[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CCN family of matricellular signaling proteins is emerging as a unique common link across multiple diseases and organs related to injury and repair. They are now being shown to play a central role in regulating the pathways to the initiation and resolution of normal wound healing and fibrosis in response to multiple forms of injury. Similarly, it is also emerging that they play a key role in regulating the establishment, growth, metastases and tissue regeneration in many forms of cancer via the interaction of cancer cells with the tumor stroma. Evidence has been recently provided that these proteins do not act independently but are co-regulated working in a yin/yang manner to alter the outcome of both normal physiological processes as well as pathology. The purpose of this review is to twofold. First, it will summarize work to date supporting CCN2 as a therapeutic target in the formation and progression of renal, skin, and other organ fibrosis, as well as cancer stroma formation. Second, it will highlight recent evidence for CCN3 as a counter-regulator and a potential therapeutic agent in these diseases with an exciting, novel potential to both treat and then restore tissue homeostasis in those afflicted by these devastating disorders.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a transcriptional coactivator in the Hippo signaling pathway. Increased YAP1 activity promotes the growth of tumors, including that of colorectal cancer (CRC). Verteporfin, a drug that enhances phototherapy to treat neovascular macular degeneration, is an inhibitor of YAP1. We found that verteporfin inhibited tumor growth independently of its effects on YAP1 or the related protein TAZ in genetically or chemically induced mouse models of CRC, in patient-derived xenografts, and in enteroid models of CRC. Instead, verteporfin exhibited in vivo selectivity for killing tumor cells in part by impairing the global clearance of high-molecular weight oligomerized proteins, particularly p62 (a sequestrome involved in autophagy) and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; a transcription factor). Verteporfin inhibited cytokine-induced STAT3 activity and cell proliferation and reduced the viability of cultured CRC cells. Although verteporfin accumulated to a greater extent in normal cells than in tumor cells in vivo, experiments with cultured cells indicated that the normal cells efficiently cleared verteporfin-induced protein oligomers through autophagic and proteasomal pathways. Culturing CRC cells under hypoxic or nutrient-deprived conditions (modeling a typical CRC microenvironment) impaired the clearance of protein oligomers and resulted in cell death, whereas culturing cells under normoxic or glucose-replete conditions protected cell viability and proliferation in the presence of verteporfin. Furthermore, verteporfin suppressed the proliferation of other cancer cell lines even in the absence of YAP1, suggesting that verteporfin may be effective against multiple types of solid cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MDI 301 is a novel 9-cis retinoic acid derivative in which the terminal carboxylic acid group has been replaced by a picolinate ester. MDI 301, a retinoic acid receptor-α - agonist, suppressed the growth of several human myeloid leukemia cell lines (HL60, NB4, OCI-M2, and K562) in vitro and induced cell-substrate adhesion in conjunction with upregulation of CD11b. Tumor growth in HL60-injected athymic nude mice was reduced. In vitro, MDI 301 was comparable to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) whereas in vivo, MDI 301 was slightly more efficacious than ATRA. Most importantly, unlike what was found with ATRA treatment, MDI 301 did not induce a cytokine response in the treated animals and the severe inflammatory changes and systemic toxicity seen with ATRA did not occur. A retinoid with these characteristics might be valuable in the treatment of promyelocytic leukemia, or, perhaps, other forms of myeloid leukemia.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Anti-cancer drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oncofetal antigen - immature laminin receptor protein (OFA/iLRP) has been linked to metastatic tumor spread for several years. The present study, in which two highly-specific, high-affinity OFA/iLRP-reactive mouse monoclonal antibodies were examined for ability to suppress tumor cell growth and metastatic spread in the A20 B-cell leukemia model and the B16 melanoma model, provides the first direct evidence that targeting OFA/iLRP with exogenous antibodies can have therapeutic benefit. While the antibodies were modestly effective at preventing tumor growth at the primary injection site, both antibodies strongly suppressed end-organ tumor formation following intravenous tumor cell injection. Capacity of anti-OFA/iLRP antibodies to suppress tumor spread through the blood in the leukemia model suggests their use as a therapy for individuals with leukemic disease (either for patients in remission or even as part of an induction therapy). The results also suggest use against metastatic spread with solid tumors.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Cancer biology & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Facial erythema and telangiectasia are commonly associated with the erythematotelangiectatic subtype of rosacea (ETR). It is important for clinicians to recognize that these findings can also be associated with a subtype of photoaging, which we term telangiectatic photoaging (TP).
To demonstrate that ETR and TP are distinct dermatologic disorders.
A case-control observational study comparing clinical, histologic, and gene expression features of 26 participants with ETR, 20 with TP, and 11 age- and sex-matched controls in the Program for Clinical Research in Dermatology at University of Michigan.
Findings of clinical history and examination, light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemical analyses, and real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction gene expression.
Transient erythema was greater in the ETR group (38% graded moderate to severe) than in the TP (0%; P < .001) and control groups (0%; P = .002). Nontransient erythema was also greater in the ETR group (50% graded moderate to severe) than in the TP (25%; P = .03) and control groups (0%; P < .001). Participants with ETR tended to have erythema and telangiectasia primarily on the central face (79%), whereas those with TP tended to have more lateral involvement (57%; P < .001). Those with ETR had significantly less clinical evidence of photodamage (0% graded 6-8 on a photonumeric scale) than those with TP (40% graded 6-8; P = .01). Histologically, there was less evidence of photodamage in ETR than in TP, which had wispy collagen and solar elastosis surrounding blood vessels. Immunohistologic analysis demonstrated greater geometric mean immunostained area by mast cell tryptase staining in ETR samples (0.018%) than in TP (0.004%; P = .01) or control samples (0.001%; P < .001) but no increase in mast cell number, indicative of greater mast cell degranulation. Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 was 4-fold greater in ETR samples than in TP samples (P = .004) and 5-fold higher than in control samples (P = .004). Gene expression of the neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-α) and substance P was significantly increased in ETR compared with TP (9-fold [P < .001] and 5-fold [P = .002], respectively) and control samples (10-fold [P < .001] and 28-fold [P < .001], respectively).
Telangiectatic photoaging is characterized by less transient and nontransient erythema, a more lateral distribution of erythema and telangiectasia, less neurogenic mast cell activation, and less MMP-mediated matrix remodeling than ETR. These data demonstrate that TP is a distinct clinical entity from ETR that can be distinguished on the basis of clinical, histologic, and gene expression findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The move away from animal models for skin safety testing is inevitable. It is a question of when, not if. As skin safety studies move away from traditional animal-based approaches, a number of replacement technologies are becoming available. Human skin in organ culture is one such technology. Organ-cultured skin has several features that distinguish it from other technologies. First and foremost, organ-cultured skin is real skin. Almost by definition, therefore, it approximates the intact skin better than other alternative models. Organ culture is an easy-to-use and relatively inexpensive approach to preclinical safety assessment. Although organ culture is not likely to replace high-throughput enzyme assays or monolayer culture/skin equivalent cultures for initial compound assessment, organ culture should find use when the list of compounds to be evaluated is small and when simpler models have narrowed the dose range. Organ-cultured skin also provides a platform for mechanistic studies.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Expert Review of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to advance a culture model of human colonic neoplasia, we developed methods for the isolation and in vitro maintenance of intact colonic crypts from normal human colon tissue and adenomas. Crypts were maintained in three-dimensional Matrigel culture with a simple, serum-free, low Ca 2+ (0.15 mM) medium. Intact colonic crypts from normal human mucosa were viably maintained for 3-5 days with preservation of the in situ crypt-like architecture, presenting a distinct base and apex. Abnormal structures from adenoma tissue could be maintained through multiple passages (up to months), with expanding buds/tubules. Immunohistochemical markers for intestinal stem cells (Lgr5), growth (Ki67), differentiation (E-cadherin, cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and mucin 2 (MUC2)) and epithelial turnover (Bax, cleaved Caspase-3), paralleled the changes in function. The epithelial cells in normal crypts followed the physiological sequence of progression from proliferation to differentiation to dissolution in a spatially and temporally appropriate manner. Lgr5 expression was seen in a few basal cells of freshly isolated crypts, but was not detected after 1-3 days in culture. After 24 h in culture, crypts from normal colonic tissue continued to show strong Ki67 and MUC2 expression at the crypt base, with a gradual decrease over time such that by days 3-4 Ki67 was not expressed. The differentiation marker CK20 increased over the same period, eventually becoming intense throughout the whole crypt. In adenoma-derived structures, expression of markers for all stages of progression persisted for the entire time in culture. Lgr5 showed expression in a few select cells after months in culture. Ki67 and MUC2 were largely associated with the proliferative budding regions while CK20 was localized to the parent structure. This ex vivo culture model of normal and adenomatous crypts provides a readily accessible tool to help understand the growth and differentiation process in human colonic epithelium.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Laboratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5, 12, and 18 months. At each time point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5 months). Cortical bone increased through month 5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5-10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals, but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis-prevention strategy.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Biological trace element research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a robust promoter of differentiation in colonic epithelial cells and functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer. CaSR mediates its biologic effects through diverse mechanisms. Loss of CaSR expression activates a myriad of stem cell-like molecular features that drive and sustain the malignant and drug-resistant phenotypes of colon cancer. This CaSR-null phenotype, however, is not irreversible and induction of CaSR expression in CaSR-null cells promotes cell death mechanisms and restores drug sensitivity. The CaSR also functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer and promotes cellular sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs. BRCA1 and CaSR functions intersect in breast cancer cells, and CaSR activation can rescue breast cancer cells from the deleterious effect of BRCA1 mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine if a multimineral natural product derived from red marine algae could reduce colon polyp formation in mice on a high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were maintained for up to 18 mo either on a high-fat "Western-style" diet or on a low-fat diet (AIN 76A), with or without the multimineral-supplement. To summarize, colon polyps were detected in 22 of 70 mice (31%) on the high-fat diet but in only 2 of 70 mice (3%) receiving the mineral-supplemented high-fat diet (P < 0.0001). Colon polyps were detected in 16 of 70 mice (23%) in the low-fat group; not significantly different from high-fat group but significantly higher than the high-fat-supplemented group (P = 0.0006). This was in spite of the fact that the calcium level in the low-fat diet was comparable to the level of calcium in the high-fat diet containing the multimineral-product. Supplementation of the low-fat diet reduced the incidence to 8 of 70 mice (11% incidence). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that a multimineral natural product can protect mice on a high-fat diet against adenomatous polyp formation in the colon. These data suggest that increased calcium alone is insufficient to explain the lower incidence of colon polyps.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Nutrition and Cancer