University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States


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Publications (4)17.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of climate change (in the form of elevated air and soil temperatures) on transpiration and sap flux rates of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP). Five treatments were established in northern Manitoba, Canada, with the experimental design consisting of heated and control blocks. Air and soil temperatures were maintained approximately 5 °C above control temperatures using greenhouse chambers. Two of the chambers also included controls to maintain ambient vapor pressure difference (VPD). Sap flux (JS), was not significantly different among treatments in the May or July time periods. However, JS was significantly greater for heated VPD controlled trees than for trees in all other treatments when averaged over the entire study period. JS was positively correlated to photosynthetic photon flux density for all trees. Lower photosynthetic photon flux density in chamber treatments resulted in the creation of models used to estimate JS and canopy transpiration (EC) values that were used in the analysis. Average daily and cumulative growing season EC values were significantly greater for the heated VPD controlled treatments than for other treatments. The results from this study suggest that EC of boreal black spruce will increase if VPD remains unchanged while air temperatures increase.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Canadian Journal of Forest Research
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    ABSTRACT: The boreal forest is predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome during the next 50–100 years, but the effects of warming on vegetation phenology are not well known. The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the effects of whole ecosystem warming on bud burst and annual shoot growth of black spruce trees in northern Manitoba, Canada and (2) correlate bud burst to cumulative degree-days (CDD). The experimental design was a complete randomized block design that consisted of four replicated blocks. Each replicate block contained four treatments: soil warming only (heated outside, HO), soil and air warming (heated inside, HI), control outside (no chamber, no heating, CO), and inside a chamber maintained at ambient conditions (no soil or air warming, control inside, CI). Bud burst was measured during the first and second years of the experiment, starting in 2004, and annual shoot growth was measured for the first 3 years (2004–2006) of the study. On average, shoot bud burst occurred 11 and 9 days earlier in 2004 and 2005, respectively, for HI than for other treatments. However, mean CDD required for bud burst for HI was within the standard deviation of CO for both years. In year 1 of the treatments, shoot bud burst occurred earlier for HI than other treatments (CI, CO, HO), but final shoot length of HI trees was less than in CO trees. In the second year of warming, final shoot length was not different for HI than CO. By the third year of warming final shoot length was significantly greater for HI than all other treatments. Empirical results from this study suggest that soil and air warming causes an earlier bud burst for all years of observation and greater shoot lengths by the third season of warming. A longer growing season and greater annual shoot growth should increase carbon uptake by boreal black spruce trees in a warmer climate.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Global Change Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Soil surface carbon dioxide (CO2) flux (RS) was measured for 2 years at the Boreal Soil and Air Warming Experiment site near Thompson, MB, Canada. The experimental design was a complete random block design that consisted of four replicate blocks, with each block containing a 15 m × 15 m control and heated plot. Black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] was the overstory species and Epilobium angustifolium was the dominant understory. Soil temperature was maintained (∼5°C) above the control soil temperature using electric cables inside water filled polyethylene tubing for each heated plot. Air inside a 7.3-m-diameter chamber, centered in the soil warming plot, contained approximately nine black spruce trees was heated ∼5°C above control ambient air temperature allowing for the testing of soil-only warming and soil+air warming. Soil surface CO2 flux (RS) was positively correlated (P < 0.0001) to soil temperature at 10cm depth. Soil surface CO2 flux (RS) was 24% greater in the soil-only warming than the control in 2004, but was only 11% greater in 2005, while R S in the soil+air warming treatments was 31% less than the control in 2004 and 23% less in 2005. Live fine root mass (< 2 mm diameter) was less in the heated than control treatments in 2004 and statistically less (P < 0.01) in 2005. Similar root mass between the two heated treatments suggests that different heating methods (soil-only vs. soil + air warming) can affect the rate of decomposition.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Global Change Biology
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    D. Bronson · S. Gower · M. Tanner · I. van Herk · S. Linder
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    ABSTRACT: Boreal forests are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, 4.0 to 6.0° C in the next 50 to 100 years, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important region is lacking. Due to the large quantities of carbon stored in the boreal forest, a great potential exists for further temperature increases through a positive feedback. BoSAW is a large-scale manipulative experiment warming both soil and air in a Canadian boreal forest that was created to address many of these questions. The study site is located in Thompson, Manitoba, Canada (55° 53'N, 98° 20'W) in a black spruce plantation. Using large greenhouse chambers on plots with soil heating cables we have been able to effectively hold air and soil temperature 5° C above ambient temperature for three growing seasons (2004-2006). We examine the effects of increased soil and air temperature on several aspects of black spruce ecophysiology including: (1) the phenology of understory and overstory, (2) above and belowground net primary production and root dynamics, (3) microbial populations, and (4) soil surface carbon dioxide flux. The results of this study will help scientists elucidate the effects of climate warming and policy makers understand the potentially significant role the boreal forest may play in carbon sequestration or emissions.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2006