[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assesses the growth of the microalgae Nannochloris oculata in the presence of lindane and the
ability of N. oculata to remove lindane from media. Algal biomass increased with 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1 of
lindane, and lindane concentrations in the media decreased. N. oculata removed 73% and 68.2% of
lindane in the 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1 media concentrations, respectively. Algal biomass decreased to the level
of the control at lindane concentrations greater than 2.5 mg L-1, probably due to toxicity. N. oculata
removed lindane from the media at concentrations lower than 1.0 mg L-1. Thus, N. oculata may be useful
for lindane bioremediation in contaminated aquatic systems.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the effect of membrane type on the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) fed with an actual leachate and operated in batch for 15 days. The tested proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were Nafion 117 (NF) and a low cost membrane (LCM). The cell equipped with LCM outperformed the one equipped with NF. In the first period of the batch, 0–8 d, average volumetric powers (PV) were 9000 and 4000 mW/m3 for the MFC equipped with LCM and NF, respectively. In the second period (8–15 d) when the external resistances were adjusted, the average PVs were 20 000 and 6800 mW/m3 for LCM and NF, respectively. At the end of the batch, deposits of dry salts appeared on the external side of the cathode carbon cloth of the cell equipped with NF. Likely, this could be related to the decrease of power output in the last days of the batch (11–15 d) in the cell equipped with NF.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of experiments were carried out aimed to evaluate the possibilities of integrating a stage for the saccharification of lignocellulosic substrates to a hydrogen, methane and enzymes producing biorefinery concept. Initially, three different substrates were saccharified using two sources of cellulases. The substrates were the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), fermented organic waste (FOW) produced after OFMSW fermentation in the hydrogen production stage, and filter paper bits. The enzymes evaluated were the enzyme extract obtained from Trichoderma reesei MCG 80 in our actual biorefinery process train and Celluclast® cellulases.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of microalgae in wastewater treatment and its biotechnological exploitation for the production
of biofuels is a potential environmental application. Some species of microalgae are notable due to their
lipid composition and fatty acid profile suitable for biofuel production. During the present study, a
factorial 23 experimental design was conducted, which assessed three factors: i) two species of
microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloris oculata), ii) two types of culture media [wastewater of
tilapia farming (WTF) and bold’s basal medium (BB)], and iii) two types of lighting (multi-LED lamps and
white light). Microalgae were inoculated in photobioreactors in 6 L of medium (WTF or BBM) at an initial
concentration of 1.0 × 106 cells ml-1 at 20 ± 2°C. The highest average cell density as well as the highest
productivity of biomass observed in the treatments was C. vulgaris treatment in BBM and multi-LED
lighting (8.83 × 107 cells ml-1 and 0.0854 g l-1 d-1, respectively). Although the majority of lipid productivity
was obtained in the exponential phase of N. oculata cultivated in multi-LEDs in both treatments (BBM
with 58% and WTF with 52%), cultivation of both species was generally maintained in WTF and were
those that presented the major lipid productivity (2-18 mg l-1 d-1) in comparison with those cultivated in
BBM. Palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and eicosanoic (C16–C20) fatty acids were present in
both species of microalgae in concentrations between 26 and 74%. Based on the results of the present
study, we conclude that cultivation of N. oculata and/or C. vulgaris in WTF illuminated with multi-LEDs
is an economic and sustainable alternative for biodiesel production because it can represent up to 58%
of lipids with a fatty acid profile optimal up to 74% of the total fatty acids.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to review efficient nanomaterials for chlorin-ated organic compounds (COCs) treatment, use of supports and stabilizers that improve the process, interactions of nanomaterials with the microorganisms involved. Also emerging fields such as efficient nanomaterials for COCs treatment, use of supports and stabilizers that improve the process, interactions of nanomaterials with the microorganisms involved, nanoparticles made by microorganism, inter alia, were critically reviewed. INTRODUCTION The chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) are classified as persistent organic compounds due to their physical chemical properties; their degradation is slow and tends to accumulate in fatty tissues of various animals throughout the food chain. The use of COCs in industrial processes started in the mid of the 20th century, in applications such as plastics manufacture (vinyl chloride), aerosols, cleaning and degreasing metals (perchlorethylene, trichloroethylene), chemical manufacturing (dichloromethane, chloroform), additives paints and adhesives (dichloromethane, trichloroethane), pulp and paper industry (dioxins, furans), manufacture of pesticides (hexachlorobenzene and others), etc. Chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs), with perchloroethylene (PCE) as the most significant representative, are also COCs of a great environmental significance. Their improper handling and storage have caused contamination of soil and aquifers. CACs are potentially toxic and carcinogenic; they have been linked to damages to liver, lungs, and nervous system (Aschergrau et al., 2003; OEHHA, 2001). The metal particles and nanoparticles (NPs), particularly Fe particles, have been used for treating organochlorine compounds due to the ability of these metals to reduce chlorinated compounds. So far, the main chlorinated compound that has been removed using this technology is PCE and its metabolites trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroehtyl-ene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). Thus, this work presents a review that encompasses topics such as efficient nano-materials for chlorinated compounds; supports and stabilizers that improve the process; interactions of nanomaterials with the microorganisms involved; and emerging fields.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biohydrogen production has been coupled in some cases to other energy production technologies in order to overcome its modest energy gains. Anaerobic digestion, when used for methane recovery, has long been regarded as an energy recovery technology. We determined the energy potential from the coupling of either semi-continuous or batch hydrogen lab-scale bioreactors to a methanogenic stage. All processes were performed in solid substrate fermentation mode using the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes as first fed.
Semi-continuous reactors for hydrogen production, operated at 20.9% total solids, 21 d mass retention time and 55 °C, averaged 202 NmL H2/kgrwm/d. In the batch hydrogen stage at 20.9% total solids, 50 h fermentation time and 55 °C, the hydrogen yield was 1200 mmol H2/kgVS and initial hydrogenogenesis rate was 68.3 mmolH2/kgvs/hmmolH2/kgvs/h. The methanogenic stage in semi-continuous performance at 18.4% total solids, 28 d mass retention time and 55 °C produced 2023 NmL CH4/kgrwm/d.
Resultant energetic potentials (ÊP) were calculated from the theoretical combustion of the total hydrogen or methane produced by all the substrate fed to the process. ÊP for semi-continuous and batch hydrogenogenesis were 256 and 271 kJ/kgdb, whereas for the methanogenic stage was 11,889 kJ/kgdb. Correspondingly, energetic fluxes (EF) were calculated from the theoretical combustion of the hydrogen or methane productivities. The EF for semi-continuous and batch hydrogenogenesis were 2.55 and 24.1 kJ/kgrwm/d, whereas for the methanogenic stage was 80.3 kJ/kgrwm/d. Indeed, coupling of the methanogenic stage to either semi-continuous or batch hydrogenogenesis increased their energetic potentials by 4600 and 4300%. These results showed the clear advantage of the methanogenesis coupling in order to yield high energetic potentials from wastes.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the cathodic catalyst (either chalcogenide or Pt) on bioelectricity production from actual municipal leachate in a microbial fuel cell equipped with an anode made of granular graphite (MFC-G) and seeded with an inoculum enriched in Mn(IV)-reducing bacteria.
Each face (I and II) of the MFC-G was characterized by separate (I and II), in series, and parallel connection. Parallel connection of faces increased the maximum volumetric power up to 1239 and 1799 mW m−3 for RuxMoySez and Pt, respectively. In general parallel connection of electrode faces significantly decreased the Rint (44 and 77 Ω for RuxMoySez and Pt, respectively). In the batch operation where the cells were connected to external resistances (Rext) the average volumetric powers PV-ave in the second cycle of batch operation were 1005 ± 5 and 1317 ± 687 mW m−3 whereas organic matter removal efficiencies of 70 and 85% were registered for the RuxMoySez and Pt, respectively. During the repetitive batch operation of the cells loaded with an actual leachate there was preliminary evidence of an in-cell enrichment process. In principle, the MFC with catalyst RuxMoySez exhibited a performance 24% and 20% lower than that with Pt (on PV-ave and organic matter removal basis, respectively). This would point to a trade-off or compromise solution, since the cost of RuxMoySez catalyst is 70% lower than that of Pt.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biohydrogen is a sustainable form of energy as it can be produced from organic waste through fermentation processes involving dark fermentation and photofermentation. Very often biohydrogen is included as a part of biorefinery approaches that reclaim organic wastes that are abundant sources of renewable and low cost substrate that can be efficiently fermented by microorganisms. The aim of this work is to critically assess selected bioenergy alternatives from organic solid waste, such as biohydrogen and bioelectricity, and evaluate their relative advantages and disadvantages in the context of biorefineries, and finally indicate the trends for future research and development. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products, which means: energy, materials, chemicals, food and feed. Dark fermentation (DF) of organic wastes could be the beach-head of complete biorefineries that generate biohydrogen as a first step and could significantly influence the future of solid waste management. Series systems show a better efficiency than one-stage process regarding substrate conversion to hydrogen and bioenergy. The DF also produces fermented by-products (fatty acids and solvents), so there is an opportunity for further combining with other processes that yield more bioenergy. Photoheterotrophic fermentation (PF) is one of them: photosynthetic heterotrophs such as non sulphur purple bacteria can thrive on the simple organic substances produced in DF and light, to give more H2. Effluents from PF and digestates can be processed in microbial fuel cells for bioelectricity production and methanogenic digestion for methane generation, thus integrating a diverse block of bioenergies. Several digestates from bioenergies could be used for bioproducts generation such as cellulolytic enzymes and saccharification processes leading to ethanol fermentation (another bioenergy), thus completing the inverse cascade. Finally, biohydrogen, biomethane and bioelectricity could contribute to significant improvements for solid organic waste
management in agricultural regions, as well as in urban areas.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Waste Management & Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biohydrogen is a sustainable form of energy as it can be produced from organic waste through fermentation processes involving dark fermentation and photofermentation. Very often biohydrogen is included as a part of biorefinery approaches, which reclaim organic wastes that are abundant sources of renewable and low cost substrate that can be efficiently fermented by microorganisms. The aim of this work was to critically assess selected bioenergy alternatives from organic solid waste, such as biohydrogen and bioelectricity, to evaluate their relative advantages and disadvantages in the context of biorefineries, and finally to indicate the trends for future research and development. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products, which means: energy, materials, chemicals, food and feed. Dark fermentation of organic wastes could be the beach-head of complete biorefineries that generate biohydrogen as a first step and could significantly influence the future of solid waste management. Series systems show a better efficiency than one-stage process regarding substrate conversion to hydrogen and bioenergy. The dark fermentation also produces fermented by-products (fatty acids and solvents), so there is an opportunity for further combining with other processes that yield more bioenergy. Photoheterotrophic fermentation is one of them: photosynthetic heterotrophs, such as non-sulfur purple bacteria, can thrive on the simple organic substances produced in dark fermentation and light, to give more H2. Effluents from photoheterotrophic fermentation and digestates can be processed in microbial fuel cells for bioelectricity production and methanogenic digestion for methane generation, thus integrating a diverse block of bioenergies. Several digestates from bioenergies could be used for bioproducts generation, such as cellulolytic enzymes and saccharification processes, leading to ethanol fermentation (another bioenergy), thus completing the inverse cascade. Finally, biohydrogen, biomethane and bioelectricity could contribute to significant improvements for solid organic waste management in agricultural regions, as well as in urban areas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of coupling a zero-valent side filter to anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactors (AFBBRRs) on performance and to apply environmental molecular diagnostic (EMD) tools to study the microbial community composition of the bioreactors, and likely confirm or relate bioreactor performance to the harbored microbial community. Two lab-scale AFBBRRs were implemented. One of them has ZVI filter (HFBB) and the other without (MFBB). The AFBBRRs were fed with 393 mg/L of PCE for 212 days and methanol (370 mg/L) plus Tween 80 (190 mg/L). During the stable subperiod of operation (the last 50 d) the HFBB reached 96% of removal versus the 90% removal in the MFBB. The ZVI filter reduced the DCE and VC concentration at least 50% in the HFBB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the effective removal of very high concentrations of PCE are reported in an on-site bioremediation setup. Regarding the microbial communities anchored in the bioreac-tors, Methanosarcina were present in ratios 92% and 95% of the total archaea for the HFBB and MFBB, respectively. The HFBB and the MFBB exhibited 90% and 87% of total dehalogenanting bacteria out of total eubacteria, respectively. Genera such as Deha-lobacter spp., Desulfurospirillum spp., Desulfitobacterium spp., and Dehalococcoides spp. were found. The proportion of Dehalococcoides was double in the HFBB compared to MFBB; this was congruent with higher PCE removals and lower VC concentrations in the effluent of HFBB. Likely, the long-time exposure to PCE exerted a selective pressure on the communities present in the bioreactors. Thus, coupling zero-valent filters to biore-actors fed with high PCE concentration improved reactor performance (high PCE removal, and reduction of concentrations of VC and DCE) and was consistent with significant concentrations of dehalogenating bacteria. Our work shows another useful contribution of EMD to our on-site remediation setup ; microbial results gathered by EMD suggest that active and efficient dehalogenating consortia are harbored in our bio-reactors; this, in turn, guarantees to a great extent the reliable and effective performance of the bioreactors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PCE and its daughter compounds are chemicals of concern because of their negative impacts on human health and the environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of increasing PCE concentrations (80, 163, 278 and 393 mg/L) and the fitting of ZVI filters, on the performance of methanogenic and hybrid anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactors (AFBBR). Coupling the ZVI filter to the AFBBR (HFBBR) was associated to a higher PCE removal than in methanogenic bioreactors (MFBBR) in all periods. The PCE increment caused a decrease in the removal of PCE. In the first and second periods, the HFBBR averaged 94% and 96% PCE removal; the lowest PCE removal was observed in the fourth period (ca. 400 mg PCE/L in the influent) with average values 52% and 58% for the MFBBR and HFBBR, respectively. There is preliminary evidence that the bioreactors could recover from prolonged operation at this condition and HFBBR needs less time to reach the acclimation than MFBBR. It can be concluded that HFBBR is a promising alternative for on site treatment of waters contaminated high concentrations of PCE (up to 165 mg/L PCE).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work focused on the hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in solid substrate fermentation (SSF) with a double purpose: (i) to evaluate the effect of the total solids content (20.9 and 35% TS), temperature (35 and 55 degrees C) and mass retention time (MRT, 21 and 14 d) on semi-continuous fermentation, and (ii) to test the supplementation of OFMSW with nutrient nitrogen in the form of waste activated sludge in batch mini-reactors. Firstly, in the semi-continuous fermentation, it was found that factors had significant influence on hydrogen productivity in the order: total solids > MRT > temperature. Significant interactions amidst factors were only observed between TS x temperature and TS x MRT. Indeed, best hydrogen productivity averaged up to 123 NmL H-2/kg(wmr)/d in reactors fed with 20.9%TS feedstock. In general, variations and inhibition of hydrogen production were related to low pH and lactic acid and solvent deviation of the fermentation. Therefore these parameters should be followed with particular attention in order to implement correction and recovery techniques. Secondly, in the batch fermentation, supplementation with nitrogen (adjusted C/N to 30) did not show a significant effect. Highest results were cumulative hydrogen production = 1641 mu mol(H2)/g VS and initial hydrogen production = 68.3 mu mol(H2)/g VS/h in the mini-reactors without addition of alkalinity or sludge. No significant lag phase was observed in all the experimental units. Higher specific energetic potential (due to biohydrogen) were obtained for batch fermentation units compared with the semi-continuous process (3-fold higher). Copyright
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biodegradation of lindane with simultaneous electricity generation in an electrobiochemical slurry reactor (EBCR). The EBCR was inoculated with a sulfate reducing inoculum acclimated to lindane, further characterized, and batch operated for 30 day at room temperature. No external carbon source and supplementation with a stock solution of sucrose: sodium acetate: lactate was performed in experiments with soil concentrations 66% and 33%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance characterization of the EBCR (concentration of soil was 66%) showed that the equivalent circuit had a high anodic resistance R1=2064Ω, cathodic resistance R3 = 192 Ω; and electrolyte/membrane resistance R2 = 7Ω, totaling a high overall internal resistance Rint of 2263 Ù. During the batch operation, the EBCR showed a 30% lindane removal efficiency along with a maximum volumetric power of 165 mW m-3. The organic matter removal was very high (72% as soluble COD, NOM) whereas the coulombic efficiency was low (5.4%). In the experiment where the concentration of soil was 66% both cell characteristics and performance significantly improved. The internal resistance as determined by polarization curve was 102 O when the two-electrode sets were connected in parallel. During the batch operation, the EBCR showed a 78% lindane removal, a maximum power of 634 mW m-3, the organic matter removal was 76%, and coulombic efficiency of 15%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the EBCR exhibited a high lindane removal capability and holds promise for bioremediation of soils with the bonus of electricity generation.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several works have been carried out with the aim of removing PCE and metabolites of its degradation using zero-valent iron (ZVI). ZVI can serve as a fixed source of electrons for the reductive dehalogenation of perchloroethylene (PCE). Nano-materials constitute an emerging technology that can be used to accelerate the transformation and detoxification of pollutants. ZVI nanoparticles are very reactive but not very stable causing their rapid oxidation; the presence and formation of iron oxides can adversely affect the reactivities of ZVI. Some research has synthesized bimetallic particles ZVI/Pd with positive results because the particle as a whole becomes more stable. Efficient use of Pd catalyst is important because it is a precious metal costing over 20,000 USD per kilogram. The objective of our work was to synthesize bimetallic particles ZVI/Pd with different concentrations of Pd to reduce costs and to evaluate the obtained nanoparticles for the degradation of high concentrations of PCE. A factorial design was implemented in order to test different concentrations of Pd, the ratios of Fe/Pd were 1:1 (FP1), 2.3:1 (FP2), and 9:1 (FP3). The highest PCE removal was attained in the treatment FP2 with value of 85% whereas treatment FP1 and FP3 removals were 83 and 76% respectively, after 16 h of contact. Yet, at 4 h of treatment, the FP1 gave the best results with 80% PCE removal. Since the FP3 treatment has a significant economic saving of 40% compared to treatment FP1 due to lower Pd content, a trade-off is required regarding the criteria time and removal efficiency. If a long contact time is acceptable, then FP3 could be the choice for similar removal to those of FP1 and FP3, along with significant lower costs. Finally, to the best of our knowledge, this the first time that results are presented on the effect of the proportion of Pd in bimetallic nanoparticles of Fe/Pd on the removal of a pollutant of concern PCE. Also, PCE degradation results were discussed in the context of economic considerations. We feel that our study points out to a very promising avenue of applications of low Pd bimetallic nanoparticles of Fe/Pd for remediation of groundwaters contaminated with PCE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen is a valuable clean energy source, and its production by biological processes is attractive and environmentally sound and friendly. In México 5 million tons/yr of agroindustrial wastes are generated; these residues are rich in fermentable organic matter that can be used for hydrogen production. On the other hand, batch, intermittently vented, solid substrate fermentation of organic waste has attracted interest in the last 10 years. Thus the objective of our work was to determine the effect of initial total solids content and initial pH on H2 production in batch fermentation of a substrate that consisted of a mixture of sugarcane bagasse, pineapple peelings, and waste activated sludge. The experiment was a response surface based on 2(2) factorial with central and axial points with initial TS (15-35%) and initial pH (6.5-7.5) as factors. Fermentation was carried out at 35 °C, with intermittent venting of minireactors and periodic flushing with inert N2 gas. Up to 5 cycles of H2 production were observed; the best treatment in our work showed cumulative H2 productions (ca. 3 mmol H2/gds) with 18% and 6.65 initial TS and pH, respectively. There was a significant effect of TS on production of hydrogen, the latter decreased with initial TS increase from 18% onwards. Cumulative H2 productions achieved in this work were higher than those reported for organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and mixtures of OFMSW and fruit peels waste from fruit juice industry, using the same process. Specific energetic potential due to H2 in our work was attractive and fell in the high side of the range of reported results in the open literature. Batch dark fermentation of agrowastes as practiced in our work could be useful for future biorefineries that generate biohydrogen as a first step and could influence the management of this type of agricultural wastes in México and other countries and regions as well.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Environmental Management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was twofold: (i) to evaluate the effect of co-substrate supplementation and possible synergistic effect of the indigenous population and a lindane-acclimated inoculum on the removal of lindane in three-phase, aerobic slurry bioreactors (SB) , and (ii) to evaluate the effect final electron acceptor (O 2 , CO 2 and SO 4-2 , or A, M, and SR, respectively) and supplementation with carbon source (sucrose, 1 and 0 g/L; C or NC, respectively) on the removal of lindane in triphasic lab scale SB. In a first experiment lindane was significantly removed in the first week of operation (55-70%); its reduction further continued at a lower rate. Both factors had a moderately significant effect; on the one hand, sucrose supplementation enhanced the removal of lindane (p < 0.08); on the other hand the indigenous microflora and lindane-acclimated inoculum exhibited some kind of antagonism (p < 0.07), since removals in SB with sterile soil were higher than those with live soil. In a second experiment, there was a significant effect of factor 'electron acceptors' on removal of lindane (p < 0.0001): lindane removal followed the order A > SR > M. Supplementation with sucrose had a significant positive effect (p < 0.004). Main metabolites from lindane degradation were chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB) 1,3-dichlorobenzene (1,3-DCB) and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) in aerobic and sulfate reducing slurry bioreactors, only CB and 1,2-DCB were found in methanogenic units. Metabolites were consistent with those reported in aerobic and anaerobic degradation pathways of lindane.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Environmental engineering and management journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of our study was 2-fold: (i) to evaluate the effect of dominant electron acceptor [either aerobic, methanogenic, or sulfate-reducing slurry bioreactor (SB)] and biostimulation with sucrose on lindane removal from heavy soil and (ii) to assess the effect of the type of combined environments [partially aerated methanogenic (PAM) and simultaneous methanogenic-sulfate reducing (M-SR)] and addition of silicone oil as solvent on lindane removal from a clayish agricultural soil with high levels of organic matter.In the first experiment, the main effect of electron acceptor was significant (pA≫M SBs. On the other hand, co-substrate sucrose was not significant (p=0.67). Yet, the interaction was moderately significant (p
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Biotechnology