C Leblanc

Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada

Are you C Leblanc?

Claim your profile

Publications (57)120.73 Total impact

  • R Savard · C Bouchard · C Leblanc · A Tremblay
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Family resemblance in fatness has been studied in 481 individuals from 114 families of French descent living in the greater Quebec city area. Subjects were measured for the following fatness indicators: triceps, biceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal and medial calf skinfolds. The sum of these six skinfolds as well as a prediction of percent body fat (Durnin and Rahaman 1967) were also considered. Data were standardized for appropriate age and sex classes yielding SS scores. The influence of relevant lifestyle variables (energy intake, energy expenditure and socioeconomic status) were statistically removed from SS yeilding residual scores (RS) that were then submitted to familial analyses. Analyses of variance indicate that there is a larger between family variation than within (P less than or equal to 0.01) for SS when considering either the whole nuclear family or sibships; in these instances, the intra-class correlation ranges from 0.15 to 0.26. There was, however, no significant resemblance among spouses for the SS fatness indicators. Similar values were essentially found for RS fatness indicators. Furthermore, husband-wife inter-class correlations were not significant with the exception of subscapular and calf skinfold RS. Covariations between biological relatives are however significant (0.16 less than or equal to r less than or equal to 0.24, P less than or equal to 0.01) for SS and remain essentially unchanged after statistical control over the lifestyle variables (0.16 less than or equal to r less than or equal to 0.40, P less than or equal to 0.01). The findings that spouses do not covary significantly in fatness, while biological relatives of traditional nuclear families exhibit a significant degree of resemblance even after statistical control over daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure and socioeconomic status provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is a substantial genetic effect in human fatness.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Annals of Human Biology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2009

  • No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  • No preview · Article · May 1995 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 1991

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 1991
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One hundred thirty-four women, aged 36 +/- 4 (mean +/- SD) y, BMI 20 +/- 3 kg/m2, perceiving themselves as having either a low or high energy intake (EI), participated in a study to determine variations in EI. Information on EI and activity level was obtained from repeated 7-d records. The 40 subjects with the lowest EI (in kcal/kg body wt) were categorized as small eaters (SEs); the 40 subjects with the highest EI were considered to be large eaters (LEs). The absolute (in kcal) and relative (in kcal/kg body wt) EIs of the SE and LE groups were 1488 +/- 312 and 27 +/- 4 for the SE group, respectively and 2393 +/- 509 and 47 +/- 6 for the LE group, respectively. There was no significant difference in activity level or fat-free mass (FFM) between the groups. However, LEs weighed significantly less (51 vs 55 kg) and were leaner (22% body fat vs 33%) than were SEs. Individuals with similar FFM and activity level can vary significantly in EI needs.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 1991 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • V George · A Tremblay · J P Després · C Leblanc · C Bouchard
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The relationship between dietary fat intake, adiposity and regional subcutaneous fat distribution was studied in 344 men and 335 women (aged 35-55 years). Three-day food records were used to estimate total energy intake (EI) and percent intake of all macronutrients. Subjects were categorized as having an EI that was low (lower quantile) or high (upper quantile) in fat. Results showed that both men and women with a higher percent of EI in the form of fat weighed significantly (P less than 0.05) more, and had higher subcutaneous adiposity indices than subjects with a low fat intake. There was also a significant difference for both sexes between low and high fat intake groups in trunk and extremity skinfolds and trunk/extremity skinfolds ratio adjusted for the sum of skinfolds. However, this effect was not present when correlations between percent fat intake and body composition or regional fat distribution variables adjusted for total fat intake per unit of body mass were computed. These results suggest that a greater EI in the form of fat influences total adiposity, as well as regional subcutaneous fat distribution, only when high fat consumers are compared to low fat consumers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1991 · International Journal of Obesity
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of intensity of physical activity on body fatness and fat distribution, observations of 1366 women and 1257 men who participated in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey were analyzed. Subjects were tested for energy expenditure of leisure-time activities and estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body fatness was measured by subcutaneous skinfold thicknesses, and anthropometric measurements were made. Subjects of both sexes were categorized into four subgroups on the basis of their participation in leisure-time activities of various intensities. In general, subjects practicing vigorous activities on a regular basis had lower subcutaneous skinfold thicknesses and waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs) than those not performing these activities. These differences remained statistically significant after a covariance analysis was used to remove the effect of total energy expenditure of leisure-time activities on subcutaneous fat and fat distribution. Moreover, the WHR remained significantly lower in subjects performing high-intensity exercise after the effect of subcutaneous fat on fat distribution was adjusted for.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 1990 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • C Bouchard · L Pérusse · C Leblanc
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite some evidence that genotype-environment interaction (G x E) effects may be involved in the variation observed in behavioral and biological traits, few attempts have been made to detect and quantify this component of genetic variation in humans. We propose that one way to achieve this goal is to challenge several genotypes in a similar manner, submitting both members of several MZ twin pairs to an ethically acceptable experimental treatment capable of inducing an adaptative response. In this situation, the G x E effect can be assessed with a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures on one factor, the treatment effect. In this design, twins are considered nested within the pair, whereas the treatment effect is considered a fixed variable. The intrapair resemblance in the response to the treatment is quantified with an intraclass correlation coefficient computed with between-sibhips and within-sibhips means of squares. To illustrate this approach, changes induced by long-term endurance training were studied in 10 MZ twin pairs. Significant intrapair resemblance in the response of maximal oxygen uptake was observed, with about 7 to 8 times more variance between pairs than within pairs. This design with MZ twins may be helpful in the study of human variation for multifactorial phenotypes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1990 · Acta geneticae medicae et gemellologiae
  • L Pérusse · A Tremblay · C Leblanc · C Bouchard
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to quantify genetic and environmental determinants of physical activity level, 1,610 subjects from 375 families who lived in the greater Québec city area completed a three-day activity record in 1978-1981. Level of habitual physical activity, which includes all the usual activities of life, and exercise participation, which includes activities requiring at least five times the resting oxygen consumption and more, were derived from this record. Familial correlations were computed in several pairs of biologic relatives and relatives by adoption after adjustment for the effects of age, sex, physical fitness, body mass index, and socioeconomic status, and analyzed with a model of path analysis that allows the separation of the transmissible effect between generations (t2) into genetic (h2) and cultural (b2) components of inheritance. The transmission was found to be statistically significant, but was accounted for by genetic factors for level of habitual physical activity (t2 = h2 = 29%), and by cultural factors for exercise participation (t2 = b2 = 12%). Although non-transmissible environmental factors remain the major determinants of these two physical activity indicators in this population, the results suggest that children can acquire from their parents certain customs regarding exercise behavior and that the propensity toward being spontaneously active could be partly influenced by the genotype.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1989 · American Journal of Epidemiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The contribution of genetic and environmental factors in serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and HDL-C/CHOL ratio were studied in 1630 subjects from 375 families of French descent by using a path analysis procedure. Familial correlations were computed in several pairs of biological relatives and relatives by adoption after adjustment for age and gender effects and after further adjustment for physical fitness, level of habitual physical activity, total body fat and fat distribution, diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The model of path analysis allowed the separation of transmissible variance (t2) into genetic (h2) and cultural (b2) components of inheritance. Under the most parsimonious solution and after adjustment for age, gender, and concomitants, the transmissible variance was entirely accounted for by genetic factors (t2 = h2), with h2 estimates of 0.52, 0.55, 0.60, and 0.63 for TG, CHOL, LDL-C, HDL-C, and HDL-C/CHOL, respectively. These estimates were similar to those obtained after adjustment for age and gender effects only. The contribution of nontransmissible environmental factors ranged from 0.48 for TG to 0.37 for HDL-C/CHOL ratio. These results suggest that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the variation in blood lipids and lipoproteins in this population and that nongenetic influences are not associated with cultural factors transmitted across generations.
    Full-text · Article · May 1989 · Arteriosclerosis (Dallas, Tex.)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two studies dealing with the contribution of the genotype in individual differences for resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of a 4.2 MJ carbohydrate meal (TEM), and energy cost of submaximal exercise are reported. The genetic effect for RMR and TEM was studied in 31 pairs of parent-child, 21 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins, and 37 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, whereas the heritability of the energy cost of submaximal exercise was determined from data on 22 pairs of DZ twins and 31 pairs of MZ twins. The heritability of RMR reached approximately 40% of the variance remaining after adjustment for age, gender, and fat-free mass, (FFM). The genetic effect for TEM was equivalent to at least 40% to 50% of the variation in the energy expended during four hours after the meal test. A highly significant genetic effect was found for fasting plasma glucose (greater than .72), but the results for fasting plasma insulin are unclear. No significant genetic variance was seen for the glucose and insulin response to the carbohydrate meal. Finally, heritability for the metabolic rate during cycle exercise was high (greater than or equal to .46) at low power output, but it became nonsignificant when the energy cost reached about 6 times the RMR.
    Full-text · Article · May 1989 · Metabolism
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify individuals of the same age, sex, activity level and fat-free mass who differed in their level of energy intake (EI). Estimates of energy intake and physical activity level were derived from three-day food and activity records from 430 individuals 17-54 years of age. Body composition was measured by underwater weighing and body fat and fat-free mass were obtained. Subjects were grouped into four categories based on age and sex (females aged 17-34 and 35-54 years and males aged 17-34 and 35-54 years). Subjects were identified as small eaters (SE) or large eaters (LE) according to kJ of EI per kg body weight, SE being from the lower quartile and LE from the upper quartile of their distributions. The results showed that, on average, LE consumed almost twice as many kJ per kg body weight as SE (about 200 versus 100). In addition middle-aged male and female SE were significantly (P less than 0.001) heavier than middle-aged male and female LE respectively. The mean body weight for the male SE was 82 +/- 12 kg (mean +/- s.d.) against 69 +/- 9 kg for the LE, while it was 66 +/- 10 kg against 52 +/- 5 kg for the female SE and LE. The male and female SE also had a significantly higher percentage body fat in both age groups. In general, there was no difference in fat-free mass and activity level between the SE and LE. It is concluded that there exist groups of individuals who have a considerable difference in their EI and adiposity even though they have similar levels of activity and fat-free mass.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1989 · International Journal of Obesity

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jan 1989

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jan 1989

  • No preview · Article · Jan 1989
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Total energy intake and intakes of carbohydrate, fat, and protein as well as the percentage of energy derived from these nutrients were calculated from a 3-d dietary record in 1597 subjects living in 375 families of French descent. Familial correlations were computed in pairs of biological relatives and relatives by adoption and used in the path-analysis BETA model to determine the contribution of genetic and nongenetic factors in the familial resemblance observed in energy intake. No significant genetic effect was found for intake of any nutrient tested (h2 less than or equal to 11%) and cultural inheritance was found to be more important than genetic inheritance. Nontransmitted environmental factors, including home environmental effects, were found to account for more than 50% of the variation observed in the energy-intake components. These results suggest that the average genetic influence on nutrient intake is negligible and that nongenetic effects associated mainly with home environmental effects are the major affecters of energy intake.
    Full-text · Article · May 1988 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • L Pérusse · C Leblanc · C Bouchard
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Body weight, height, body mass index, skinfold measurements, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), somatotype components, muscular endurance and strength, flexibility, resting heart rate and submaximal power output (PWC150/kg) were measured in 13,804 subjects during the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. Familial correlations were computed to determine the contribution of transmissible (t2) and environmental (e2) factors in physical fitness by path analysis. Transmissibility estimates (t2) under 0.30 for weight, height, WHR and PWC150/kg, above 0.40 for mesomorphy, ectomorphy, push-up test and flexibility, and between 0.30 and 0.40 for the other measurements were obtained. These results suggest that e2 account for more than 50% of the variation and that the average total biological and cultural inheritance from parents to offspring in physical fitness of Canadians accounts for 30% to 40% of the phenotypic variation.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1988 · Canadian journal of sport sciences = Journal canadien des sciences du sport
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances, controversy continues about the inheritance of the amount and distribution of body fat. We have studied the genetic and 'cultural' (nongenetic) transmission between generations of the body mass index, sum of six skinfold measurements, percentage of body fat, fat mass, fat-free mass, and two indicators of fat distribution. These data were obtained in 1698 members of 409 families, which included the following pairs of family members: spouses, (maximum number of pairs = 348), foster parent-adopted child (322), siblings by adoption (120), first-degree cousins (95), uncle/aunt-nephew/niece (88), parent-natural child (1239), full sibs (370), dizygotic twins (69), and monozygotic twins (87). The total transmissible variance ranged from about 40 percent for the amount of subcutaneous fat to 60 percent for the pattern of subcutaneous fat distribution. Biological inheritance accounted for only 5 percent of the variance for subcutaneous fat and the body mass index, but 20 to 30 percent for the percentage of body fat, fat mass, fat-free mass, and fat distribution. These data suggest that the amount of internal fat is influenced by heredity more than the amount of subcutaneous fat. Furthermore, we consistently found that nongenetic influences are quite important in determining the amount and distribution of body fat in the population. These estimates may differ in the subpopulation of obese individuals.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1988 · International Journal of Obesity