[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian mitochondria contain strong nuclease activity. Endonuclease G (endoG), which predominantly resides in mitochondria, accounts for a large part of this nuclease activity. It has been proposed to act as an RNase H-like nuclease on RNA.DNA hybrids (R-loops) in the D-loop region where the origins of mitochondrial replication are mapped, providing RNA primers for mtDNA replication. However, in contrast with this proposed activity, endoG has recently been shown to translocate to nuclei on apoptotic stimulation and act as a nuclease without sequence specificity. To clarify the role of endoG in mtDNA replication, we examined its submitochondrial localization and its ability to cleave R-loops. At low concentration, it preferentially produces double-stranded breaks in R-loops, but does not act as an RNase H-like nuclease. In addition, it exists in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, but not in the matrix where mtDNA replication occurs. These results do not support the involvement of endoG in mtDNA replication. Based on the fact that guanine tracts, which are preferential targets of endoG, tend to form triplex structures and that endoG produces double-stranded breaks in R-loops, we propose that three-stranded DNA may be the preferred substrate of endoG.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · European Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During replication, human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) takes on a triple-stranded structure known as a D-loop, which is implicated in replication and transcription. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), a toxin inducing parkinsonism, inhibits mtDNA replication, possibly by resolving the D-loops. For initiation of mtDNA replication, mitochondria are thought to have another triple-stranded structure, an R-loop. The R-loop, which is resolved by a bacterial junction-specific helicase, RecG, is also resolved by MPP+. Because mitochondrial D-loops are likewise resolved by RecG, the D- and R-loops may share a similar branched structure. MPP+ resolves cruciform DNA in supercoiled DNA. MPP+ converts a stacked conformation to an extended conformation in a synthetic Holliday junction. This conversion is reversed by 1 mM Mg(2+), as is the resolution of the D-loops or cruciform DNA. These observations suggest that the junction structure of mitochondrial D- and R-loops is affected by MPP+.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2002 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During replication, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) takes on a triple-stranded structure called a D-loop. Although their physiological roles are not understood, D-loops are implicated in replication and transcription of mtDNA. Little is known about the turnover of D-loops. We investigated the effects of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB) on D-loops. In human HeLa cells, TFAM and mtSSB are, respectively, 1700- and 3000-fold more abundant than mtDNA. This level of TFAM is two orders of magnitude higher than reported previously and is sufficient to wrap human mtDNA entirely. TFAM resolves D-loops
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The replication of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is initiated from a pair of displaced origins, one priming continuous synthesis of daughter-strand DNA from the heavy strand (OH) and the other priming continuous synthesis from the light strand (OL). In patients with sporadic large-scale rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA (i.e., partially-deleted [Delta-mtDNA] and partially-duplicated [dup-mtDNA] molecules), the dup-mtDNAs typically contain extra origins of replication, but it is unknown at present whether they are competent for initiation of replication. Using cybrids harboring each of two types of dup-mtDNAs-one containing two OHs and two OLs, and one containing two OHs and one OL-we used ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LMPCR) to measure the presence and relative amounts of nascent heavy strands originating from each OH. We found that the nascent heavy strands originated almost equally from the two OHs in each cell line, indicating that the extra OH present on a partially duplicated mtDNA is competent for heavy strand synthesis. This extra OH could potentially confer a replicative advantage to dup-mtDNAs, as these molecules may have twice as many opportunities to initiate replication compared to wild-type (or partially deleted) molecules.
No preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA), the only known transcription factor in mitochondria, is also implicated in maintenance of mitochondrial genome although little is elucidated about its molecular basis. mtTFA is a member of HMG box proteins family. Some HMG proteins bind with high affinity to four-way DNA junctions that mimic a Holliday structure, a putative intermediate in DNA recombination. To explore possible involvement of a Holliday-like structure in the maintenance of mitochondrial genome, we examine the binding of recombinant human mtTFA to a synthetic four-way DNA junction. The human mtTFA binds to the four-way DNA junction with an approximately 10-fold higher affinity than to the corresponding linear duplex DNA and with essentially the same affinity as to a 40-mer DNA containing the human mitochondrial light strand promoter sequence. The mtTFA binds to the four-way as a monomer. Both of the two HMG box domains of human mtTFA are required for the high affinity binding to the four-way junction.
No preview · Article · Jun 2000 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial respiratory chain inevitably produces reactive oxygen species as byproducts of aerobic ATP synthesis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is located close to the respiratory chain, is reported to contain much more 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), an oxidatively modified guanine base, than nuclear DNA. Despite such a high amount of 8-oxoG in mtDNA (1-2 8-oxoG/10(4) G), mtDNA is barely cleaved by an 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase or MutM, which specifically excises 8-oxoG from a C:8-oxoG pair. We find here that about half of human mtDNA molecules are cleaved by another 8-oxoG-recognizing enzyme, an adenine DNA glycosylase or MutY, which excises adenine from an A:8-oxoG pair. The cleavage sites are mapped to adenines. The calculated number of MutY-sensitive sites in mtDNA is approximately 1.4/10(4) G. This value roughly corresponds with the electrochemically measured amount of 8-oxoG in mtDNA (2.2/10(4) G), raising the possibility that 8-oxoG mainly accumulates as an A:8-oxoG pair.
No preview · Article · May 2000 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine has been reported to cause parkinsonism via its neurotoxic form, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), which inhibits complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Its parkinsonism-causing mechanisms attract a great deal of interest as a model of the disease. Recently, we reported that MPP+ strongly decreases the amount of mtDNA independent of the inhibition of complex I. Maintenance of a proper amount of mtDNA is essential for the normal function of mitochondria as exemplified in many mitochondrial diseases. The most characteristic feature in vertebral mtDNA replication is that H-strand synthesis proceeds displacing the parental H-strand as a long single strand. It forms the D-loop, a triplex replication intermediate composed of the parental L-strand, nascent H-strand and displaced H-strand. Here we show that MPP+ does not inhibit DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase gamma, but rather releases the nascent H-strands from mtDNA both in organello and in vitro. This indicates that MPP+ directly destabilizes the D-loop structure, thereby inhibiting replication. This study raises a new mechanism, i.e. destabilization of replication intermediates, for depletion of mtDNA.
Preview · Article · Feb 2000 · European Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most unique feature in the replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is that most of the newly synthesized heavy strands (H-strands) terminate prematurely, resulting in the formation of displacement loop (D-loop) strands. Only the H-strand which proceeds past the termination site is a true nascent H-strand leading to the overall replication on a circular mtDNA molecule. The physiological significance of the D-loop formation has long been unclear. To examine the role of premature termination in mtDNA replication, we therefore developed a method for selectively measuring both the total amount of nascent H-strands and the amount of true nascent H-strands using ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction, which, for the first time, enabled us to estimate the frequency of premature termination. The stimulation of cell proliferation with interleukin 2 and phytohemagglutinin in human peripheral T lymphocytes caused an increase in the net replication rate of mtDNA. In stimulated cells, in comparison to resting ones, the amount of true nascent H-strands increased approx. 2.6-fold while the total amount of nascent H-strands remained unchanged, indicating that premature termination decreased while the initiation of replication remained the same. Our findings thus demonstrate the first clear example that premature termination plays a primary role in the up-regulation of the net rate of mtDNA replication in human cells.
No preview · Article · Aug 1999 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine is known to cause Parkinsonism in its neurotoxic form, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+). We have previously reported that MPP+ decreases the content of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) independently of the inhibition of complex I in human cells [Miyako, K., Kai, Y., Irie, T., Takeshige, K., and Kang, D. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 9605-9608]. Here we study the mechanism causing the decrease in mtDNA. MPP+ inhibits the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine into mtDNA but not into nuclear DNA, indicating that MPP+ inhibits the replication of mtDNA but not that of the nuclear genome. The replication of mtDNA is initiated by the synthesis of the heavy strand switched from the transcription of the light strand. MPP+ decreases the nascent heavy strands per mtDNA and increases the transcript of the ND6 gene, encoded on light strand, per mtDNA. The amount of mitochondrial transcription factor A is not decreased. These data suggest that the transcription is not inhibited and therefore the transition from transcription to replication of mtDNA is lowered in the MPP+-treated cells. Electron microscopy shows that the number of mitochondria is not decreased in the MPP+-treated cells, suggesting that MPP+ does not affect the overall biogenesis of mitochondria. Thus, MPP+ selectively inhibits the replication of mtDNA.
Preview · Article · Feb 1999 · European Journal of Biochemistry