[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To examine the strength deficits of the shoulder complex after stroke and to characterize the pattern of weakness according to type of movement and type of isokinetic parameter.
Twelve chronic stroke survivors and 12 age-matched healthy controls had their shoulder strength measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Concentric measures of peak torque and work during shoulder movements were obtained in random order at speeds of 60°/s for both groups and sides. Type of movement was defined as scapulothoracic (protraction and retraction), glenohumeral (shoulder internal and external rotation) or combined (shoulder flexion and extension). Type of isokinetic parameter was defined as maximum (peak torque) or sustained (work). Strength deficits were calculated using the control group as reference.
The average strength deficit for the paretic upper limb was 52% for peak torque and 56% for work. Decreases observed in the non-paretic shoulder were 21% and 22%, respectively. Strength deficit of the scapulothoracic muscles was similar to the glenohumeral muscles, with a mean difference of 6% (95% CI -5 to 17). Ability to sustain torque throughout a given range of motion was decreased as much as the peak torque, with a mean difference of 4% (95% CI -2 to 10).
The findings suggest that people after stroke might benefit from strengthening exercises directed at the paretic scapulothoracic muscles in addition to exercises of arm elevation. Clinicians should also prescribe different exercises to improve the ability to generate force and the ability to sustain the torque during a specific range of motion.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upper limb (UL) impairment is the most common disabling deficit following a stroke. Previous studies have suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhances the effect of conventional therapies.
This pilot double-blind randomized control trial aimed to determine whether or not tDCS, combined with Wii virtual reality therapy (VRT), would be superior to Wii therapy alone in improving upper limb function and quality of life in chronic stroke individuals.
Twenty participants were randomly assigned either to an experimental group that received VRT and tDCS, or a control group that received VRT and sham tDCS. The therapy was delivered over 15 sessions with 13 minutes of active or sham anodal tDCS, and one hour of virtual reality therapy. The outcomes included were determined using the Fugl-Meyer scale, the Wolf motor function test, the modified Ashworth scale (MAS), grip strength, and the stroke specific quality of life scale (SSQOL). Minimal clinically important differences (MCID) were observed when assessing outcome data.
Both groups demonstrated gains in all evaluated areas, except for the SSQOL-UL domain. Differences between groups were only observed in wrist spasticity levels in the experimental group, where more than 50% of the participants achieved the MCID.
These findings support that tDCS, combined with VRT therapy, should be investigated and clarified further.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Neurorehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the fear of falling of 52 chronic post-stroke individuals and to assess its relationship with measures of functional independence and quality of life (QOL). Fear of falling was assessed by the Brazilian version of Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I-BRAZIL) and functional independence by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and QOL by the Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL) scale. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to verify the associations between FES-I-BRAZIL and the other instruments, and the Mann-Whitney U test to compare groups with low and high fall concerns. There was a predominance of individuals with high concerns regarding falling, higher QOL, and independents. FES-I-BRAZIL was statistically associated with FIM and SSQOL. Significant relationships were also found between FES-I-Brazil with FIM transfer and locomotion sub-scales, as well as with the following SSQOL energy, family role, language, mobility, mood, self-care, and upper extremity function domains. Thus, fear of falling may contribute to reduced functional independence and QOL in post-stroke individuals and should be included in the evaluation process of these patients to ensure greater benefits during rehabilitation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Pressure biofeedback unit (PBU) is an assessment tool used in clinical practice and research aimed to indirectly analyze the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle activity. The concurrent validity of the PBU in a clinically relevant sample is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity and diagnostic accuracy of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. METHOD: This study was performed using a validation, cross-sectional design. Fifty patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were recruited for this study. To test the concurrent validity both PBU measures (index test) and superficial electromyographic measures (reference-standard test) were compared and collected by a physical therapist in a series of voluntary contraction maneuvers of TrA muscle. RESULTS: Participants were on average 22 years old, weighed 63.7 kilos, 1.70 meters height and mean low back pain duration was 1.9 years. It was observed a weak and non-significant Phi coefficient (r=0.2, p<0.20). With regards to diagnostic accuracy tests, our results suggest a low sensitivity (60%) and specificity (60%) of the PBU. The positive predictive value was high (0.8) and negative predictive value was low (0.2). Conclusions: Concurrent validity of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain is poor given the low correlation and diagnostic accuracy with superficial EMG.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Appropriate instruments for the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) domains are useful for planning therapeutic interventions for individuals with stroke. The generic quality of life (QOL) instruments, Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), have been frequently employed in the Brazilian literature. However, the literature is still scarce regarding their psychometric properties when applied to stroke individuals.
To compare the Brazilian versions of the SF-36 and the NHP to verify which had better psychometric properties for the assessment of HRQOL in 120 individuals with chronic stroke.
Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the comparable domains and total scores of the SF-36 and the NPH; Cronbach's alpha coefficients, to evaluate internal consistency; intra-class correlation coefficients, to assess reliability; and Bland-Altman plots, to assess the levels of agreement, with a significance level of 5%.
Significant positive associations were observed between the common domains and the total scores of the SF-36 and the NPH. Ceiling effects were more frequent for the NPH. The total scores of both instruments achieved adequate reliability levels, and the agreement levels were within the normal limits in 95% of the cases.
The SF-36 and the NPH were shown to measure similar constructs and proved to be useful measures for the assessment of QOL of chronic stroke subjects. However, the SF-36 yielded better results and appeared to be more appropriate.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality, causing some type of disability in approximately 90% of survivors, whether partial or total. The functional impairment varies from one individual to the other and the performance skills of activities of daily living (ADLs) are strongly affected. OBJECTIVES: To assess the functional independence of individuals in the chronic phase after stroke and to determine its relation with the treatment by physiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 69 chronic hemiparetic individuals with a mean age of 64-65 years old. In order to evaluate the functionality, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was used and the floor and ceiling effects were determined. Statistical analysis included the normality test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov, mean and standard deviation and the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: According to the FIM motor domain, the item "sphincter control (feces)" had the highest number of individuals performing totally independently (88.4%) and the item "going up and down the stairs" showed the lowest scores. All items in the cognitive domain had means higher than 6.4 points. Ceiling effect for both motor and cognitive areas was found. Only the transfer dimension differed significantly between those who did and those who did not do physical therapy (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Overall, there was no relation between functional independence and physical therapy. However, the ceiling effect may have influenced the results, suggesting MIF restriction in discriminating the evaluated individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article seeks to evaluate the reliability, internal consistency and accuracy of the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), namely a quality of life (QL) instrument for individuals after suffering a stroke. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the communities of Recife in the State of Pernambuco. The sample was composed of 53 individuals at the chronic stroke phase. After checking the cognitive state, the NHP was applied. Descriptive statistics were employed for characterization of the sample; Cronbach's alpha (α) coefficients were used for evaluation of internal consistency, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were used for investigation of reliability, as well as consistency of the Bland and Altman plotting tests with 5% level of significance. Their perceptions of their own health were 83.3% positive for the majority of NHP criteria (average scores > 50 points), except for the "physical ability" criterion where scores ranged between 41.5 and 50 points. The NHP had good internal consistency with α values between 0.81 to 0.87; excellent reliability indices for the "pain" and "physical ability" criteria (ICC > 0.90); and 95% consistency. Besides being simple and easily applied, NHP had adequate clinimetric properties for the assessment of individuals after a chronic stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU) is often used by clinicians and researchers to indirectly evaluate transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter and intra-examiner reproducibility of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in fifty patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. This study was performed using a test-retest design with a seven day interval. An Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC(2,1)) of 0.74 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.85) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.86) was observed for the intra and inter-examiner reproducibility, respectively. The intra-examiner agreement (Limits of Agreement - LOA = 2.1 to -1.8 mmHg) and the inter-examiner agreement (LOA = 2.0 to -1.9 mmHg) were within the limits of agreement on 95% of occasions. The reproducibility of PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain ranged from satisfactory to excellent.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of bodywork and movement therapies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the categories of the participation component of the International Classification of Functionality, Incapacity, and Health (ICF) which are currently related to Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL) instruments commonly used in cerebrovascular accident (CVA) victims-Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL)-and suggest the utilization of these instruments to assess and/or characterize that component in that population.
Through searches in the Medline, SciELO, and Lilacs databases, a compilation of studies which associated the concepts measured by the NHP, SF-36, and SS-QOL items with the ICF components and categories, was carried out.
Of the 24 identified studies, four met the established criteria: two assessed the three HRQOL instruments, one assessed the NHP and SF-36, and the other just the SS-QOL. For each instrument, three studies were found which associated their concepts up to, at least, the second hierarchical level of the ICF categories. Considering the results that were in agreement between the three studies that assessed the same instrument, nine participation categories were associated with the NHP, seven with the SF-36, and 15 with the SS-QOL, although just one was specific to the NHP, one to the SF-36, and seven to the SS-QOL.
To assess the participation of CVA victims based upon the ICF framework, the SS-QOL appeared to be the most suitable instrument in that, in addition to assessing the greatest number of categories, it also assesses the greatest number of distinct categories, when compared to the other two HRQOL instruments, which added just one category to those measured by SS-QOL.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the perception of patients with chronic hemiplegia regarding the use of assistive walking devices (AWD).
Twenty-three individuals who met the inclusion criteria and used AWD were recruited from a database of 360 stroke survivors. Their mean age was 58.4 years, mean time since stroke was 80.8 months, and mean time using AWD was 67.6 months. To assess the participants' perception, was used a standardized questionnaire covering the impact of AWDs on five aspects: weight-bearing on the paretic limb; ability to move the paretic limb; confidence; safety; and walking style. Possible answers were "improved," "unchanged," or "decreased."
Fourteen individuals used canes and nine used elbow crutches; 21 (91.3%) used AWDs on public roads and only two (8.7%) used AWDs at home. The perception regarding the use of AWDs were positive in the first four questions (6.87 < χ2 < 29.83; 0.0001 < P < 0.03), with reports of improvement in weight-bearing (82.6%), ability to move the paretic limb (39.1%), confidence (82.6%), and safety (86.9%). No significant differences were found in terms of walking style (χ2 = 1.09; P = 0.30).
The perception of chronic hemiplegic subjects regarding the use of AWD were positive, suggesting that these devices can improve mobility and independence in activities of daily living.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation of the Motor Activity Log (MAL), an instrument specifically designed to assess function of the more severely affected upper limb in hemiplegics.
The MAL was translated and adapted according to standardized procedures and submitted to test-retest reliability assessment (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC). Other psychometric properties were investigated using Rasch analysis in 77 chronic hemiplegics (41 men, mean age = 57.5 ± 12.4 years).
An excellent ICC (0.98) was obtained for the total scores of both the quantity and quality MAL scales. When assessing degree of difficulty, "using a key to unlock the door" was the most difficult item on the quantity scale, whereas "washing hands" was the easiest one. On the quality scale, the most difficult item was "using the TV remote control," and the easiest one was "drying hands." The analyses showed that the set of items as a whole fit into the model; however, the individual analyses indicated that four items did not meet the expectations of the model in both the quantity (items 21, 16, 14, and 13) and quality (items 9, 21, 23, and 22) scales. Irregular response patterns were observed, and five subjects obtained the minimum score. There was disagreement between item difficulty and sample ability, suggesting that the abilities of individuals were below the degree of difficulty of the assessed items. A significant correlation was observed between grip strength of the more severely affected upper limb and motor skill measurement among individuals on the quantity (r = 0.51, P < 0.0001) and quality scales (r = 0.57, P < 0.0001), and also between the two scales when measuring the individuals' motor skills (r = 0.97, P < 0.0001).
MAL-Brazil is potentially useful to evaluate the more severely affected upper limb in Brazilian patients with chronic hemiplegia. However, the instrument has limitations for use with individuals with severe limb impairments. Also, construct validity was affected by the presence of irregular score patterns. MAL-Brazil should be applied to additional samples to further investigate its validity.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are robust clinical paradigms against the prescription of walking sticks for people with stroke. However, there is little information on the biomechanics of gait with and without these devices to guide clinical practice. Therefore, this study investigated how the use of walking sticks (canes or crutches) affected both the kinematics and kinetics of gait in people with chronic stroke after their walking had stabilized.
Nineteen people with chronic stroke walked at both comfortable and fast speeds. A 3-D motion analysis system and one force platform were used to obtain kinematic and kinetic data of the paretic lower limb during four conditions: With and without walking sticks, and at comfortable and fast speeds. Outcomes included linear kinematics (walking speeds) and angular kinematics (maximum joint angles), power, and work of the paretic hip, knee and ankle joints in the saggital plane.
The use of walking sticks resulted in increases in speed during both fast (P<0.001) and comfortable (P=0.001) walking, but did not result in changes in maximum joint angles. This also led to increases in ankle plantar flexion (P<0.01), knee extension (P<0.01), and hip flexion (P<0.001) power generation, but did not result in changes in work. There were no greater changes as a result of using walking sticks during fast versus comfortable walking for any outcome. INTERPRETATIN: The outcomes with the use of walking sticks were beneficial, which suggests that the prescription of these devices is not detrimental to walking that was stabilized in people with stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measurements from pressure biofeedback units (PBUs) can be used to evaluate the activity of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle indirectly. These measurements can classify patients or monitor the progress of treatment programmes for people with low back pain.
To systematically review studies on the measurement properties of PBUs for the assessment of TrA activity.
Eligible studies were identified through searches of PUBMED, CINAHL and BIREME (1990 to 2009). In addition, hand searches of journals and citation tracking were performed.
Full-text studies involving any type of clinimetric tests of PBU measurement for the assessment of TrA activity were selected.
Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted the data and assessed methodological quality.
Due to the heterogeneity of study designs and statistical analysis, it was not possible to pool the data for a meta-analysis.
Six studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were typically of low quality and recruited healthy subjects rather than patients with low back pain. The studies found moderate to good reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficients from 0.47 to 0.82) and acceptable construct validity (intra-class correlation coefficients from 0.48 to 0.90).
The current evidence about the measurement properties of PBUs for the assessment of TrA activity is mainly based on studies with suboptimal designs, and the findings from these studies are likely to be overly optimistic. The most important clinical questions about the measurement properties of PBUs for the assessment of TrA activity are yet to be answered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in activation of the trunk and hip extensor muscles can result in excessive stress on the lumbar spinal structures, predisposing them to lesions and pain.
To compare electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus, semitendinosus and the erector spinae muscles between asymptomatic and individuals with low back pain during active prone hip extension exercises.
Fifty individuals were recruited and divided into two groups: 30 asymptomatic (24.5 ± 3.47 years) and 20 with mechanical low back pain (28.75 ± 5.52 years). They performed active prone hip extension exercises, while the activation parameters (latency, duration and quantity of activation) of the investigated muscles were recorded by electromyography. The beginnings of the movements were detected by a motion capture system. Differences between the groups were investigated employing Student t-tests or Mann-Whitney-U tests, according to the data distribution.
No significant differences were found between the groups for any of the investigated muscles. Muscular activation patterns were similar for both groups, starting with the semitendinosus, followed by the erector spinae, and then, by the gluteus maximus. For both groups, significant delays in the onset of the gluteus maximus were observed.
The assessment of the electromyographic activity was not capable of discriminating individuals with and without low back pain, suggesting an overlap in the studied populations.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVOS: Este estudo teve por objetivos investigar a ocorrência de atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em uma comunidade assistida pelo Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF) e verificar a sua associação com possíveis fatores de risco biológicos, ambientais e socioeconômicos. MÉTODOS: A amostra constou de 31 crianças, com 5 anos de idade, que foram avaliadas por meio do exame neurológico evolutivo (ENE) segundo roteiro proposto por Coelho (1999)*. O local do estudo foi o PSF do bairro de Brasilit, na Cidade de Recife, PE, Brasil, e os dados foram coletados mediante questionário contendo informações sobre a criança, sua mãe ou responsável, a situação socioeconômica da família e o domicílio. Para análise estatística dos resultados, utilizou-se o Qui-quadradode associação de Fisher, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A coordenação apendicular foi o parâmetro que apresentou a maior frequência de déficit (90%), e o equilíbrio estático foi o item menos comprometido (12,9%). A frequência de déficit no equilíbrio estático foi mais elevada nas crianças que não participaram de creche (p=0,0163) e naquelas que passavam menor tempo com a mãe (p=0,0278). O déficit na persistência motora esteve estatisticamente associado à idade de início na creche (p=0,0415) e ao tempo pai-filho (p=0,0436). CONCLUSÕES: O PSF, além de se constituir num espaço valioso para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos desta natureza, demonstrou ser local adequado para o acompanhamento do desenvolvimento infantil.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Investigar se a ocorrência de déficit estatural em crianças em idade escolar seria semelhante à encontrada em menores de cinco anos, em termos de prevalência e de alguns fatores de risco. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 894 crianças em idade escolar (entre seis e doze anos) e de 2.078 crianças menores de cinco anos. Adotou-se o teste c2 de associação de Pearson para testar, em cada um dos grupos estudados, a associação entre o déficit estatural e os possíveis fatores de risco. Utilizou-se o teste de igualdade de proporções para verificar as diferenças das prevalências de déficit estatural em cada grupo de idade e ajustou-se um modelo multivariado explicativo do déficit estatural em menores de cinco anos. RESULTADOS: Considerando o total da amostra, a proporção de déficit estatural entre crianças em idade escolar (16,9%) foi significativamente maior, quando se comparou com o valor percentual (12,1%) obtido entre os menores de cinco anos. O modelo multivariado indicou que o déficit estatural da criança em idade escolar, a renda per capita, a escolaridade e a idade materna foram os fatores que melhor explicaram o déficit estatural das crianças menores de cinco anos. CONCLUSÃO: Nas áreas urbanas do Estado de Pernambuco, o indicador altura/idade pode ser indicativo de colinearidade entre crianças em idade escolar e menores de cinco anos. A ocorrência de déficit estatural na criança em idade escolar foi o principal fator preditivo do déficit estatural no irmão menor de cinco anos.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · Revista de Nutrição
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nutritional status and some risk factors in 894 school children (ages 6 to 12) in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed based on the data collected by the Second State Research on Nourishment, Health and Nutrition carried out in 1997. The cutoff point used in the nutritional evaluation was the limit referring to -2 score-Z, being the NCHS the reference standard. The prevalence of stunting in the state was of 16.9%. Rural areas were more affected, reaching 27.1%. Bivariate analysis showed that the low socioeconomic level of the children and their families is associated with the occurrence of stunting. The logistic regression model pointed the variables: residence location, gender, access to treated potable water, low education, and per-capita income as the main determinants in stunting. The conjunct analysis of all the factors that explain the malnutrition found among the school children studied showed that the probability of a school-aged child to present height deficit varied from 1.5 to 60.3% depending on the risk factors taken into account, therefore showing different epidemiological "scenarios." The study also concluded that in the State of Pernambuco the height deficit constitutes a public health problem especially for school children in rural areas, showing two very different epidemiologic realities between urban and rural areas.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Archivos latinoamericanos de nutrición