late adulthood (n=8). Eighteen individuals who have not developed aHUS carry the mutation. Methods We estimated penetrance at the ages of 4, 27, 60 and 70 years as both a binary and a survival trait using MLINK and Mendel. We genotyped susceptibility factors in CFH, CD46 and CFHR1 in affected and unaffected carriers. Results and Conclusions We found that the estimates of penetrance at the age of 4 years ranged from <0.01 to 0.10, at the age of 27 years from 0.16 to 0.29, at the age of 60 years from 0.39 to 0.51 and at the age of 70 years from 0.44 to 0.64. We found that the CFH haplotype on the allele not carrying the CFH mutation had a significant effect on disease penetrance. In this family, we did not find that the CD46 haplotypes had a significant effect on penetrance.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Medical Genetics

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,404.67 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2015
    • Newcastle University
      • • Institute of Genetic Medicine
      • • Institute for Ageing and Health
      • • Institute of Cellular Medicine
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010-2013
    • University of Newcastle
      Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2011
    • WWF United Kingdom
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000-2011
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Medical Genetics
      • • Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003-2007
    • Cambridge Institute for Medical Research
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Dental Public Health
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 1997-2001
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      • • Rammelkamp Center for Education and Research
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 1993-1998
    • University of Oxford
      • Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • University of Glasgow
      • Medical Genetics Section
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom