[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose: The exact detection and delineation of the intraprostatic tumour burden is crucial for treatment planning in primary prostate cancer (PCa). We compared 68 Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA PET/CT with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for diagnosis and tumour delineation in patients with primary PCa based on slice by slice correlation with histopathological reference material. Methodology: Seven patients with histopathologically proven primary PCa underwent 68 Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA PET/CT and MRI followed by radical prostatectomy. Resected prostates were scanned by ex-vivo CT in a special localizer and prepared for histopathology. Invasive PCa was delineated on a HE stained histologic tissue slide and matched to ex-vivo CT to obtain gross tumor volume (GTV-)histo. Ex-vivo CT including GTV-histo and MRI data were matched to in-vivo CT(PET). Consensus contours based on MRI (GTV-MRI), PSMA PET (GTV-PET) or the combination of both (GTV-union/-intersection) were created. In each in-vivo CT slice the prostate was separated into 4 equal segments and sensitivity and specificity for PSMA PET and mpMRI were assessed by comparison with histological reference material. Furthermore, the spatial overlap between GTV-histo and GTV-PET/-MRI and the Sørensen-Dice coefficient (DSC) were calculated. In the case of multifocal PCa (4/7 patients), SUV values (PSMA PET) and ADC-values (diffusion weighted MRI) were obtained for each lesion. Results: PSMA PET and mpMRI detected PCa in all patients. GTV-histo was detected in 225 of 340 segments (66.2%). Sensitivity and specificity for GTV-PET, GTV-MRI, GTV-union and GTV-intersection were 75% and 87%, 70% and 82%, 82% and 67%, 55% and 99%, respectively. GTV-histo had on average the highest overlap with GTV-union (57±22%), which was significantly higher than overlap with GTV-MRI (p=0.016) and GTV-PET (p=0.016), respectively. The mean DSC for GTV-union, GTV-PET and GTV-MRI was 0.51 (±0.18), 0.45 (±0.17) and 0.48 (±0.19), Ivyspring International Publisher
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective In lethal primary metastatic prostate cancer, biopsy material is often the only accessible cancer tissue. Lack of tissue quantity limited the use of biopsy cores for analyzing higher numbers of molecular markers and standard histopathologic evaluation for clinical diagnosis simultaneously. Recent advances in single cell analytics have paved the way to characterize a tumor in more depth from minute input material such as biopsies. We therefore aimed to develop a biopsy needle, which generates two cores side by side from the same punch: one for standard histopathologic analysis to allow for routine diagnostics and the second one for single cell analytics. Methods On the basis of a conventional punch biopsy needle we have milled two parallel longitudinal rifts into the needles shat which are separated by a 100 µm thick metal sheet. Each rift can harbor a single tissue core. ResultsTwo cores from the same punch were generated reproducibly from a radical prostatectomy specimen and showed congruent results in histopathologic analysis. Both cores yielded equally sufficient material for standard H&E staining and histopathological evaluation. Conclusion
Our modified biopsy system will allow for simultaneous acquisition of tissue cores for diagnostic and scientific analysis from solid tumors or metastatic sites.
Full-text available · Article · Dec 2016 · SpringerPlus
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
We examined whether or not extended prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) would significantly reduce thromboembolic event (TEE) rates in germ cell cancer patients undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Patients and methods:
LMWH prophylaxis was given from the first day of chemotherapy until 21 days after completing the last chemotherapy cycle to 45 out of 93 (48.4%) patients (extended), and to 48 out of 93 (51.6%) patients during their hospitalization only (limited) between January 2008 and December 2013. Patients were analyzed retrospectively for TEEs such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), myocardial infarction (MI) or peripheral arterial thrombosis.
A total of 22/93 (23.7%) patients experienced 30 TEE during chemotherapy: 12 out of 30 (40%) deep vein thrombosis, 4 out of 30 (13.3%) MI, 10 out of 30 (33.3%) PE and 4 out of 30 peripheral arterial thrombosis (13.3%). TEE rates in both groups did not differ significantly (extended: 26.7 vs. limited: 20.8%).
The introduction of extended LMWH prophylaxis did not significantly reduce TEE rates in our patient cohort.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective . In this study, we compared prostate cancer detection rates between MRI-TRUS fusion targeted and systematic biopsies using a robot-guided, software based transperineal approach. Methods and Patients . 52 patients received a MRIT/TRUS fusion followed by a systematic volume adapted biopsy using the same robot-guided transperineal approach. The primary outcome was the detection rate of clinically significant disease (Gleason grade ≥ 4). Secondary outcomes were detection rate of all cancers, sampling efficiency and utility, and serious adverse event rate. Patients received no antibiotic prophylaxis. Results . From 52 patients, 519 targeted biopsies from 135 lesions and 1561 random biopsies were generated (total n=2080 ). Overall detection rate of clinically significant PCa was 44.2% (23/52) and 50.0% (26/52) for target and random biopsy, respectively. Sampling efficiency as the median number of cores needed to detect clinically significant prostate cancer was 9 for target (IQR: 6–14.0) and 32 (IQR: 24–32) for random biopsy. The utility as the number of additionally detected clinically significant PCa cases by either strategy was 0% (0/52) for target and 3.9% (2/52) for random biopsy. Conclusions . MRI/TRUS fusion based target biopsy did not show an advantage in the overall detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: CV9103 is a prostate-cancer vaccine containing self-adjuvanted mRNA (RNActive®) encoding the antigens PSA, PSCA, PSMA, and STEAP1. This phase I/IIa study evaluated safety and immunogenicity of CV9103 in patients with advanced castration-resistant prostate-cancer.
44 Patients received up to 5 intra-dermal vaccinations. Three dose levels of total mRNA were tested in Phase I in cohorts of 3-6 patients to determine a recommended dose. In phase II, 32 additional patients were treated at the recommended dose. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability, the secondary endpoint was induction of antigen specific immune responses monitored at baseline and at weeks 5, 9 and 17.
The most frequent adverse events were grade 1/2 injection site erythema, injection site reactions, fatigue, pyrexia, chills and influenza-like illness. Possibly treatment related urinary retention occurred in 3 patients. The recommended dose was 1280 μg. A total of 26/33 evaluable patients treated at 1280 μg developed an immune response, directed against multiple antigens in 15 out of 33 patients. One patient showed a confirmed PSA response. In the subgroup of 36 metastatic patients, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of median overall survival was 31.4 months [95 % CI: 21.2; n.a].
The self-adjuvanted RNActive® vaccine CV9103 was well tolerated and immunogenic. The technology is a versatile, fast and cost-effective platform allowing for creation of vaccines. The follow-up vaccine CV9104 including the additional antigens prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and Muc1 is currently being tested in a randomized phase IIb trial to assess the clinical benefit induced by this new vaccination approach.
EU Clinical Trials Register: EudraCT number 2008-003967-37, registered 27 Jan 2009.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To develop a microRNA (miRNA)-based predictive model for prostate cancer patients of 1) time to biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and 2) biochemical recurrence after salvage radiation therapy following documented biochemical disease progression post-radical prostatectomy.Forty three patients who had undergone salvage radiation therapy following biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy with greater than 4 years of follow-up data were identified. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were collected for all patients and total RNA was isolated from 1mm cores enriched for tumor (>70%). Eight hundred miRNAs were analyzed simultaneously using the nCounter human miRNA v2 assay (NanoString Technologies; Seattle, WA). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportion hazards regression models as well as receiver operating characteristics were used to identify statistically significant miRNAs that were predictive of biochemical recurrence.Eighty eight miRNAs were identified to be significantly (p36 months). Nine miRNAs were identified to be significantly (p
Full-text available · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A lack of cell surface markers for the specific identification, isolation and subsequent analysis of living prostate tumor cells hampers progress in the field. Specific characterization of tumor cells and their microenvironment in a multi-parameter molecular assay could significantly improve prognostic accuracy for the heterogeneous prostate tumor tissue. Novel functionalized gold-nano particles allow fluorescence-based detection of absolute mRNA expression levels in living cells by fluorescent activated flow cytometry (FACS). We use of this technique to separate prostate tumor and benign cells in human prostate needle biopsies based on the expression levels of the tumor marker alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR). We combined RNA and protein detection of living cells by FACS to gate for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) positive tumor and benign cells, EPCAM/CD45 double negative mesenchymal cells and CD45 positive infiltrating lymphocytes. EPCAM positive epithelial cells were further sub-gated into AMACR high and low expressing cells. Two hundred cells from each population and several biopsies from the same patient were analyzed using a multiplexed gene expression profile to generate a cell type resolved profile of the specimen. This technique provides the basis for the clinical evaluation of cell type resolved gene expression profiles as pre-therapeutic prognostic markers for prostate cancer.
Full-text available · Article · Dec 2014 · Oncotarget
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
Nodal pelvic/retroperitoneal recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) after primary therapy can be treated with salvage lymph node dissection (salvage-LND) in order to delay disease progression and offer cure for a subset of patients. Whether adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) in affected regions improves the outcome by elimination of residual tumour burden remains unclear.
A total of 93 patients with exclusively nodal PCa relapse underwent choline-positron-emission tomography-computed-tomography-directed pelvic/retroperitoneal salvage-LND; 46 patients had surgery only and 47 patients received ART in regions with proven lymph node metastases. In case of subsequent prostate specific antigen (PSA) progression, different imaging modalities were performed to confirm next relapse within or outside the treated region (TR). Mean follow-up was 3.2 years.
Lymphatic tumour burden was balanced between the two groups. Additional ART resulted in delayed relapse within TR (5-year relapse-free rate 70.7 %) versus surgery only (5-year relapse-free rate 26.3 %, p
Full-text available · Article · Oct 2014 · Strahlentherapie und Onkologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) is a gene predominantly expressed in mucus-secreting tissues or in endocrine cells. Its expression is drastically increased in tumors including prostate cancer. Here we investigated whether AGR2 transcript levels can be used as a biomarker to detect prostate cancer (PCa). Using a PCR-based approach, we could show that in addition to the wild-type (AGRwt long and short) transcripts, five other AGR2 splice variants (SV) (referred to as AGR2 SV-C, -E, -F, -G and -H) were present in cancer cell lines. In tissue biopsies, SV-H and AGR2wt (short) distinguished between benign and PCa (p ≤ 0.05 n = 32). In urine exosomes, AGR2 SV-G and SV-H outperformed serum PSA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed the highest discriminatory power of SV-G and SV-H in predicting PCa. AGR2 SV-G and SV-H are potential diagnostic biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of PCa using urine exosomes.
Full-text available · Article · Aug 2014 · Oncotarget
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
In a previous study we demonstrated that, based on 11C/18 F-choline positron emission tomography-computerized-tomography as a diagnostic tool, salvage lymph node dissection (LND) plus adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) is feasible for treatment of pelvic/retroperitoneal nodal recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the toxicity of this combined treatment strategy has not been systematically investigated before. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the acute and late toxicity and quality of life of ART after LND in pelvic/retroperitoneal nodal recurrent PCa.
Material and methods
43 patients with nodal recurrent PCa were treated with 46 LND followed by ART (mean 49.6 Gy total dose) at the sites of nodal recurrence. Toxicity of ART was analysed by physically examination (31/43, 72.1%), by requesting 15 frequent items of adverse events from the Common-Terminology-Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0-catalogue and by review of medical records. QLQ-C30 (EORTC quality of life assessment) and PR25 (prostate cancer module) questionnaires were used to investigate quality of life. Toxicity was evaluated before starting of ART, during ART (acute toxicity), after ART (mean 2.3 months) and at end of follow up (mean 3.2 years after end of ART) reflecting late toxicity.
71.7% (33/46) of 46 ART were treatment of pelvic, 10.9% (5/46) of retroperitoneal only and 28.3% (13/46) of pelvic and retroperitoneal regions. Overall 52 symptoms representing toxicities were observed before ART, 107 during ART, 88 after end of ART and 52 at latest follow up. Leading toxicities during ART were diarrhoea (19%, 20/107), urinary incontinence (16%, 17/107) and fatigue (16%, 17/107). The spectrum of late toxicities was almost equal to those before beginning of ART. No grade 3 adverse events or chronic lymphedema at extremities were observed. We observed no clear correlation between localisation of treated regions, technique of ART and frequency or severity of toxicities. Mean quality of life at final evaluation was 74%.
ART after extended LND in PCa relapse is justifiable with respect to adverse effects and toxicity. The side effects were circumscribed and well tolerated. The spectrum of adverse events at latest follow up was almost equal to those before start of ART.
Full-text available · Article · Aug 2014 · Radiation Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of choline-PET/CT for nodal relapse of prostate cancer (PCA) according to topographical location and the size of tumor infiltration in lymph nodes (LN).
72 patients with nodal PCA-relapse after primary therapy underwent pelvic and/or retroperitoneal salvage lymph node dissection (salvage-LND) after a whole body PET/CT with 11C-Choline or 18F-Fluoroethylcholine showing PET-positive LN but no other detectable metastases. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated for 160 dissected LN-regions (pelvic left/right, retroperitoneal), 498 subregions (common,-external,-internal-iliac, obturatoria, presacral, aortic-bifurcation, aortal, caval, interaortocaval) and 2122 LNs.
Lymph node metastases (LNM) were present in 32% of the resected LN (681/2122) resulting in 238 positive subregions and 111 positive regions. PET/CT was positive for 110 regions and 209 subregions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were: region-based 91.9%, 83.7%, 92.7%, 82.0% and 89.4%, subregion-based 80.7%, 93.5%, 91.9%, 84.1% and 87.3%, lesion-based 57.0%, 98.4%, 94.5%, 82.6% and 84.9%. 70.7% (278/393) of true positive LNM detected by PET/CT were located in LN with a short axis diameter <10mm. Sensitivity of choline-PET/CT was 13.3%, 57.4% and 82.8% for depth of tumor infiltration of ≥2-<3mm, ≥5-<6mm and ≥10-<11mm, respectively. Location of LNM and radiotracer (11C-choline/18F-fluoroethylcholine) had no substantial impact on diagnostic accuracy.
Choline-PET/CT detects affected LN-regions (left/right pelvic, retroperitoneal) in PCA-relapse with high accuracy and seems helpful for guiding salvage-LND. Sensitivity of choline-PET/CT decreases with the size of metastatic infiltration in LNs. Choline-PET/CT detects metastases in a significant fraction of LNs that are not pathologically enlarged on CT.